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Sample date:  2017-10-05
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ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:187
Date: 2017-09-03

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:187</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-09-03T00:16:01Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The effects of social interventions need to be examined in real life situations as well as studies</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/187/1/sheldonta2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Mentoring to reduce antisocial behaviour in childhood</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Roberts, H</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Liabo, K</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lucas, P</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>DuBois, D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sheldon, T A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-02-28</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.328.7438.512</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:186
Date: 2017-07-18

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:186</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-18T02:53:41Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Plant root systems often have complex branching patterns. Models indicate that a complex architecture is only required for the acquisition of immobile resources, such as phosphate; mobile ions, notably nitrate, can be effectively taken up by very restricted root systems. We have tested this prediction using the axr4 mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana, the principal phenotypic effect of which is to reduce the number of lateral roots. Arabidopsis thaliana is not a host for mycorrhizal fungi and so acquires all its nutrients through the root system. In both a pot experiment and a field experiment conducted under natural conditions for A. thaliana, we found that only phosphate, and not nitrate, affected the fitness of the mutant relative to the isogenic wild-type line, Columbia. These results confirm model predictions and have implications both for the evolution of complex root systems and for the design of efficient root systems for crops.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/186/1/fitterah2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2954</dc:source><dc:title>Root system architecture determines fitness in an Arabidopsis mutant in competition for immobile phosphate ions but not for nitrate ions</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Fitter, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Williamson, L</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Linkohr, B</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Leyser, O</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-10-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2120</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:185
Date: 2017-10-03

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:185</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-10-03T07:05:18Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Plant root systems are highly plastic in their development and can adapt their architecture in response to the prevailing environmental conditions. One important parameter is the availability of phosphate, which is highly immobile in soil such that the arrangement of roots within the soil will profoundly affect the ability of the plant to acquire this essential nutrient. Consistent with this, the availability of phosphate was found to have a marked effect on the root system architecture of Arabidopsis. Low phosphate availability favored lateral root growth over primary root growth, through increased lateral root density and length, and reduced primary root growth mediated by reduced cell elongation. The ability of the root system to respond to phosphate availability was found to be independent of sucrose supply and auxin signaling. In contrast, shoot phosphate status was found to influence the root system architecture response to phosphate availability.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/185/1/fitterah1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0032-0889</dc:source><dc:title>Phosphate availability regulates root system architecture in Arabidopsis</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Williamson, L C</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ribrioux, S P C P</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fitter, A H</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Leyser, H M O</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:184
Date: 2017-10-01

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:184</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-10-01T00:16:02Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414332:596F726B2E594F523137</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent and pattern of implementation of guidance issued by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis, review of case notes, survey, and interviews. SETTING: Acute and primary care trusts in England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: All primary care prescribing, hospital pharmacies; a random sample of 20 acute trusts, 17 mental health trusts, and 21 primary care trusts; and senior clinicians and managers from five acute trusts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of prescribing and use of procedures and medical devices relative to evidence based guidance. RESULTS: 6308 usable patient audit forms were returned. Implementation of NICE guidance varied by trust and by topic. Prescribing of some taxanes for cancer (P &lt;0.002) and orlistat for obesity (P &lt;0.001) significantly increased in line with guidance. Prescribing of drugs for Alzheimer’s disease and prophylactic extraction of wisdom teeth showed trends consistent with, but not obviously a consequence of, the guidance. Prescribing practice often did not accord with the details of the guidance. No change was apparent in the use of hearing aids, hip prostheses, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, laparoscopic hernia repair, and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery after NICE guidance had been issued. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of NICE guidance has been variable. Guidance seems more likely to be adopted when there is strong professional support, a stable and convincing evidence base, and no increased or unfunded costs, in organisations that have established good systems for tracking guidance implementation and where the professionals involved are not isolated. Guidance needs to be clear and reflect the clinical context.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/184/1/sheldonta1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>What's the evidence that NICE guidance has been implemented? Results from a national evaluation using time series analysis, audit of patients' notes, and interviews</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sheldon, T.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cullum, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lankshear, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3147-8299">Watt, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>West, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wright, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dawson, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lowson, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wright, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-10-30</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.329.7473.999</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:183
Date: 2017-07-18

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:183</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-18T02:48:05Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objectives: This paper examines the cost effectiveness of the compulsory bicycle helmet wearing low (HWL) introduced in New Zealand on 1 January 1994. The societal perspective of costs is used for the purchase of helmets and the value of injuries averted. This is augmented with healthcare costs averted from reduced head injuries. Methods: Three age groups were examined: cyclists aged 5-12 years, 13-18 years, and greater than or equal to19 years. The number of head and non-head injuries averted were obtained from epidemiological studies. Estimates of the numbers of cyclists and the costs of helmets are used to derive the total spending on new bicycle helmets. Healthcare costs were obtained from national hospitalisation database, and the value of injuries averted was obtained directly from a willingness-to-pay survey undertaken by the Land Transport Safety Authority. Cost effectiveness ratios, benefit:cost ratios, and the value of net benefits were estimated. Results: The net benefit (benefit:cost ratios) of the HWL for the 5-12, 13-18, and greater than or equal to19 year age groups was $0.3m (2.6), -$0.2m (0.8), and -$1.5m (0.7) (in NZ $, 2000 prices; NZ $1.00 = US $0.47 = UK pound0.31 approx). These results were most sensitive to the cost and life of helmets, helmet wearing rates before the HWL, and the effectiveness of helmets in preventing head injuries. Conclusions: The HWL was cost saving in the youngest age group but large costs from the law were imposed on adult (greater than or equal to19 years) cyclists.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/183/1/scuffhamp3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1475-5785</dc:source><dc:title>New Zealand bicycle helmet law - do the costs outweigh the benefits?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Scuffham, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Taylor, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:182
Date: 2017-08-14

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:182</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-14T04:37:17Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>696E737469747574696F6E3D596F726B</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVE: To assess the incremental costs and cost effectiveness of implementing a home based muscle strengthening and balance retraining programme that reduced falls and injuries in older women. DESIGN: An economic evaluation carried out within a randomised controlled trial with two years of follow up. Participants were individually prescribed an exercise programme (exercise group, n=116) or received usual care and social visits (control group, n=117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and invited by their general practitioner to take part. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls, costs of implementing the intervention, healthcare service costs resulting from falls and total healthcare service costs during the trial. Cost effectiveness was measured as the incremental cost of implementing the exercise programme per fall event prevented. MAIN RESULTS: 27% of total hospital costs during the trial were related to falls. However, there were no significant differences in health service costs between the two groups. Implementing the exercise programme for one and two years respectively cost $314 and $265 (1995 New Zealand dollars) per fall prevented, and $457 and $426 per fall resulting in a moderate or serious injury prevented. CONCLUSIONS: The costs resulting from falls make up a substantial proportion of the hospital costs for older people. Despite a reduction in falls as a result of this home exercise programme there was no significant reduction in healthcare costs. However, the results reported will provide information on the cost effectiveness of the programme for those making decisions on falls prevention strategies.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/182/1/scuffhamp2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1470-2738</dc:source><dc:title>Economic evaluation of a community based exercise programme to prevent falls</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Robertson, M.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Devlin, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gardner, M.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Buchner, D.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Campbell, A.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Scuffham, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:181
Date: 2017-09-25

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:181</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-09-25T10:27:22Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B</setSpec>
      <setSpec>696E737469747574696F6E3D596F726B</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of accident and emergency (A&amp;E) attendances, admissions to hospital, and the associated costs as a result of unintentional falls in older people. DESIGN: Analysis of national databases for cost of illness. SETTING: United Kingdom, 1999, cost to the National Health Service (NHS) and Personal Social Services (PSS). PARTICIPANTS: Four age groups of people 60 years and over (60–64, 65–69, 70–74, and 75) attending an A&amp;E department or admitted to hospital after an unintentional fall. Databases analysed were the Home Accident Surveillance System (HASS) and Leisure Accident Surveillance System (LASS), and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). MAIN RESULTS: There were 647 721 A&amp;E attendances and 204 424 admissions to hospital for fall related injuries in people aged 60 years and over. For the four age groups A&amp;E attendance rates per 10 000 population were 273.5, 287.3, 367.9, and 945.3, and hospital admission rates per 10 000 population were 34.5, 52.0, 91.9, and 368.6. The cost per 10 000 population was £300 000 in the 60–64 age group, increasing to £1 500 000 in the 75 age group. These falls cost the UK government £981 million, of which the NHS incurred 59.2%. Most of the costs (66%) were attributable to falls in those aged 75 years. The major cost driver was inpatient admissions, accounting for 49.4% of total cost of falls. Long term care costs were the second highest, accounting for 41%, primarily in those aged 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional falls impose a substantial burden on health and social services.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/181/1/scuffhamp1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1470-2738</dc:source><dc:title>Incidence and costs of unintentional falls in older people in the United Kingdom</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Scuffham, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chaplin, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Legood, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:179
Date: 2017-07-02

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:179</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-02T03:31:40Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Study objective: To measure and decompose income related inequalities in self assessed health in England, Scotland, and Wales, 1979-1995. Design: The relation between individual health and a non-linear transformation of equivalised income, allowing for sex, age, country, and year effects, was estimated by multiple regression. The share of health attributable to transformed income and the Gini coefficient for transformed income were calculated. Inequality in health was measured by the partial concentration index, which is the product of the. Gini coefficient and the share of health attributable to transformed income. Participants and setting: Representative annual samples of the adult population living in private households in Great Britain 1979-1995. The total analysed sample was 299 968 people. Main results: Pro-rich health inequality was largest in Wales and smallest in England over the period because the effect of increased income on health was greatest in Wales and least in England. In all three countries, pro-rich health inequality increased throughout the period. In the early 1980s this was primarily attributable to increases in income inequality. Thereafter the increased share of health attributable to income was the principal cause. Conclusions: Reductions in pro-rich health inequality can be achieved by reducing income inequality, reducing the effect of income on health, or both.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/179/1/gravelleh5.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1470-2738</dc:source><dc:title>Income related inequalities in self assessed health in Britain: 1979-1995</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gravelle, H</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sutton, M</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-02</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:178
Date: 2016-10-25

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:178</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T03:41:52Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We present detailed results of numerical experiments into the nature of complete sunspots. The models&#13;
remain highly idealized but include fully nonlinear compressible magnetoconvection in an axisymmetric layer&#13;
that drives energy into an overlying, low-B plasma. We survey a range of parameters in which the resulting&#13;
magnetoconvection displays the formation of pore- and sunspot-like behavior and assess the coronal signatures&#13;
resulting from the energy generated by the magnetoconvection. The coronal heating is assumed to be a&#13;
result of the dissipation by an unspecified means of a fraction of the Poynting flux entering the corona. The&#13;
expected signatures in the EUV and soft X-ray bandpasses of the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer&#13;
and Yohkoh/SXT, respectively, are examined. This ad hoc coupling of the corona to the subphotospheric&#13;
region results in a dynamical behavior that is consistent with recent observational results. This agreement&#13;
demonstrates that even simple coupled modeling can lead to diagnostics for investigations of both subphotospheric&#13;
sunspot structures and coronal heating mechanisms.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/178/1/rucklidgeam3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1538-4357</dc:source><dc:title>Complete Models of Axisymmetric Sunspots: Magnetoconvection with Coronal Heating </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hurlburt, N.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Alexander, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rucklidge, A.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-10-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:177
Date: 2016-10-26

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:177</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-26T16:32:15Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We consider the dynamical behavior of coupled oscillators with robust heteroclinic cycles between saddles that may be periodic or chaotic. We differentiate attracting cycles into types that we call phase resetting and free running depending on whether the cycle approaches a given saddle along one or many trajectories. At loss of stability of attracting cycling, we show in a phase-resetting example the existence of an infinite family of stable periodic orbits that accumulate on the cycling, whereas for a free-running example loss of stability of the cycling gives rise to a single quasiperiodic or chaotic attractor.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/177/1/rucklidgeam2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1063-651X</dc:source><dc:title>Infinities of stable periodic orbits in systems of coupled oscillators</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Ashwin, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rucklidge, A.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sturman, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.66.035201</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:176
Date: 2016-10-24

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:176</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T20:09:29Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Pattern formation is a phenomenon that arises in a wide variety of physical, chemical&#13;
and biological situations. A great deal of theoretical progress has been made in&#13;
understanding the universal aspects of pattern formation in terms of amplitudes of&#13;
the modes that make up the pattern. Much of the theory has sound mathematical&#13;
justification, but experiments and numerical simulations over the last decade have&#13;
revealed complex two-dimensional patterns that do not have a satisfactory theoretical&#13;
explanation. This paper focuses on quasi-patterns, where the appearance of small&#13;
divisors causes the standard theoretical method to fail, and ends with a discussion&#13;
of other outstanding problems in the theory of two-dimensional pattern formation&#13;
in large domains.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/176/1/rucklidgeam1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2962</dc:source><dc:title>Pattern formation in large domains</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Rucklidge, A.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-12-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2003.1267</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:168
Date: 2016-10-26

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:168</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-26T09:04:37Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Developing primary and community health&#13;
services is a key component of the government's&#13;
plans for modernising the NHS. &#13;
Primary care groups and trusts have a vital part to&#13;
play in overcoming the variability, fragmentation,&#13;
and isolation that have been the weaknesses of&#13;
primary health care in the NHS. &#13;
Primary care groups and trusts have introduced&#13;
initiatives to promote greater collaboration&#13;
between general practices and to share expertise&#13;
and resources. &#13;
Improving access to care is an important feature&#13;
of the modernisation plan, and most groups and&#13;
trusts are actively promoting access, particularly&#13;
for people who have been poorly served&#13;
traditionally. &#13;
Groups and trusts are tackling staff shortages by&#13;
using clinical specialists and promoting extended&#13;
roles for nurses and pharmacists</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/168/1/leeseb1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Primary care groups - Modernising primary and community health services&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Wilkin, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dowswell, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Leese, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-06-23</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7301.1522</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:167
Date: 2016-10-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:167</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-28T06:53:32Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Excluding patients of ethnic minority groups from clinical&#13;
trials is unethical, introduces substantial bias, and&#13;
means that findings are based on unrepresentative&#13;
populations. The National Institutes of Health Revitalization&#13;
Act 1993 requires that all minority groups be represented&#13;
in the sample in research projects supported&#13;
by the National Institutes of Health, unless there is a&#13;
clear and compelling justification not to do so. In the&#13;
United Kingdom no such legislation exists.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/167/1/masons2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Representation of South Asian people in randomised clinical trials: analysis of trials' data</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mason, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hussain-Gambles, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author> Leese, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Atkin, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brown, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-06-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7401.1244</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:166
Date: 2016-10-24

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:166</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T21:20:34Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Complementary medicine has a different philosophy from conventional medicine, presenting challenges to research methodology. Rigorous evaluation of complementary medicine could provide much needed evidence of its effectiveness. Good design of randomised controlled trials will avoid invalid results and misrepresentation of the holistic essence of complementary medicine. Practitioners need to be recognised as a component in or contributor to complementary treatment. Both specific and non-specific outcome measures with long follow up are needed to adequately encompass the essence of complementary medicine.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/166/1/masons3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>British Medical Journal Publishing Group</dc:publisher><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Evaluating complementary medicine: methodological challenges of randomised controlled trials</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mason, S</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tovey, P</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Long, AF</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-10-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7368.832</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:165
Date: 2016-10-25

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:165</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T17:44:40Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D4D454453:4C656564732E52432D4D4544535F32</setSpec>
      <setSpec>696E737469747574696F6E3D4C65656473</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of laparoscopic hysterectomy&#13;
and abdominal hysterectomy in the abdominal trial, and&#13;
laparoscopic hysterectomy and vaginal hysterectomy in the&#13;
vaginal trial.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
DESIGN: Two parallel, multicentre, randomised trials.&#13;
Setting 28 UK centres and two South African centres.&#13;
Participants 1380 women were recruited; 1346 had surgery;&#13;
937 were followed up at one year.&#13;
&#13;
PRIMARY OUTCOME: outcome Rate of major complications.&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS: In the abdominal trial laparoscopic hysterectomy was&#13;
associated with a higher rate of major complications than&#13;
abdominal hysterectomy (11.1% v 6.2%, P = 0.02; difference&#13;
4.9%, 95% confidence interval 0.9% to 9.1%) and the number&#13;
needed to treat to harm was 20. Laparoscopic hysterectomy&#13;
also took longer to perform (84 minutes v 50 minutes) but was&#13;
less painful (visual analogue scale 3.51 v 3.88, P = 0.01) and&#13;
resulted in a shorter stay in hospital after the operation (3 days&#13;
v 4 days). Six weeks after the operation, laparoscopic&#13;
hysterectomy was associated with less pain and better quality of&#13;
life than abdominal hysterectomy (SF-12, body image scale, and&#13;
sexual activity questionnaires).&#13;
In the vaginal trial we found no evidence of a difference in&#13;
major complication rates between laparoscopic hysterectomy&#13;
and vaginal hysterectomy (9.8% v 9.5%, P = 0.92; difference&#13;
0.3%, − 5.2% to 5.8%), and the number needed to treat to harm&#13;
was 333.We found no evidence of other differences between&#13;
laparoscopic hysterectomy and vaginal hysterectomy except&#13;
that laparoscopic hysterectomy took longer to perform (72&#13;
minutes v 39 minutes) and was associated with a higher rate of&#13;
detecting unexpected pathology (16.4% v 4.8%, P = &lt; 0.01).&#13;
However, this trial was underpowered.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic hysterectomy was associated with a&#13;
significantly higher rate of major complications than abdominal&#13;
hysterectomy. It also took longer to perform but was associated&#13;
with less pain, quicker recovery, and better short term quality of&#13;
life. The trial comparing vaginal hysterectomy with laparoscopic&#13;
hysterectomy was underpowered and is inconclusive on the rate&#13;
of major complications; however, vaginal hysterectomy took less&#13;
time.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/165/1/masons1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>The eVALuate study: two parallel randomised trials, one comparing laparoscopic with abdominal hysterectomy, the other comparing laparoscopic with vaginal hysterectomy </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Garry, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fountain, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mason, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hawe, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Napp, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Abbott, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Clayton, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Phillips, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Whittaker, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lilford, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bridgman, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brown, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-01-17</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.37984.623889.F6</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:159
Date: 2016-10-25

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:159</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T05:07:59Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D4D454453:4C656564732E53522D4C494853</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D4D454453:4C656564732E52432D4C494748:4C656564732E44492D45504944</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVES: Use of cumulative mortality adjusted for&#13;
case mix in patients with acute myocardial infarction&#13;
for early detection of variation in clinical practice.&#13;
&#13;
DESIGN: Observational study.&#13;
&#13;
SETTING: 20 hospitals across the former Yorkshire&#13;
region.&#13;
&#13;
PARTICIPANTS: All 2153 consecutive patients with&#13;
confirmed acute myocardial infarction identified&#13;
during three months.&#13;
&#13;
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variable life­adjusted&#13;
displays showing cumulative differences between&#13;
observed and expected mortality of patients; expected&#13;
mortality calculated from risk model based on&#13;
admission characteristics of age, heart rate, and&#13;
systolic blood pressure.&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS: The performance of two individual hospitals&#13;
over three months was examined as an example. One,&#13;
the smallest district hospital in the region, had a series&#13;
of 30 consecutive patients but had five more deaths&#13;
than predicted. The variable life­adjusted display&#13;
showed minimal variation from that predicted for the&#13;
first 15 patients followed by a run of unexpectedly&#13;
high mortality. The second example was the main&#13;
tertiary referral centre for the region, which admitted&#13;
188 consecutive patients. The display showed a period&#13;
of apparently poor performance followed by&#13;
substantial improvement, where the plot rose steadily&#13;
from a cumulative net lives saved of - 4 to 7. These&#13;
variations in patient outcome are unlikely to have&#13;
been revealed during conventional audit practice.&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSIONS: Variable life­adjusted display has been&#13;
integrated into surgical care as a graphical display of&#13;
risk­adjusted survival for individual surgeons or centres.&#13;
In combination with a simple risk model, it may have a&#13;
role in monitoring performance and outcome in&#13;
patients with acute myocardial infarction.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/159/1/robinsonmb1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title> Use of cumulative mortality data in patients with acute myocardial infarction for early detection of variation in clinical practice: observational study </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Lawrance, R.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dorsch, M.F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sapsford, R.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mackintosh, A.F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Greenwood, D.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jackson, B.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Morrell, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Robinson, M.B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hall, A.S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-08-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7308.324</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:158
Date: 2016-10-25

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:158</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T15:51:21Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D48454353</setSpec>
      <setSpec>696E737469747574696F6E3D4C65656473</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVES: To elicit general practitioners' and practice nurses' accounts of changes in their clinical practice or practice organisation made to claim a pilot health promotion payment. To describe attitudes towards the piloted and previous health promotion payments.&#13;
&#13;
DESIGN: Qualitative, semistructured interview study.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
SETTING: 13 general practices in Leicester.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
PARTICIPANTS: 18 general practitioners and 13 practice nurses.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS: Health professionals did not report substantially changing their clinical practice to claim the new payments and made only minimal changes in practice organisation. The new health promotion payment did not overcome general practitioners' resistance towards raising the issue of smoking when they felt that doing so could cause confrontation with patients. General practitioners who made the largest number of claims altered the way in which they recorded patients' smoking status rather than raising the topic of smoking more frequently with patients. Participants had strong negative views on die new payment, feeling it would also be viewed negatively by patients. They were, however, more positive about health promotion payments that rewarded "extra" effort-for example, setting up practice based smoking cessation clinics.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSIONS: General practitioners and practice nurses were negative about a new health promotion payment, despite agreeing to pilot it. Health promotion payments do not automatically generate effective health promotion activity, and policymakers should consider careful piloting and evaluation of future changes in health promotion payments.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/158/1/cheaterf1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Qualitative study of pilot payment aimed at increasing general practitioners' antismoking advice to smokers</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Coleman, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wynn, A.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stevenson, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cheater, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-08-25</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7310.432</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:157
Date: 2016-10-25

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:157</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T07:19:43Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D4D454453:4C656564732E53522D4C494853:4C656564732E44492D50535259</setSpec>
      <setSpec>696E737469747574696F6E3D4C65656473</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVE: To assess if a school based intervention was&#13;
effective in reducing risk factors for obesity.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
DESIGN: Group randomised controlled trial.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
SETTING: 10 primary schools in Leeds.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
PARTICIPANTS: 634 children aged 7­-11 years.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
INTERVENTION: Teacher training, modification of school&#13;
meals, and the development of school action plans&#13;
targeting the curriculum, physical education, tuck&#13;
shops, and playground activities.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index, diet,&#13;
physical activity, and psychological state.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS: Vegetable consumption by 24 hour recall was&#13;
higher in children in the intervention group than the&#13;
control group (weighted mean difference 0.3&#13;
portions/day, 95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.4),&#13;
representing a difference equivalent to 50% of&#13;
baseline consumption. Fruit consumption was lower&#13;
in obese children in the intervention group ( - 1.0,&#13;
- 1.8 to - 0.2) than those in the control group. The&#13;
three day diary showed higher consumption of high&#13;
sugar foods (0.8, 0.1 to 1.6)) among overweight&#13;
children in the intervention group than the control&#13;
group. Sedentary behaviour was higher in overweight&#13;
children in the intervention group (0.3, 0.0 to 0.7).&#13;
Global self worth was higher in obese children in the&#13;
intervention group (0.3, 0.3 to 0.6). There was no&#13;
difference in body mass index, other psychological&#13;
measures, or dieting behaviour between the groups.&#13;
Focus groups indicated higher levels of self reported&#13;
behaviour change, understanding, and knowledge&#13;
among children who had received the intervention.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSION: Although it was successful in producing&#13;
changes at school level, the programme had little&#13;
effect on children's behaviour other than a modest&#13;
increase in consumption of vegetables.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/157/1/hillaj2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Randomised controlled trial of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sahota, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rudolf, M.C.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dixey, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hill, A.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barth, J.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cade, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-11-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7320.1029</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:156
Date: 2016-10-27

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:156</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-27T02:25:18Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D4D454453:4C656564732E53522D4C494853:4C656564732E44492D50535259</setSpec>
      <setSpec>696E737469747574696F6E3D4C65656473</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVES: To implement a school based health&#13;
promotion programme aimed at reducing risk factors&#13;
for obesity and to evaluate the implementation&#13;
process and its effect on the school.&#13;
DESIGN: Data from 10 schools participating in a group&#13;
randomised controlled crossover trial were pooled&#13;
and analysed.&#13;
&#13;
SETTING: 10 primary schools in Leeds.&#13;
Participants 634 children (350 boys and 284 girls)&#13;
aged 7­11 years.&#13;
&#13;
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Response rates to&#13;
questionnaires, teachers' evaluation of training and&#13;
input, success of school action plans, content of&#13;
school meals, and children's knowledge of healthy&#13;
living and self reported behaviour.&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS: All 10 schools participated throughout the&#13;
study. 76 (89%) of the action points determined by&#13;
schools in their school action plans were achieved,&#13;
along with positive changes in school meals. A high&#13;
level of support for nutrition education and&#13;
promotion of physical activity was expressed by both&#13;
teachers and parents. 410 (64%) parents responded to&#13;
the questionnaire concerning changes they would like&#13;
to see implemented in school. 19 out of 20 teachers&#13;
attended the training, and all reported satisfaction&#13;
with the training, resources, and support. Intervention&#13;
children showed a higher score for knowledge,&#13;
attitudes, and self reported behaviour for healthy&#13;
eating and physical activity.&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSION: This programme was successfully&#13;
implemented and produced changes at school level&#13;
that tackled risk factors for obesity.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/156/1/hillaj1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Evaluation of implementation and effect of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sahota, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rudolf, M.C.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dixey, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hill, A.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barth, J.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cade, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-11-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7320.1027</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:155
Date: 2017-08-30

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:155</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-30T01:31:27Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E594F523239</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414333:596F726B2E594F523239</setSpec>
      <setSpec>696E737469747574696F6E3D596F726B</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objective To determine if sufficient evidence exists to support the use of magnetic resonance angiography as a means of selecting patients with recently symptomatic high grade carotid stenosis for surgery. Design Systematic review of published research on the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance angiography, 1990-9. Main outcome measures Performance characteristics of diagnostic test. Results 126 potentially relevant articles were identified, but many articles failed to examine die performance of magnetic resonance angiography as a diagnostic test at the surgical decision thresholds used in major clinical trials on endarterectomy. 26 articles were included in a meta-analysis that showed a maximal joint sensitivity and specificity of 99% (95% confidence interval 98% to 100%) for identifying 70-99% stenosis and 90% (81% to 99%) for identifying 50-99% stenosis. Only four articles evaluated contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. Conclusions Magnetic resonance angiography is accurate for selecting patients for carotid endarterectomy at the surgical decision thresholds established in the major endarterectomy trials, but the evidence is not very robust because of the heterogeneity of the studies included. Research is to determine the diagnostic performance of the most recent developments in magnetic resonance angiography, including contrast enhanced techniques, as well as to assess the impact of magnetic resonance angiography on surgical decision making and outcomes.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/155/1/berrye1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>Use of magnetic resonance angiography to select candidates with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis for surgery: systematic review</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kelly, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bamford, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Airey, C.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Meaney, J.F.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Davies, L.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cullingworth, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Westwood, M.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Berry, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gough, M.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Smith, M.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-01-26</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7331.198</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:154
Date: 2016-10-25

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:154</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T10:02:37Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Fetal and early childhood environment, including the&#13;
nutritional status of the pregnant mother and the&#13;
infant, are considered critical for growth and risk of&#13;
disease in later life. Many people in developing coun­&#13;
tries are not only malnourished but also chronically&#13;
exposed to high levels of toxic fungal metabolites&#13;
(mycotoxins). One family of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins,&#13;
are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and cause growth&#13;
retardation in animals. Aflatoxins contaminate staple&#13;
foods in West Africa, particularly maize and ground­&#13;
nuts, as a result of hot, humid storage conditions that&#13;
promote fungal growth. High exposure to aflatoxins&#13;
occurs throughout childhood in the region, suggest­&#13;
ing that growth and development could be critically&#13;
affected.We assessed exposure to aflatoxins in relation&#13;
to anthropometric measures in children in Benin and&#13;
Togo.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/154/1/wildcp1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Benin and Togo: cross sectional study&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gong, Y.Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cardwell, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hounsa, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Egal, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Turner, P.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hall, A.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wild, C.P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-07-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7354.20</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:153
Date: 2016-10-24

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:153</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T23:16:30Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D48454353</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a training programme intended to improve the management of obesity, delivered to general practice teams.&#13;
&#13;
DESIGN: Cluster randomised trial.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
SETTING: Northern and Yorkshire region of England&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
PARTICIPANTS: 44 general practices invited consecutively attending obese adults to participate; 843 patients attended for collection of baseline data and were subsequently randomised.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
INTERVENTION: 4.5 hour training programme promoting an obesity management model.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Difference in weight between patients in intervention and control groups at 12 months (main outcome measure) and at 3 months and 18 months; change in practitioners' knowledge and behaviour in obesity management consultations.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS: Twelve months after training the patients in the intervention group were 1 (95% confidence interval -1.9 to 3.9) kg heavier than controls (P=0.5). Some evidence indicated that practitioners' knowledge had improved. Some aspects of the management model, including recording weight, target weight, and dietary targets, occurred more frequently in intervention practices after the training, but in absolute terms levels of implementation were low&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSION: A training package promoting a brief, prescriptive approach to the treatment of obesity through lifestyle modification, intended to be incorporated into routine clinical practice, did not ultimately affect the weight of this motivated and at risk cohort of patients.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/153/1/mooreh1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Improving management of obesity in primary care: cluster randomised trial </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Moore, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Summerbell, C.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Greenwood, D.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tovey, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Griffiths, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Henderson, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hesketh, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Woolgar, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Adamson, A.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-11-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7423.1085</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:152
Date: 2016-10-24

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:152</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T16:18:44Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>More than 140 000 people present to hospital after an&#13;
episode of self harm each year in England and Wales.&#13;
Improving the general hospital management of these&#13;
people is a key area in preventing suicide. Although&#13;
professional consensus has been reached on how self&#13;
harm services should be organised and delivered,&#13;
wide variations in care delivery have been reported in&#13;
two regions in England. Using a nationally&#13;
representative sample, we investigated the variation in&#13;
services and delivery of care for self harm patients in&#13;
hospitals in England.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/152/1/houseao3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Variations in the hospital management of self harm in adults in England: observational study</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bennewith, O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gunnell, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Peters, T.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hawton, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>House, A.O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-05-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.328.7448.1108</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:151
Date: 2017-08-07

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:151</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-07T12:47:36Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objectives To examine the effect of routinely administered psychiatric questionnaires on the recognition, management, and outcome of psychiatric disorders in non-psychiatric settings. Data sources Embase, Medline, PsycLIT, Cinahl, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register,and hand searches of key journals. Methods A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of the administration and routine feedback of psychiatric screening and outcome questionnaires to clinicians in non-psychiatric settings. narrative overview of key design features and end points, together with a random effects quantitative synthesis of comparable studies. Main outcome measures Recognition of psychiatric disorders after feedback of questionnaire results; interventions for psychiatric disorders and outcome of psychiatric disorders. Results Nine randomised studies were identified that examined the use of common psychiatric instruments in primary care and general hospital settings. Studies compared the effect of the administration of these instruments followed by the feedback of the results to clinicians, with administration with no feedback. Meta-analytic pooling was possible for four of these studies (2457 participants), which measured the effect of feedback on the recognition of depressive disorders. Routine administration and feedback of scores for all patients (irrespective of score) did not increase the overall rate of recognition of mental disorders such as anxiety and depression (relative risk of detection of depression by clinician after feedback 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.09). Two studies showed that routine administration followed by selective feedback for only high scores increased the rate of recognition of depression (relative risk of detection of depression after feedback 2.64, 1.62 to 4.31). This increased recognition, however, did not translate into an increased rate of intervention. Overall, studies of routine administration of psychiatric measures did not show an effect on patient outcome. Conclusions The routine measurement of outcome is a costly exercise. Little evidence shows that it is of benefit in improving psychosocial outcomes of those with psychiatric disorder managed in non-psychiatric settings.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/151/1/houseao2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Routinely administered questionnaires for depression and anxiety : systematic review</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8236-6983">Gilbody, S M</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>House, A O</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sheldon, T A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-02-17</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7283.406</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:150
Date: 2016-10-25

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:150</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T14:25:33Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Provision of services in the United Kingdom for&#13;
patients who deliberately poison themselves is variable,&#13;
and many patients leave hospital without adequate&#13;
assessments. This may reflect the equivocal research&#13;
evidence on the effectiveness of interventions. In this&#13;
cohort study, we aimed to investigate whether aspects&#13;
of routine hospital management—such as admission,&#13;
psychosocial assessment, and referral for follow&#13;
up—had an impact on the repetition of deliberate self&#13;
poisoning</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/150/1/housea1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Effect of general hospital management on repeat episodes of deliberate self poisoning: cohort study&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kapur, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>House, A.O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dodgson, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>May, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Creed, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-10-19</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7369.866</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:149
Date: 2016-10-24

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:149</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T17:21:58Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Socioeconomic gradients in uptake of breast cancer screening in the United Kingdom should, intuitively, lead to socioeconomic gradients in disease progression at diagnosis. However, studies have found little evidence of such an effect. Although this could be interpreted as evidence that socioeconomic gradients in uptake of screening do not have clinically important consequences, all of the published studies have used data from before (pre-1988) or during the early stages (1988-95) of implementation of the national breast cancer screening programme. We investigated the relation between socioeconomic position and progression of breast cancer at diagnosis by using recent data from the Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service (NYCRIS), which is estimated to achieve around 93% ascertainment. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/149/1/formand1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Are there socioeconomic gradients in stage and grade of breast cancer at diagnosis? Cross sectional analysis of UK cancer registry data&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Adams, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Forman, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-07-17</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38114.679387.AE</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:144
Date: 2017-09-01

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The plant hormone auxin is a simple molecule similar to tryptophan, yet it elicits a diverse array of responses and is involved in the regulation of growth and development throughout the plant life cycle. The ability of auxin to bring about such diverse responses appears to result partly from the existence of several independent mechanisms for auxin perception. Furthermore, one prominent mechanism for auxin signal transduction involves the targeted degradation of members of a large family of transcriptional regulators that appear to participate in complex and competing dimerization networks to modulate the expression of a wide range of genes. These models for auxin signaling now offer a framework in which to test how each specific response to auxin is brought about.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/144/1/leysero1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1543-5008</dc:source><dc:title>Molecular genetics of auxin signaling</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Leyser, O</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.53.100301.135227</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:143
Date: 2017-10-01

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Collectively, plants contain several different families of natural products among which are compounds with weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity toward mammals. These compounds, termed phytoestrogens, include certain isoflavonoids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans. The best-studied dietary phytoestrogens are the soy isoflavones and the flaxseed lignans. Their perceived health beneficial properties extend beyond hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancers and osteoporosis to include cognitive function, cardiovascular disease, immunity and inflammation, and reproduction and fertility. In the future, metabolic engineering of plants could generate novel and exquisitely controlled dietary sources with which to better assess the potential health beneficial effects of phytoestrogens.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/143/1/dixonra1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1543-5008</dc:source><dc:title>Phytoestrogens</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Dixon, R.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-06-02</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.55.031903.141729</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:142
Date: 2017-10-03

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:142</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-10-03T09:08:38Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The plant hormone auxin is central in many aspects of plant development. Previous studies have implicated the ubiquitin-ligase SCFTIR1 and the AUX/IAA proteins in auxin response. Dominant mutations in several AUX/IAA genes confer pleiotropic auxin-related phenotypes, whereas recessive mutations affecting the function of SCFTIR1 decrease auxin response. Here we show that SCFTIR1 is required for AUX/IAA degradation. We demonstrate that SCFTIR1 interacts with AXR2/IAA7 and AXR3/IAA17, and that domain II of these proteins is necessary and sufficient for this interaction. Further, auxin stimulates binding of SCFTIR1 to the AUX/IAA proteins, and their degradation. Because domain II is conserved in nearly all AUX/IAA proteins in Arabidopsis, we propose that auxin promotes the degradation of this large family of transcriptional regulators, leading to diverse downstream effects.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/142/1/kepinskis1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1476-4687</dc:source><dc:title>Auxin regulates SCFTIR1-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA proteins</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gray, W.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Leyser, O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Estelle, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kepinski, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rouse, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-11-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/35104500</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:141
Date: 2017-10-01

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:141</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-10-01T18:36:31Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (order Glomales), which form mycorrhizal symbioses with two out of three of all plant species, are believed to be obligate biotrophs that are wholly dependent on the plant partner for their carbon supply. It is thought that they possess no degradative capability and that they are unable to decompose complex organic molecules, the form in which most soil nutrients occur. Earlier suggestions that they could exist saprotrophically were based on observation of hyphal proliferation on organic materials. In contrast, other mycorrhizal types have been shown to acquire nitrogen directly from organic sources. Here we show that the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can both enhance decomposition of and increase nitrogen capture from complex organic material (grass leaves) in soil. Hyphal growth of the fungal partner was increased in the presence of the organic material, independently of the host plant.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/141/1/hodgea1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1476-4687</dc:source><dc:title>An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus accelerates decomposition and acquires nitrogen directly from organic material</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5181-697X">Hodge, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Campbell, C D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fitter, A H</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-09-20</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/35095041</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:135
Date: 2017-08-21

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:135</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-21T18:38:14Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVES: To assess whether and how investigators of placebo controlled randomised trials inform participants of their treatment allocation at trial closure and to assess barriers to feedback. DESIGN: Postal survey with a semistructured questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: All investigators who published a placebo controlled randomised trial in 2000 in five leading medical journals, and a random sample of 120 trials listed in the national research register database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of investigators who informed participants of their treatment allocation at trial closure, methods for delivering the information, and barriers to unmasking treatment. RESULTS: 45% of investigators informed either all or most participants of their treatment allocation, and 55% did not inform any participant or only informed those who asked. The main reasons for not informing participants were that the investigators never considered this option (40%) or to avoid biasing results at study follow up (24%). CONCLUSION: Further research is required to examine sensitive ways to communicate treatment information to trial participants.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/135/1/kleijnenj1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>Informing participants of allocation to placebo at trial closure: postal survey</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Di Blasi, Z</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kaptchuk, T.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Weinman, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kleijnen, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-12-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7376.1329</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:134
Date: 2017-10-04

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:134</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-10-04T15:51:16Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) offers health professionals in England and Wales advice on providing NHS patients with the highest attainable standards of care. NICE gives guidance on individual health technologies, the management of specific conditions, and the safety and efficacy of interventional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Guidance is based on the best available evidence. The evidence may not, however, be very good and is rarely complete. Those responsible for formulating the NICE’s advice therefore have to make judgments both about what is good and bad in the available science (scientific value judgments) and about what is good for society (social value judgments). In this article we focus on the scientific and social judgments forming the crux of the institute’s assessment of cost effectiveness. Scientific value judgments and those relating to clinical effectiveness are considered elsewhere.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/134/1/culyeraj1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>National Institute for Clinical Excellence and its value judgments</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Rawlins, M.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Culyer, A.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-07-24</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.329.7459.224</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:133
Date: 2017-08-28

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:133</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-28T07:29:36Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objective To investigate the impact of factors outside the control of primary care on performance indicators proposed as measures of the quality of primary care. Design Multiple regression analysis relating admission rates standardised for age and sex for asthma, diabetes, and epilepsy to socioeconomic population characteristics and to the supply of secondary care resources. Setting 90 family health services authorities in England, 1989-90 to 1994-5. Results At health authority level socioeconomic characteristics, health status, and secondary care supply factors explained 45% of the variation in admission rates for asthma, 33% for diabetes, and 55% for epilepsy. When health authorities were ranked, only four of the 10 with the highest age-sex standardised admission rates for asthma in 1994-5 remained in the top 10 when allowance was made for socioeconomic characteristics, health status, and secondary care supply factors. There was also substantial year to year variation in the rates. Conclusion Health outcomes should relate to crude rates of adverse events in the population. These give the best indication of the size of a health problem. Performance indicators, however, should relate to those aspects of care which can be altered by the staff whose performance is being measured.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/133/1/gravelleh4.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Measuring quality of care with routine data: avoiding confusion between performance indicators and health outcomes</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Giuffrida, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gravelle, H</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roland, M</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999-07-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:132
Date: 2017-06-30

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:132</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-06-30T19:11:00Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic and socioeconomic determinants of need for acute hospital treatment at small area level. To establish whether there is a relation between poverty and use of inpatient services. To devise a risk adjustment formula for distributing public funds for hospital services using, as far as possible, variables that can be updated between censuses. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis. Spatial interactive modelling was used to quantify the proximity of the population to health service facilities. Two stage weighted least squares regression was used to model use against supply of hospital and community services and a wide range of potential needs drivers including health, socioeconomic census variables, uptake of income support and family credit, and religious denomination. SETTING: Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Intensity of use of inpatient services. RESULTS: After endogeneity of supply and use was taken into account, a statistical model was produced that predicted use based on five variables: income support, family credit, elderly people living alone, all ages standardised mortality ratio, and low birth weight. The main effect of the formula produced is to move resources from urban to rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: This work has produced a population risk adjustment formula for acute hospital treatment in which four of the five variables can be updated annually rather than relying on census derived data. Inclusion of the social security data makes a substantial difference to the model and to the results produced by the formula.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/132/1/carr-hillra1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Risk adjustment for hospital use using social security data: cross sectional small area analysis</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Carr-Hill, R.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jamison, J.Q.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>O'Reilly, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stevenson, M.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Reid, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Merriman, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-02-16</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7334.390</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:131
Date: 2017-10-01

RIOXX

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was the first enzyme to have its three-dimensional structure determined by X-ray diffraction techniques(1). A catalytic mechanism, featuring a long-lived oxo-carbenium-ion intermediate, was proposed on the basis of model-building studies(2). The `Phillips' mechanism is widely held as the paradigm for the catalytic mechanism of beta -glycosidases that cleave glycosidic linkages with net retention of configuration of the anomeric centre. Studies with other retaining beta -glycosidases, however, provide strong evidence pointing to a common mechanism for these enzymes that involves a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, as previously postulated(3). Here we show, in three different cases using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, a catalytically competent covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate during the catalytic cycle of HEWL. We also show the three-dimensional structure of this intermediate as determined by Xray diffraction. We formulate a general catalytic mechanism for all retaining beta -glycosidases that includes substrate distortion, formation of a covalent intermediate, and the electrophilic migration of C1 along the reaction coordinate.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/131/1/daviesgj1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1476-4687</dc:source><dc:title>Catalysis by hen egg-white lysozyme proceeds via a covalent intermediate</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Vocadlo, D J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7343-776X">Davies, G J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Laine, R</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Withers, S G</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-08-23</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/35090602</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:130
Date: 2017-07-01

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:130</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-01T16:59:27Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414333:596F726B2E594F523239</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential tension between the need for managers to produce measurable change and the skills required to produce cultural change, and to investigate how managers of primary care trusts are attempting to deal with this tension. DESIGN:Qualitative case studies using data derived from semistructured interviews and a review of published documents. An established cultural framework was to used to help interpret the findings. SETTING: Six primary care trusts in England purposefully sampled to represent a range of cultural, structural, geographical, and demographic characteristics. PARTICIPANTS: 42 interviews with 39 different senior and middle primary care trust managers conducted over an 18 month period. RESULTS: We found two distinct and polarised styles of management. One group of managers adopts a directive style and challenges the prevailing norms and values of clinicians, an approach characteristically seen in organisations with hierarchical cultures. This group is made up mostly of senior managers who are driven principally by the imperative to deliver a political agenda. Managers in the second group are more inclined to work with the prevailing cultures found in general practice, attempting to facilitate change from within rather than forcing change from outside. This management style is characteristically seen in organisations with a clan-type culture. The approach was manifest mostly by middle managers, who seem to act as buffers between the demands of senior managers and their own perception of the ability and willingness of health professionals to cope with change. The different management approaches can lead to tension and dysfunction between tiers of management. CONCLUSIONS: The development of primary care depends on high quality managers who are able to draw on a range of different management skills and styles. Managers are most likely to be effective if they appreciate the merits and drawbacks of their different styles and are willing to work in partnership.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/130/1/mannionr1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>Managing change in the culture of general practice: qualitative case studies in primary care trusts</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Marshall, M.N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mannion, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nelson, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Davies, H.T.O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-09-13</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7415.599</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:129
Date: 2017-08-08

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:129</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-08T02:01:08Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E594F523131</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414332:596F726B2E594F523131</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of standard treatment with and without the addition of ward based non-invasive ventilation in patients admitted to hospital with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. DESIGN: Incremental cost effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Medical wards in 14 hospitals in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: The trial comprised 236 patients admitted to hospital with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mild to moderate acidosis (pH 7.25-7.35) secondary to respiratory failure. The economic analysis compared the costs of treatment that these patients received after randomisation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incremental cost per in-hospital death. RESULTS: 24/118 died in the group receiving standard treatment and 12/118 in the group receiving non-invasive ventilation (P=0.05). Allocation to the group receiving non-invasive ventilation was associated with a reduction in costs of £49 362 ($78 741; 73 109), mainly through reduced use of intensive care units. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was £645 per death avoided (95% confidence interval £2310 to £386), indicating a dominant (more effective and less costly) strategy. Modelling of these data indicates that a typical UK hospital providing a non-invasive ventilation service will avoid six deaths and three to nine admissions to intensive care units per year, with an associated cost reduction of £12 000-53 000 per year. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive ventilation is a highly cost effective treatment that both reduced total costs and improved mortality in hospital.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/129/1/parrotts1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Cost effectiveness of ward based non-invasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: economic analysis of randomised controlled trial</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Plant, P.K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Owen, J.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0165-1150">Parrott, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Elliott, M.W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-05-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7396.956</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:128
Date: 2017-07-01

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:128</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-01T19:36:00Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414333:596F726B2E594F523239</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objectives To identify which type of smoke alarm is most likely to remain working in local authority inner city housing, and to identify an alarm tolerated in households with smokers. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two local authority housing estates in inner London. Participants 2145 households. Intervention Installation of one of five types of smoke alarm (ionisation sensor with a zinc battery; ionisation sensor with a zinc battery and pause button; ionisation sensor with a lithium battery and pause button; optical sensor with a lithium battery; or optical sensor with a zinc battery). Main outcome measure Percentage of homes with any working alarm and percentage in which the alarm installed for this study was working after 15 months. Results 54.4% (1166/2145) of all households and 45.9% (465/1012) of households occupied by smokers had a working smoke alarm. Ionisation sensor, lithium battery, and there being a smoker in the household were independently associated with whether an alarm was working (adjusted odds ratios 2.24 (95% confidence interval 1.75 to 2.87), 2.20 (1.77 to 2.75), and 0.62 (0.52 to 0.74)). The most common reasons for non-function were missing battery (19%), missing alarm (17%), and battery disconnected (4%). Conclusions Nearly half of the alarms installed were not working when tested 15 months later. Type of alarm and power source are important determinants of whether a household had a working alarm.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/128/1/sculpherm4.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Prevalence of working smoke alarms in local authority inner city housing: randomised controlled trial</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Rowland, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Curtis, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3746-9913">Sculpher, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Diguiseppi, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roberts, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roberts, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ginnelly, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wade, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-11-02</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7371.998</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:127
Date: 2017-09-10

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:127</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-09-10T17:27:36Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414333:596F726B2E594F523239</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objective To measure the effect of giving out free smoke alarms on rates of fires and rates of fire related injury in a deprived multiethnic urban population. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Forty electoral wards in two boroughs of inner London, United Kingdom. Participants Primarily households including elderly people or children and households that are in housing rented from the borough council. Intervention 20 050 smoke alarms, fittings, and educational brochures distributed free and installed on request. Main outcome measures Rates of fires and related injuries during two years after the distribution; alarm ownership, installation, and function. Results Giving out free smoke alarms did not reduce injuries related to fire (rate ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.9), admissions to hospital and deaths (1.3; 0.7 to 2.3), or fires attended by the fire brigade (1.1; 0.96 to 1.3). Similar proportions of intervention and control households had installed alarms (36/119 (30%) v 35/109 (32%); odds ratio 0.9; 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.7) and working alarms (19/118 (16%) v 18/108 (17%); 0.9; 0.4 to 1.8). Conclusions Giving out free smoke alarms in a deprived, multiethnic, urban community did not reduce injuries related to fire, mostly because few alarms had been installed or were maintained.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/127/1/sculpherm3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Incidence of fires and related injuries after giving out free smoke alarms: cluster randomised controlled trial</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3746-9913">Sculpher, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edwards, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Godward, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pan, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Slater, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Diguiseppi, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roberts, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wade, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-11-02</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7371.995</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:125
Date: 2017-08-13

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:125</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-13T07:21:23Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVE: To compare the workloads of general practitioners and nurses and costs of patient care for nurse telephone triage and standard management of requests for same day appointments in routine primary care. DESIGN: Multiple interrupted time series using sequential introduction of experimental triage system in different sites with repeated measures taken one week in every month for 12 months. SETTING: Three primary care sites in York. Participants: 4685 patients: 1233 in standard management, 3452 in the triage system. All patients requesting same day appointments during study weeks were included in the trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type of consultation (telephone, appointment, or visit), time taken for consultation, presenting complaints, use of services during the month after same day contact, and costs of drugs and same day, follow up, and emergency care. RESULTS: The triage system reduced appointments with general practitioner by 29-44%. Compared with standard management, the triage system had a relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 0.85 (0.72 to 1.00) for home visits, 2.41 (2.08 to 2.80) for telephone care, and 3.79 (3.21 to 4.48) for nurse care. Mean overall time in the triage system was 1.70 minutes longer, but mean general practitioner time was reduced by 2.45 minutes. Routine appointments and nursing time increased, as did out of hours and accident and emergency attendance. Costs did not differ significantly between standard management and triage: mean difference £1.48 more per patient for triage (95% confidence interval -0.19 to 3.15). CONCLUSIONS: Triage reduced the number of same day appointments with general practitioners but resulted in busier routine surgeries, increased nursing time, and a small but significant increase in out of hours and accident and emergency attendance. Consequently, triage does not reduce overall costs per patient for managing same day appointments.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/125/1/richardsong1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Nurse telephone triage for same day appointments in general practice: multiple interrupted time series trial of effect on workload and costs</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Richards, D.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Godfrey, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2360-4566">Richardson, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Russell, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Meakins, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tawfik, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dutton, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-11-23</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7374.1214</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:124
Date: 2017-07-01

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:124</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-01T17:54:49Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/124/1/gravelleh3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>Is bigger better for primary care groups and trusts?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bojke, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gravelle, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wilkin, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-03-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7286.599</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:123
Date: 2017-08-21

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:123</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-21T02:51:30Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/123/1/gravelleh2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>How much of the relation between population mortality and unequal distribution of income is a statistical artefact?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gravelle, H</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1998-01-31</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:122
Date: 2017-09-10

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:122</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-09-10T09:00:05Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414333:596F726B2E594F523239</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414333:596F726B2E594F523235</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objective To establish which attributes of conservative treatments for prostate cancer are most important to men. Design Discrete choice experiment. Setting Two London hospitals. Participants 129 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer, mean age 70 years; 69 of 118 (58%) with T stage 1 or 2 cancer at diagnosis. Main outcome measures Men's preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of diarrhoea, hot flushes, ability to maintain an erection, breast swelling or tenderness, physical energy, sex drive, life expectancy, and out of pocket expenses. Results The men's responses to changes in attributes were all statistically significant. When asked to assume a starting life expectancy of five years, the men were willing to make trade-offs between life expectancy and side effects. On average, they were most willing to give up life expectancy to avoid limitations in physical energy (mean three months) and least willing to trade life expectancy to avoid hot flushes (mean 0.6 months to move from a moderate to mild level or from mild to none). Conclusions Men with prostate cancer are willing to participate in a relatively complex exercise that weighs up the advantages and disadvantages of various conservative treatments for their condition. They were willing to trade off some life expectancy to be relieved of the burden of troublesome side effects such as limitations in physical energy.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/122/1/sculpherm1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Patients' preferences for the management of non-metastatic prostate cancer: discrete choice experiment</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3746-9913">Sculpher, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fry, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>de Winter, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Payne, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Emberton, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bryan, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-02-14</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.37872.497234.44</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:121
Date: 2017-08-13

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:121</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-13T00:16:10Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objectives To measure general practitioners' intentions to quit direct patient care, to assess changes between 1998 and 2000, and to investigate associated factors, notably job satisfaction. Design Analysis of national postal surveys conducted in 1998 and 2001. Setting England. Participants 1949 general practitioner principals, of whom 790 were surveyed in 1998 and 1159 in 2001. Main outcome measures Overall job satisfaction and likelihood of leaving direct patient care in the next five years. Results The proportion of doctors intending to quit direct patient care in the next five years rose from 14% in 1998 to 22% in 2001. In both years, the main factors associated with an increased likelihood of quitting were older age and ethnic minority status. Higher job satisfaction and having children younger than 18 years were associated with a reduced likelihood of quitting. There were no significant differences in regression coefficients between 1998 and 2001, suggesting that the effect of factors influencing intentions to quit remained stable over time. The rise in intentions to quit was due mainly to a reduction in job satisfaction (1998 mean 4.64, 2001 mean 3.96) together with a slight increase in the proportion of doctors from ethnic minorities and in the mean age of doctors. Doctors' personal and practice characteristics explained little of the variation in job satisfaction within or between years. Conclusions Job satisfaction is an important factor underlying intention to quit, and attention to this aspect of doctors' working lives may help to increase the supply of general practitioners.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/121/1/gravelleh1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>National survey of job satisfaction and retirement intentions among general practitioners in England</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sibbald, B</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bojke, C</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gravelle, H</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-01-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7379.22</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:120
Date: 2017-07-01

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:120</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-01T19:39:23Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>After the introduction of Bassini's procedure in the late 19th century, methods of repairing hernias changed little until the 1990s, when synthetic mesh and laparoscopic methods arrived. In contrast to the open mesh technique, laparoscopic surgery remains uncommon. In January 2001, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) issued guidance that stated, "For repair of primary inguinal hernia, open [mesh] should be the preferred surgical procedure." We describe patterns of surgical repair of inguinal hernias and assess the impact of NICE's guidance.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/120/1/bloork1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Impact of NICE guidance on laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernias: analysis of interrupted time series</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4852-9854">Bloor, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Freemantle, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Khadjesari, Z.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Maynard, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-03-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7389.578</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:119
Date: 2017-09-24

RIOXX

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:119</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-09-24T00:37:41Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Habitat degradation and climate change are thought to be altering the distributions and abundances of animals and plants throughout the world, but their combined impacts have not been assessed for any species assemblage. Here we evaluated changes in the distribution sizes and abundances of 46 species of butterflies that approach their northern climatic range margins in Britain—where changes in climate and habitat are opposing forces. These insects might be expected to have responded positively to climate warming over the past 30 years, yet three-quarters of them declined: negative responses to habitat loss have outweighed positive responses to climate warming. Half of the species that were mobile and habitat generalists increased their distribution sites over this period (consistent with a climate explanation), whereas the other generalists and 89% of the habitat specialists declined in distribution size (consistent with habitat limitation). Changes in population abundances closely matched changes in distributions. The dual forces of habitat modification and climate change are likely to cause specialists to decline, leaving biological communities with reduced numbers of species and dominated by mobile and widespread habitat generalists.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/119/1/thomascd4.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1476-4687</dc:source><dc:title>Rapid responses of British butterflies to opposing forces of climate and habitat change</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Warren, M S</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1871-7715">Hill, J K</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thomas, J A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Asher, J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fox, R</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Huntley, B</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roy, D B</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Telfer, M G</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jeffcoate, S</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Harding, P</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jeffcoate, G</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Willis, S G</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Greatorex-Davies, J N</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Moss, D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2822-1334">Thomas, C D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-11-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/35102054</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:118
Date: 2016-10-24

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:118</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T20:40:04Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Many animals are regarded as relatively sedentary and specialized in marginal parts of their geographical distributions. They are expected to be slow at colonizing new habitats. Despite this, the cool margins of many species' distributions have expanded rapidly in association with recent climate warming. We examined four insect species that have expanded their geographical ranges in Britain over the past 20 years. Here we report that two butterfly species have increased the variety of habitat types that they can colonize, and that two bush cricket species show increased fractions of longer-winged (dispersive) individuals in recently founded populations. Both ecological and evolutionary processes are probably responsible for these changes. Increased habitat breadth and dispersal tendencies have resulted in about 3- to 15-fold increases in expansion rates, allowing these insects to cross habitat disjunctions that would have represented major or complete barriers to dispersal before the expansions started. The emergence of dispersive phenotypes will increase the speed at which species invade new environments, and probably underlies the responses of many species to both past and future climate change.&#13;
&#13;
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ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:116
Date: 2016-10-25

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Dynein ATPases are microtubule motors that are critical to diverse processes such as vesicle transport and the beating of sperm tails; however, their mechanism of force generation is unknown. Each dynein comprises a head, from which a stalk and a stem emerge. Here we use electron microscopy and image processing to reveal new structural details of dynein c, an isoform from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, at the start and end of its power stroke. Both stem and stalk are flexible, and the stem connects to the head by means of a linker approximately 10 nm long that we propose lies across the head. With both ADP and vanadate bound, the stem and stalk emerge from the head 10 nm apart. However, without nucleotide they emerge much closer together owing to a change in linker orientation, and the coiled-coil stalk becomes stiffer. The net result is a shortening of the molecule coupled to an approximately 15-nm displacement of the tip of the stalk. These changes indicate a mechanism for the dynein power stroke.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/116/1/burgesssa1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Dynein structure and power stroke </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Burgess, S.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Walker, M.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sakakibara, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Knight, P.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oiwa, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-02-13</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01377</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:105
Date: 2015-11-17

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:105</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-11-17T07:40:50Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Mangrove forests are one of the world's most threatened tropical ecosystems with global loss exceeding 35% (ref. 1). Juvenile coral reef fish often inhabit mangroves, but the importance of these nurseries to reef fish population dynamics has not been quantified. Indeed, mangroves might be expected to have negligible influence on reef fish communities: juvenile fish can inhabit alternative habitats and fish populations may be regulated by other limiting factors such as larval supply or fishing. Here we show that mangroves are unexpectedly important, serving as an intermediate nursery habitat that may increase the survivorship of young fish. Mangroves in the Caribbean strongly influence the community structure of fish on neighbouring coral reefs. In addition, the biomass of several commercially important species is more than doubled when adult habitat is connected to mangroves. The largest herbivorous fish in the Atlantic, Scarus guacamaia, has a functional dependency on mangroves and has suffered local extinction after mangrove removal. Current rates of mangrove deforestation are likely to have severe deleterious consequences for the ecosystem function, fisheries productivity and resilience of reefs. Conservation efforts should protect connected corridors of mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/105/1/blackwellpg1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mumby, P.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edwards, A.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Arias-Gonzalez, J.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lindeman, K.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Blackwell, P.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gall, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gorczynska, M.I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Harborne, A.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pescod, C.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Renken, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wabnitz, C.C.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Llewellyn, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-02-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02286</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:96
Date: 2016-10-29

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:96</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-29T17:29:45Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Although there are several well-established hypotheses for the origins of postmating isolation during allopatric divergence, there have been very few attempts, to determine their relative importance in nature. We have developed an approach based on knowledge of the differing evolutionary histories of populations within species that allows systematic comparison of the predictions of these hypotheses. In previous work, we have applied this methodology to mating signal variation and premating reproductive isolation between populations of the meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus. Here we review the principles behind our approach and report a study measuring postmating isolation in the same set of populations. The populations have known and differing evolutionary histories and relationships resulting from the colonization of northern Europe following the last glaciation. We use a maximum-likelihood analysis to compare the observed pattern of postmating isolation with the predictions of the hypotheses that isolation primarily evolves either as a result of gradual accumulation of mutations in allopatry, or through processes associated with colonization, such as founder events., We also quantify the extent to which degree of postmating isolation can be predicted by genetic distance. Our results suggest that although there is only a weak correlation between genetic distance and postmating isolation, long periods of allopatry do lead to postmating isolation. In contrast to the pattern of premating isolation described in our previous study, colonization does not seem to be associated with increased postmating isolation.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/96/1/tregenzat8.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1438-3896</dc:source><dc:title>The origins of postmating reproductive isolation: testing hypotheses in the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tregenza, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pritchard, V.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Butlin, R.K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1007/s101440200017</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:94
Date: 2016-10-28

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:94</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-28T17:14:02Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>It is well established that the onset of spatially periodic vortex states in the Taylor–Couette flow between rotating cylinders occurs at the value of Reynolds number predicted by local bifurcation theory. However, the symmetry breaking induced by the top and bottom plates means that the true situation should be a disconnected pitchfork. Indeed, experiments have shown that the fold on the disconnected branch can occur at more than double the Reynolds number of onset. This leads to an apparent contradiction: why should Taylor vortices set in so sharply at the Reynolds number predicted by the symmetric theory, given such large symmetry-breaking effects caused by the boundary conditions? This paper offers a generic explanation. The details are worked out using a Swift–Hohenberg pattern formation model that shares the same qualitative features as the Taylor–Couette flow. Onset occurs via a wall mode whose exponential tail penetrates further into the bulk of the domain as the driving parameter increases. In a large domain of length L, we show that the wall mode creates significant amplitude in the centre at parameter values that are O(L^−2) away from the value of onset in the problem with ideal boundary conditions. We explain this as being due to a Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation in space, which occurs at the same parameter value as the pitchfork bifurcation of the temporal dynamics. The disconnected anomalous branch remains O(1) away from the onset parameter since it does not arise as a bifurcation from the wall mode.&#13;
&#13;
(c) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/94/1/RC_taylorcouette.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0167-2789</dc:source><dc:title>Boundary effects and the onset of Taylor vortices</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Rucklidge, A. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Champneys, A. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2003.12.003</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:93
Date: 2016-10-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:93</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-29T17:26:35Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Species are the units used to measure ecological diversity and alleles are the units of genetic diversity. Genetic variation within and among species has been documented most extensively using allozyme electrophoresis. This reveals wide differences in genetic variability within, and genetic distances among, species, demonstrating that species are not equivalent units of diversity. The extent to which the pattern observed for allozymes can be used to infer patterns of genetic variation in quantitative traits depends on the forces generating and maintaining variability. Allozyme variation is probably not strictly neutral but, nevertheless, heterozygosity is expected to be influenced by population size and genetic distance will be affected by time since divergence. The same is true for quantitative traits influenced by many genes and under weak stabilizing selection. However, the limited data available suggest that allozyme variability is a poor predictor of genetic variation in quantitative traits within populations. It is a better predictor of general phenotypic divergence and of postzygotic isolation between populations or species, but is only weakly correlated with prezygotic isolation. Studies of grasshopper and planthopper mating signal variation and assortative mating illustrate how these characters evolve independently of general genetic and morphological variation. The role of such traits in prezygotic isolation, and hence speciation, means that they will contribute significantly to the diversity of levels of genetic variation within and among species. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/93/1/tregenzat7.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2970</dc:source><dc:title>Levels of genetic polymorphism: marker loci versus quantitative traits</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Butlin, R.K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tregenza, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1998</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1998.0201</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:92
Date: 2016-10-27

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:92</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-27T08:05:50Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Out of all the animals, cephalopods possess an unrivalled ability to change their shape and body patterns. Our observations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) suggest this ability has allowed them to evolve alternative mating strategies in which males can switch between the appearance of a female and that of a male in order to foil the guarding attempts of larger males. At a mass breeding aggregation in South Australia, we repeatedly observed single small males accompanying mating pairs. While doing so, the small male assumed the body shape and patterns of a female. Such males were never attacked by the larger mate-guarding male. On more than 20 occasions, when the larger male was distracted by another male intruder, these small males, previously indistinguishable from a female, were observed to change body pattern and behaviour to that of a male in mating display. These small males then attempted to mate with the female, often with success. This potential for dynamic sexual mimicry may have played a part in driving the evolution of the remarkable powers of colour and shape transformation which characterize the cephalopods. &#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/92/1/tregenzat6.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2954</dc:source><dc:title>Female impersonation as an alternative reproductive strategy in giant cuttlefish&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Norman, M.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Finn, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tregenza, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999-07-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1999.0786</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:91
Date: 2016-10-29

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:91</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-29T05:26:28Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>During research dives in Indonesia (Sulawesi and Bali), we filmed a distinctive long-armed octopus, which is new to science. Diving over 24 h periods revealed that the 'mimic octopus' emerges during daylight hours to forage on sand substrates in full view of pelagic fish predators. We observed nine individuals of this species displaying a repertoire of postures and body patterns, several of which are clearly impersonations of venomous animals co-occurring in this habitat. This 'dynamic mimicry' avoids the genetic constraints that may limit the diversity of genetically polymorphic mimics but has the same effect of decreasing the frequency with which predators encounter particular mimics. Additionally, our observations suggest that the octopus makes decisions about the most appropriate form of mimicry to use, allowing it to enhance further the benefits of mimicking toxic models by employing mimicry according to the nature of perceived threats.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/91/1/tregenzat5.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2954</dc:source><dc:title>Dynamic mimicry in an Indo-Malayan octopus&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Norman, M.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Finn, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tregenza, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-09-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1708</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:89
Date: 2016-10-27

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The evolution of polyandry remains controversial. This is because, unlike males, in many cases multiple mating by females does not increase fecundity and inevitably involves some costs. As a result, a large number of indirect benefit models have been proposed to explain polyandry. One of these, the good sperm hypothesis, posits that high-quality males are better sperm competitors and sire higher-quality offspring. Hence, by mating multiply, females produce offspring of superior quality. Despite being potentially widely applicable across species, this idea has received little attention. In a laboratory experiment with yellow dung flies ( Scathophaga stercoraria ) we found that males that were more successful in sperm competition also had offspring that developed faster. There was no relationship between paternal success in sperm competition and the ability of offspring to survive post-emergence starvation. Since faster development times are likely to be advantageous in this species, our data provide some support for polyandry evolving as a means of producing higher-quality offspring via sperm competition. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/89/1/tregenzat4.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2954</dc:source><dc:title>Superior sperm competitors sire higher-quality young&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hosken, D.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Garner, T.W.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tregenza, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wedell, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ward, P.I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-07-18</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2003.2443</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:88
Date: 2016-10-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:88</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-28T13:41:58Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Female promiscuity has broad implications for individual behaviour, population genetics and even speciation. In the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, females will mate with almost any male presented to them, despite receiving no recorded direct benefits. Previous studies have shown that female crickets can benefit from polyandry through increased hatching success of their eggs. There is evidence that this effect is driven by the potential of polyandrous females to avoid fertilizing eggs with sperm from genetically incompatible males. We provide direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that polyandry is a mechanism to avoid genetic incompatibilities resulting from inbreeding. Using microsatellite markers we examined patterns of paternity in an experiment where each female mated with both a related and an unrelated male in either order. Overall, unrelated males were more successful in gaining paternity than were related males, but this effect was driven by a much greater success of unrelated males when they were the first to mate.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/88/1/tregenzat3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2954</dc:source><dc:title>Molecular evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding&#13;
avoidance in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bretman, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wedell, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tregenza, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-11-19</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2003.2563</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:86
Date: 2016-10-26

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:86</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-26T17:58:58Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>There is growing interest in the potential for population divergence (and hence speciation) to be&#13;
driven by co-evolutionary arms races due to conflicts of interest between the sexes over matings&#13;
and investment in offspring. It has been suggested that the signature of sexually antagonistic&#13;
co-evolution may be revealed in crosses between populations through females showing&#13;
the weakest response to males from their own population compared with males from other&#13;
populations. The rationale behind this prediction is that females will not have been able to&#13;
evolve counter-adaptations to manipulative signals from males with which they have not&#13;
co-evolved. Recent theoretical treatments suggest that this prediction is not strictly exclusive&#13;
to the sexual conflict theory, but it remains the case that population crosses can provide&#13;
insights into the evolution of mate choice within populations. We describe crosses between six&#13;
populations of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Although successful matings are no&#13;
more or less likely between populations compared to within populations, females do increase&#13;
their oviposition rate in response to males from other populations, relative to males from their&#13;
own population. Our results are therefore consistent with the proposition that sexual conflict&#13;
has driven population divergence in this species. However, we argue that the available evidence&#13;
is more supportive of the hypothesis that increased female investment in response to males from&#13;
other populations is a side-effect of inbreeding avoidance within populations.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/86/1/tregenzat2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1552-0613</dc:source><dc:title>Divergence revealed by population crosses in&#13;
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ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:85
Date: 2017-10-02

RIOXX

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:85</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-10-02T05:35:12Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/85/1/godfreyc1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>Economics of smoking cessation</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0165-1150">Parrott, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Godfrey, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-04-17</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:84
Date: 2016-10-25

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:84</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T02:26:28Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The author discusses the administrative problems which can still occur when looking after a large and complex portfolio of electronic resources, and focuses on some of the recurring ‘nightmares’ involving e-journals in particular. Amongst the subjects discussed are lost archives, activation codes which change without anyone being told, unreasonable expiry dates, poor service, wandering URLs, lack of publicity, failure to keep licensing conditions, and title changes. The article ends with a look at some emerging examples of excellent practice to do with e-journal management, proving all parties involved can work together to ensure a smooth and efficient service.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/84/1/Cole%2C_A_Journey.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Taylor and Francis</dc:publisher><dc:source>1541-1095 </dc:source><dc:title>A journey into e-resource administration hell</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cole, Louise</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1300/J123v49n01_05</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:83
Date: 2016-10-24

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:83</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T22:31:55Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Climate change over the past 30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of extinction shows a power-law relationship with geographical range size, we predict, on the basis of mid-range climate-warming scenarios for 2050, that 15–37% of species in our sample of regions and taxa will be 'committed to extinction'. When the average of the three methods and two dispersal scenarios is taken, minimal climate-warming scenarios produce lower projections of species committed to extinction (18%) than mid-range (24%) and maximum-change (35%) scenarios. These estimates show the importance of rapid implementation of technologies to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and strategies for carbon sequestration.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/83/1/thomascd1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Extinction risk from climate change</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thomas, C.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cameron, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Green, R.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bakkenes, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Beaumont, L.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Collingham, Y.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Erasmus, B.F.N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ferreira de Siqueira, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Grainger, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hannah, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hughes, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Huntley, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>van Jaarsveld, A.S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author> Midgley, G.F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Miles, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ortega-Huerta, M.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Townsend Peterson, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Phillips, O.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Williams, S.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-01-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:79
Date: 2016-10-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:79</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-28T17:04:32Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/79/1/wookeyjm2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Mantle deformation or processing artefact? (Reply)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Wookey, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kendall, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barruol, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-03-13</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/422136b</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:78
Date: 2016-10-25

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:78</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T21:39:11Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>With time, convective processes in the Earth's mantle will tend to align crystals, grains and inclusions. This mantle fabric is detectable seismologically, as it produces an anisotropy in material properties—in particular, a directional dependence in seismic-wave velocity. This alignment is enhanced at the boundaries of the mantle where there are rapid changes in the direction and magnitude of mantle flow, and therefore most observations of anisotropy are confined to the uppermost mantle or lithosphere and the lowermost-mantle analogue of the lithosphere, the D" region. Here we present evidence from shear-wave splitting measurements for mid-mantle anisotropy in the vicinity of the 660-km discontinuity, the boundary between the upper and lower mantle. Deep-focus earthquakes in the Tonga–Kermadec and New Hebrides subduction zones recorded at Australian seismograph stations record some of the largest values of shear-wave splitting hitherto reported. The results suggest that, at least locally, there may exist a mid-mantle boundary layer, which could indicate the impediment of flow between the upper and lower mantle in this region.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/78/1/wookeyjm1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Mid-mantle deformation inferred from seismic anisotropy </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Wookey, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kendall, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barruol, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-02-13</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/415777a</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:77
Date: 2016-10-27

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:77</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-27T19:01:36Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Why do females typically mate with more than one male? Female mating patterns have broad implications for sexual selection, speciation and conflicts of interest between the sexes, and yet they are poorly understood. Matings inevitably have costs, and for females, the benefits of taking more than one mate are rarely obvious. One possible explanation is that females gain benefits because they can avoid using sperm from genetically incompatible males, or invest less in the offspring of such males. It has been shown that mating with more than one male can increase offspring viability, but we present the first clear demonstration that this occurs because females with several mates avoid the negative effects of genetic incompatibility. We show that in crickets, the eggs of females that mate only with siblings have decreased hatching success. However, if females mate with both a sibling and a non-sibling they avoid altogether the low egg viability associated with sibling matings. If similar effects occur in other species, inbreeding avoidance may be important in understanding the prevalence of multiple mating.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/77/1/tregenzat1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Polyandrous females avoid costs of inbreeding </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tregenza, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wedell, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-01-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/415071a</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:76
Date: 2016-10-24

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:76</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T21:39:04Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Ecological orthodoxy suggests that old-growth forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, but this view has been challenged by recent findings that neotropical forests are accumulating carbon and biomass, possibly in response to the increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. However, it is unclear whether the recent increase in tree biomass has been accompanied by a shift in community composition. Such changes could reduce or enhance the carbon storage potential of old-growth forests in the long term. Here we show that non-fragmented Amazon forests are experiencing a concerted increase in the density, basal area and mean size of woody climbing plants (lianas). Over the last two decades of the twentieth century the dominance of large lianas relative to trees has increased by 1.7–4.6% a year. Lianas enhance tree mortality and suppress tree growth, so their rapid increase implies that the tropical terrestrial carbon sink may shut down sooner than current models suggest. Predictions of future tropical carbon fluxes will need to account for the changing composition and dynamics of supposedly undisturbed forests.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76/1/phillipsol1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Increasing dominance of large lianas in Amazonian forests </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Phillips, O.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marti­nez, R.V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Arroyo, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baker, T.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Killeen, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lewis, S.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Malhi, Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mendoza, A.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Neill, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vargas, P.N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Alexiades, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ceron, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Di Fiore, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Erwin, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jardim, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Palacios, W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Saldias, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vinceti, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-08-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/nature00926</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:73
Date: 2016-10-24

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:73</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T18:52:58Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>When a female is sexually promiscuous, the ejaculates of different males compete for the fertilization of her eggs; the more sperm a male inseminates into a female, the more likely he is to fertilize her eggs. Because sperm production is limited and costly, theory predicts that males will strategically allocate sperm (1) according to female promiscuity, (2) saving some for copulations with new females, and (3) to females producing more and/or better offspring. Whether males allocate sperm in all of these ways is not known, particularly in birds where the collection of natural ejaculates only recently became possible. Here we demonstrate male sperm allocation of unprecedented sophistication in the fowl Gallus gallus. Males show status-dependent sperm investment in females according to the level of female promiscuity; they progressively reduce sperm investment in a particular female but, on encountering a new female, instantaneously increase their sperm investment; and they preferentially allocate sperm to females with large sexual ornaments signalling superior maternal investment. Our results indicate that female promiscuity leads to the evolution of sophisticated male sexual behaviour.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/73/1/pizzarit1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Sophisticated sperm allocation in male fowl</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Pizzari, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cornwallis, C.K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lovlie, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jakobssen, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Birkhead, T.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-11-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02004</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:72
Date: 2016-10-26

RIOXX

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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:72</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-26T17:58:18Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The structure of a sunspot is determined by the local interaction between magnetic fields and convection near the Sun's surface. The dark central umbra is surrounded by a filamentary penumbra, whose complicated fine structure has only recently been revealed by high-resolution observations. The penumbral magnetic field has an intricate and unexpected interlocking-comb structure and some field lines, with associated outflows of gas, dive back down below the solar surface at the outer edge of the spot. These field lines might be expected to float quickly back to the surface because of magnetic buoyancy, but they remain submerged. Here we show that the field lines are kept submerged outside the spot by turbulent, compressible convection, which is dominated by strong, coherent, descending plumes. Moreover, this downward pumping of magnetic flux explains the origin of the interlocking-comb structure of the penumbral magnetic field, and the behaviour of other magnetic features near the sunspot.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/72/1/tobiassm1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>Downward pumping of magnetic flux as the cause of filamentary structures in sunspot penumbrae </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thomas, J.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Weiss, N.O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tobias, S.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brummell, N.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-11-28</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01174</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:71
Date: 2016-09-16

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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:71</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-09-16T12:49:34Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Imprinted genes are expressed differently depending on whether they are carried by a chromosome of maternal or paternal origin. Correct imprinting is established by germline-specific modifications; failure of this process underlies several inherited human syndromes. All these imprinting control defects are cis-acting, disrupting establishment or maintenance of allele-specific epigenetic modifications across one contiguous segment of the genome. In contrast, we report here an inherited global imprinting defect. This recessive maternal-effect mutation disrupts the specification of imprints at multiple, non-contiguous loci, with the result that genes normally carrying a maternal methylation imprint assume a paternal epigenetic pattern on the maternal allele. The resulting conception is phenotypically indistinguishable from an androgenetic complete hydatidiform mole, in which abnormal extra-embryonic tissue proliferates while development of the embryo is absent or nearly so. This disorder offers a genetic route to the identification of trans-acting oocyte factors that mediate maternal imprint establishment.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/71/1/haywardbe1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:title>A global disorder of imprinting in the human female germ line</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Judson, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hayward, B.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sheridan, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bonthron, D.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-04-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1038/416539a</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:70
Date: 2016-10-25

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:70</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T06:47:21Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Airway neuroepithelial bodies sense changes in inspired O2, whereas arterial O2 levels are monitored primarily by the carotid body. Both respond to hypoxia by initiating corrective cardiorespiratory reflexes, thereby optimising gas exchange in the face of a potentially deleterious O2 supply. One unifying theme underpinning chemotransduction in these tissues is K+ channel inhibition. However, the transduction components, from O2 sensor to K+ channel, display considerable tissue specificity yet result in analogous end points. Here we highlight how emerging data are contributing to a more complete understanding of O2 chemosensing at the molecular level.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/70/1/rr51.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1465-9921</dc:source><dc:title>Acute oxygen sensing: diverse but convergent mechanisms in airway and arterial chemoreceptors</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Peers, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kemp, P.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-03-22</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/rr51</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:69
Date: 2016-10-25

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:69</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T04:37:55Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND:&#13;
&#13;
Obesity treatment is notoriously unsuccessful and one of the barriers to successful weight loss reported by patients is a lack of social support. The Internet offers a novel and fast approach to the delivery of health information, enabling 24-hour access to help and advice. However, much of the health information available on the Internet is unregulated or not written by qualified health professionals to provide unbiased information. The proposed study aims to compare a web-based weight loss package with traditional dietary treatment of obesity in participants. The project aims to deliver high quality information to the patient and to evaluate the effectiveness of this information, both in terms of weight loss outcomes and cost-effectiveness.&#13;
&#13;
METHODS:&#13;
&#13;
This study is a randomised controlled trial of a weight loss package against usual care provided within General Practice (GP) surgeries in Leeds, UK. Participants will be recruited via posters placed in participating practices. A target recruitment figure of 220 will enable 180 people to be recruited (allowing for 22% dropout). Participants agreeing to take part in the study will be randomly allocated using minimisation to either the intervention group, receiving access to the Internet site, or the usual care group. The primary outcome of the study will be the ability of the package to promote change in BMI over 6 and 12 months compared with traditional treatment. Secondary outcomes will be the ability of the Internet package to promote change in reported lifestyle behaviours. Data will be collected on participant preferences, adherence to treatment, health care use and time off work. Difference in cost between groups in provision of the intervention and the cost of the primary outcome will also be estimated.&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSION:&#13;
&#13;
A positive result from this study would enhance the repertoire of treatment approaches available for the management of obesity. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for tackling obesity.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/69/1/1472-6963-3-19.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1472-6963</dc:source><dc:title>A randomised trial of an internet weight control resource: The UK Weight Control Trial [ISRCTN58621669]&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kirk, S.F.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Harvey, E.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McConnon, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pollard, J.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Greenwood, D.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thomas, J.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ransley, J.K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-10-29</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-3-19</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:68
Date: 2016-10-24

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:68</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-24T16:50:08Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND: &#13;
&#13;
The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has produced guidelines on the early management of head injury. This study audits the process of the management of patients with head injury presenting at Accident and Emergency (A&amp;E) departments and examines the impact upon resources of introducing NICE guidelines for eligibility of a CT scan.&#13;
&#13;
METHODS: &#13;
&#13;
A retrospective audit of consecutive patients of any age, presenting at A&amp;E with a complaint of head injury during one month in two northern District General Hospitals forming part of a single NHS Trust.&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS: &#13;
&#13;
419 patients presented with a median age of 15.5 years, and 61% were male. 58% had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) recorded and 33 (8%) were admitted. Only four of the ten indicators for a CT scan were routinely assessed, but data were complete for only one (age), and largely absent for another (vomiting). Using just three (incomplete) indicators showed a likely 4 fold increase in the need for a CT scan.&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSIONS: &#13;
&#13;
The majority of patients who present with a head injury to Accident and Emergency departments are discharged home. Current assessment processes and associated data collection routines do not provide the information necessary to implement NICE guidelines for CT brain scans. The development of such clinical audit systems in a busy A&amp;E department is likely to require considerable investment in technology and/or staff. The resource implications for radiology are likely to be substantial.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/68/1/1472-6963-4-7.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1472-6963</dc:source><dc:title>Audit of head injury management in Accident and Emergency at two hospitals: implications for NICE CT guidelines&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Miller, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kent, R.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tennant, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-05-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-4-7</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:67
Date: 2017-08-13

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ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:57
Date: 2017-07-18

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      <datestamp>2017-07-18T18:35:48Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The NHS Plan expressed the intention of government to "fundamentally overhaul" the national contract for UK hospital specialists to "reward and incentivise those who do most for the NHS." How can this be achieved?</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/57/1/maynarda4.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Reforming the contract of UK consultants</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Maynard, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4852-9854">Bloor, K</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-03-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:56
Date: 2017-06-30

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      <datestamp>2017-06-30T17:08:54Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>New Zealand attracted much international attention in the late 1980s and 1990s for its radical economic and social reforms. This reforming tendency shows no signs of abating. In late 1999 the national (conservative) government was replaced by a Labour led coalition, which is rapidly and significantly changing the way publicly financed health services are organised. Before the general election, Labour had criticised the national government's quasimarket system for its narrow focus on the production of services rather than the improvement of health, for having fragmented a public service, for fostering inappropriate commercial behaviour, for increasing transaction costs, and for lacking local democratic input. These problems were attributed to the "corporate model" of public hospital provision and a single, national purchasing agency. Both will now be replaced with a system promoted as allowing greater community "voice" in health sector decision making and "putting the public back into the public health system." This paper reviews New Zealand's experience with the quasimarket model and appraises the rationale for another round of structural change. We identify challenges policymakers face in achieving their goals, consider the general lessons provided by New Zealand's frequent U-turns in policy, and offer a set of criteria against which the new system might be assessed.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/56/1/maynarda2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>New Zealand's new health sector reforms: back to the future?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Devlin, N</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Maynard, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mays, N</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-05-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:55
Date: 2017-07-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:55</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-31T15:17:28Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, a precursor to the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) in England and Wales, has not yet started to consider cost effectiveness. NICE considers cost effectiveness but has been reluctant to advise against funding many costly new pharmaceuticals in the NHS in England and Wales. NICE must devise politically acceptable ways of refusing to spend taxpayers' money on costly new drugs and devices that lack demonstrable incremental cost effectiveness. Otherwise, new and often inefficient technologies will continue to fuel the widening gap between public expectations and public willingness to pay for the NHS. NICE should prioritise new national guidance within a fixed growth budget for the net cost of new technologies and in relation to incremental cost effectiveness. If reducing postcode rationing would compromise more important goals of equity or efficiency, NICE should sometimes refuse to issue definite national guidance.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/55/1/maynarda1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Wrong SIGN, NICE mess: is national guidance distorting allocation of resources?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cookson, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Maynard, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McDaid, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-09-29</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:54
Date: 2017-08-28

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      <datestamp>2017-08-28T09:10:32Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Rationing health care is inevitable, and NICE should inform NHS decision making. Adoption of new technologies by NHS clinicians should be informed by costs as well as effectiveness. The NHS needs better information from NICE on the equity implications of new and existing technologies. NICE appraisal should focus not only on service enhancement but also on withdrawal of existing ineffective or inefficient therapies. Giving NICE a real budget to fund its recommendations would encourage it to examine the effect of its decisions on the whole NHS.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/54/1/227.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>Challenges for the National Institute for Clinical Excellence</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Maynard, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4852-9854">Bloor, K</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Freemantle, N</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-07-24</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:53
Date: 2017-08-27

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:53</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-27T22:56:52Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>AIM: To examine those sources of information which nurses find useful for reducing the uncertainty associated with their clinical decisions. BACKGROUND: Nursing research has concentrated almost exclusively on the concept of research implementation. Few, if any, papers examine the use of research knowledge in the context of clinical decision-making. There is a need to establish how useful nurses perceive information sources are, for reducing the uncertainties they face when making clinical decisions. DESIGN: Cross-case analysis involving qualitative interviews, observation, documentary audit and Q methodological modelling of shared subjectivities amongst nurses. The case sites were three large acute hospitals in the north of England, United Kingdom. One hundred and eight nurses were interviewed, 61 of whom were also observed for a total of 180 hours and 122 nurses were involved in the Q modelling exercise. RESULTS: Text-based and electronic sources of research-based information yielded only small amounts of utility for practising clinicians. Despite isolating four significantly different perspectives on what sources were useful for clinical decision-making, it was human sources of information for practice that were overwhelmingly perceived as the most useful in reducing the clinical uncertainties of nurse decision-makers. CONCLUSIONS: It is not research knowledge per se that carries little weight in the clinical decisions of nurses, but rather the medium through which it is delivered. Specifically, text-based and electronic resources are not viewed as useful by nurses engaged in making decisions in real time, in real practice, but those individuals who represent a trusted and clinically credible source are. More research needs to be carried out on the qualities of people regarded as clinically important information agents (specifically, those in clinical nurse specialist and associated roles) whose messages for practice appear so useful for clinicians.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/53/1/thompson7.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0309-2402</dc:source><dc:title>Research information in nurses’ clinical decision-making: what is useful?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5388-2455">McCaughan, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cullum, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sheldon, T.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mulhall, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, D.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01985.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:52
Date: 2017-05-17

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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Background. This paper's starting point is the recognition (descriptive not normative) that, for the vast majority of day-to-day clinical decision-making situations, the 'evidence' for decision-making is experiential knowledge. Moreover, reliance on this knowledge base means that nurses must use cognitive shortcuts or heuristics for handling information when making decisions. These heuristics encourage systematic biases in decision-makers and deviations from the normative rules of 'good' decision-making. Aims. The aim of the paper is to explore three common heuristics and the biases that arise when handling complex information in clinical decision-making (overconfidence, hindsight and base rate neglect) and, in response to these biases, to illustrate some simple techniques for reducing the negative influence of heuristics. Discussion. Nurses face a limited range of types of uncertainty in their clinical decisions and draw primarily on experiential knowledge to handle these uncertainties. This paper argues that experiential knowledge is a necessary but not sufficient basis for clinical decision-making. It illustrates how overconfidence in one's knowledge base, being correct 'after the event' or with the benefit of hindsight, and ignoring the base rates associated with events, conditions or health states, can impact on professional judgements and decisions. The paper illustrates some simple strategies for minimizing the impact of heuristics on the real-life clinical decisions of nurses. Conclusion. The paper concludes that more research knowledge of the impact of heuristics and techniques to combat them in nursing decisions is needed.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/52/1/thompson6.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0309-2402</dc:source><dc:title>Clinical experience as evidence in evidence-based practice</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, C</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:51
Date: 2017-08-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:51</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-29T07:38:52Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Aim. This paper discusses measurement of the quality of judgement and decision-making in nursing research. It examines theoretical and research issues surrounding how to measure judgement accuracy as a component of evaluating decision-making in nursing practice. Discussion. Judgement accuracy is discussed with reference to different methods of measurement, including comparing judgements with independent criteria and inter-judge approaches. Existing research on how judgement accuracy has been measured in nursing practice is examined. Evaluation of decisions is then discussed, including consideration of the process of decision-making and evaluating decision outcomes. Finally, existing research on decision-making in nursing is assessed and the strengths and limitations of different types of measurement discussed. Conclusion. We suggests that researchers examining the quality of judgement and decision-making in nursing need to be aware of both the strengths and limitations of existing methods of measurement. We also suggest that researchers need to use a number of different methods, including normative approaches such as Bayes' Theorem and Subjective Expected Utility Theory.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/51/1/thompson5.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0309-2402</dc:source><dc:title>Measuring the quality of judgement and decision-making in nursing</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Dowding, D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, C</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02770.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:50
Date: 2017-09-03

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:50</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-09-03T08:52:24Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Aim. To examine the barriers that nurses feel prevent them from using research in the decisions they make. Background. A sizeable research literature focusing on research utilization in nursing has developed over the past 20 years. However, this literature is characterized by a number of weaknesses: self-reported utilization behaviour; poor response rates and small, nonrandom sampling strategies. Design. Cross-case analysis involving anonymised qualitative interviews, observation, documentary audit and Q methodological modelling of shared subjectivities amongst nurses. The case sites were three large acute hospitals in the north of England. One hundred and eight nurses were interviewed, 61 of whom were also observed for a total of 180 h, and 122 nurses were involved in the Q modelling exercise (response rate of 64%). Results. Four perspectives were isolated that encompassed the characteristics associated with barriers to research use. These related to the individual, organization, nature of research information itself and environment. Nurses clustered around four main perspectives on the barriers to research use: (1) Problems in interpreting and using research products, which were seen as too complex, 'academic' and overly statistical; (2) Nurses who felt confident with research-based information perceived a lack of organizational support as a significant block; (3) Many nurses felt that researchers and research products lack clinical credibility and that they fail to offer the desired level of clinical direction; (4) Some nurses lacked the skills and, to a lesser degree, the motivation to use research themselves. These individuals liked research messages passed on to them by a third party and sought to foster others' involvement in research-based practice, rather than becoming directly involved themselves. Conclusions. Rejection of research knowledge is not a barrier to its application. Rather, the presentation and management of research knowledge in the workplace represent significant challenges for clinicians, policy-makers and the research community.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/50/1/thompson4.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0309-2402</dc:source><dc:title>Acute care nurses' perceptions of barriers to using research information in clinical decision-making</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5388-2455">McCaughan, D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, C</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cullum, N</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sheldon, T A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, D R</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:49
Date: 2017-08-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:49</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-28T06:25:24Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Background. The successful dissemination of the results of the National Health Service (NHS) research and development strategy and the development of evidence based approaches to health care rely on clinicians having access to the best available evidence; evidence fit for the purpose of reducing the uncertainties associated with clinical decisions. Aim. To reveal the accessibility of those sources of information actually used by nurses, as well as those which they say they use. Design. Mixed method case site, using interview, observational, Q sort and documentary audit data in medical, surgical and coronary care units (CCUs) in three acute hospitals. Results. Three perspectives on accessibility were identified: (a) the humanist-in which human sources of information were the most accessible; (b) local information for local needs-in which locally produced resources were seen as the most accessible and (c) moving towards technology-in which information technology begins to be seen as accessible. Nurses' experience in a clinical specialty is positively associated with a perception that human sources such clinical nurse specialists, link nurses, doctors and experienced clinical colleagues are more accessible than text based sources. Clinical specialization is associated with different approaches to accessing research knowledge. Coronary care unit nurses were more likely perceive local guidelines, protocols and on-line databases as more accessible than their counterparts in general medical and surgical wards. Only a third of text-based resources available to nurses oil the wards had any explicit research base. These, and the remainder were Out of date (mean age of textbooks 11 years), and authorship hard to ascertain. Conclusion. A strategy to increase the use of research evidence by nurses should harness the influence of clinical nurse specialists, link nurses and those engaged in practice development. These roles Could act as 'conduits' through which research-based messages for practice, and information for clinical decision making, could flow. This role should be explored and enhanced.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/49/1/thompson3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0309-2402</dc:source><dc:title>The accessibility of research-based knowledge for nurses in United Kingdom acute care settings</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, C</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5388-2455">McCaughan, D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cullum, N</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sheldon, T A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mulhall, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, D R</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:48
Date: 2017-09-21

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:48</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-09-21T01:16:50Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/48/1/thompson2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0309-2402</dc:source><dc:title>Clinical decision making in nursing: theoretical perspectives and their relevance to practice – a response to Jean Harbison</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:46
Date: 2017-08-06

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:46</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-06T00:16:57Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This paper explores the two predominant theoretical approaches to the process of nurse decision making prevalent within the nursing research literature: systematic-positivistic approaches as exemplifed by information processing theory, and the intuitive-humanistic approach of Patricia Benner. The two approaches' strengths and weaknesses are explored and as a result a third theoretical stance is proffered: the idea of a cognitive continuum. According to this approach the systematic and intuitive theoretical camps occupy polar positions at either end of a continuum as opposed to separate theoretical planes. The methodological and professional benefits of adopting such a stance are also briefly outlined.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/46/1/thompson1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0309-2402</dc:source><dc:title>A conceptual treadmill: the need for ‘middle ground’ in clinical decision making theory in nursing</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:45
Date: 2017-06-30

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:45</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-06-30T19:26:29Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVE: To identify and synthesise the evidence for efficacy and cost effectiveness of topical treatments for superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails of the feet. DESIGN: Systematic review. INTERVENTIONS: Topical treatments for superficial fungal infections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cure confirmed by culture and microscopy for skin and by culture for nails in patients with clinically diagnosed fungal infections. RESULTS: Of 126 trials identified in 121 papers, 72 (57.1%) met the inclusion criteria. Placebo controlled trials yielded pooled relative risks of failure to cure skin infections: allylamines (0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.38); azoles (0.54, 0.42 to 0.68); undecenoic acid (0.28, 0.11 to 0.74); and tolnaftate (0.46, 0.17 to 1.22). Although meta-analysis of 11 trials comparing allylamines and azoles showed a relative risk of failure to cure of 0.88 (0.78 to 0.99) in favour of allylamines, there was evidence of language bias. Seven reports in English favoured allylamines (0.79, 0.69 to 0.91), but four reports in foreign languages showed no difference between the two drugs (1.01, 0.90 to 1.13). Neither trial of nail infections showed significant differences between alternative topical treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Allylamines, azoles, and undecenoic acid were efficacious in placebo controlled trials. There are sufficient comparative trials to judge relative efficacy only between allylamines and azoles. Allylamines cure slightly more infections than azoles but are much more expensive than azoles. The most cost effective strategy is first to treat with azoles or undecenoic acid and to use allylamines only if that fails.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/45/1/79.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Systematic review of topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the feet</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hart, Rachel</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Crawford, Fay</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-4275">Torgerson, David J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Young, Philip</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Russell, Ian</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bell-Syer, Sally E.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999-07-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7202.79</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:44
Date: 2017-08-07

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of an exercise programme in a community setting for patients with low back pain to encourage a return to normal activities. Design: Randomised controlled trial of progressive exercise programme compared with usual primary care management. Patients' preferences for type of management were elicited independently of randomisation. Participants: 187 patients aged 18-60 years with mechanical low back pain of 4 weeks to 6 months' duration. Interventions: Exercise classes led by a physiotherapist that included strengthening exercises for all main muscle groups, stretching exercises, relaxation session, and brief education on back care. A cognitive-behavioural approach was used. Main outcome measures: Assessments of debilitating effects of back pain before and after intervention and at 6 months and 1 year later. Measures included Roland disability questionnaire, Aberdeen back pain scale, pain diaries, and use of healthcare services. Results: At 6 weeks after randomisation, the intervention group improved marginally more than the control group on the disability questionnaire and reported less distressing pain. At 6 months and 1 year, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in the disability questionnaire score (mean difference in changes 1.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13 to 2.57). At 1 year, the intervention group also showed significantly greater improvement in the Aberdeen back pain scale (4.44, 1.01 to 7.87) and reported only 378 days off work compared with 607 in the control group. The intervention group used fewer healthcare resources. Outcome was not influenced by patients' preferences. Conclusions: The exercise class was more clinically effective than traditional general practitioner management, regardless of patient preference, and was cost effective.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/44/1/279.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>Randomised controlled trial of exercise for low back pain : clinical outcomes, costs and preferences</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Klaber Moffett, Jennifer</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-4275">Torgerson, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bell-Syer, Sally</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jackson, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Llewlyn-Phillips, Hugh</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Farrin, Amanda</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barber, Julie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999-07-31</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7205.279</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:43
Date: 2017-09-03

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/43/1/355.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-8138</dc:source><dc:title>Contamination in trials: is cluster randomisation the answer?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-4275">Torgerson, D J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-02-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7282.355</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:42
Date: 2017-08-30

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:42</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-30T03:56:49Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/42/1/1083.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Effect of regression to the mean on decision making in health care</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3783-2030">Morton, V</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-4275">Torgerson, D J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-05-17</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7398.1083</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:41
Date: 2017-08-27

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:41</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-27T22:36:52Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D596F726B:596F726B2E46414332:596F726B2E594F523131</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Objective To examine the prevalence of a risk of bias associated with the design and conduct of cluster randomised controlled trials among a sample of recently published studies. Design Retrospective review of cluster randomised trials published in the BMJ, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine from January 1997 to October 2002. Main outcome measures Prevalence of secure randomisation of clusters, identification of participants before randomisation (to avoid foreknowledge of allocation), differential recruitment between treatment arms, differential application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, and differential attrition. Results Of the 36 trials identified, 24 were published in the BMJ, I I in the Lancet, and a single trial in the New England journal of Medicine. At the cluster level, 15 (42%) trials provided evidence for secure allocation and 25 (69%) used stratified allocation. Few trials showed evidence of imbalance at the cluster level. However, some evidence of susceptibility to risk of bias at the individual level existed in 14 (39%) studies. Conclusions Some recently published cluster randomised trials may not have taken adequate precautions to guard against threats to the internal validity of their design.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/41/1/785.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0959-535X</dc:source><dc:title>Evidence for risk of bias in cluster randomised trials: review of recent trials published in three general medical journals</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Puffer, S</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-4275">Torgerson, D J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0694-3854">Watson, J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-10-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7418.785</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:40
Date: 2017-08-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:40</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-28T18:48:54Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of different methods of detecting a high death rate and determining whether an increase in deaths after heart transplantation could be explained by chance. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of deaths after heart transplantation. Seven methods were used: mortality above national average, mortality excessively above national average, test of moving average mortality, test of number of consecutive deaths, sequential probability ratio test (SPRT), cusum graph with v-mask, and CRAM chart. The national average mortality was not available and a rate of 15% was used instead as the benchmark. SETTING: Regional cardiothoracic unit. PARTICIPANTS: All 371 patients who received a heart transplant in the programme, 1986-2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 30 day survival after transplantation. RESULTS: All methods provided evidence that the 30 day mortality had been high at some stage. The probability that the finding was a false positive depended on which test was used. At the end of the series the average mortality, sequential probability ratio, and cusum tests indicated a level of deaths higher than the benchmark while the remaining four tests yielded negative results. CONCLUSIONS:If the decision to test for outlying mortality is made retrospectively, in the light of the data, it is not possible to determine the false positive rate. Prospective on-site mortality monitoring with the CRAM chart is recommended as this method can quantify the death rate and identify periods when an audit of cases is indicated, even when data from other institutions are not available. A hospital mortality monitoring group can routinely monitor all deaths in the hospital, by specialty, using hospital episode statistics (HES) data and appropriate statistical methods.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/40/1/375.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1756-1833</dc:source><dc:title>Retrospective cohort study of false alarm rates associated with a series of heart operations: the case for hospital mortality monitoring groups</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Poloniecki, Jan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sismanidis, Charalambos</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9525-5334">Bland, Martin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jones, Paul</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-01-29</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.37956.520567.44</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:39
Date: 2016-10-27

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:39</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-27T02:23:16Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND:&#13;
&#13;
Real-time PCR is increasingly being adopted for RNA quantification and genetic analysis. At present the most popular real-time PCR assay is based on the hybridisation of a dual-labelled probe to the PCR product, and the development of a signal by loss of fluorescence quenching as PCR degrades the probe. Though this so-called 'TaqMan' approach has proved easy to optimise in practice, the dual-labelled probes are relatively expensive.&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS:&#13;
&#13;
We have designed a new assay based on SYBR-Green I binding that is quick, reliable, easily optimised and compares well with the published assay. Here we demonstrate its general applicability by measuring copy number in three different genetic contexts; the quantification of a gene rearrangement (T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells); the detection and quantification of GLI, MYC-C and MYC-N gene amplification in cell lines and cancer biopsies; and detection of deletions in the OPA1 gene in dominant optic atrophy.&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSION:&#13;
&#13;
Our assay has important clinical applications, providing accurate diagnostic results in less time, from less biopsy material and at less cost than assays currently employed such as FISH or Southern blotting.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/39/1/1472-6750-3-18.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1472-6750</dc:source><dc:title>Real-time PCR based on SYBR-Green I fluorescence: An alternative to the TaqMan assay for a relative quantification of gene rearrangements, gene amplifications and micro gene deletions</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Ponchel, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Toomes, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bransfield, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Leong, F.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Douglas, S.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Field, S.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bell, S.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Combaret, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Puisieux, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mighell, A.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Robinson, P.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Inglehearn, C.F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Isaacs, J.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Markham, A.F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-10-13</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6750-3-18</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:37
Date: 2017-07-18

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:37</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-18T02:53:24Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND: What people believe about their illness may affect how they cope with it. It has been suggested that such beliefs stem from those commonly held within society . This study compared the beliefs held by people with angina, regarding causation and coping in angina, with the beliefs of their friends who do not suffer from angina. METHODS: Postal survey using the York Angina Beliefs Questionnaire (version 1), which elicits stress attributions and misconceived beliefs about causation and coping. This was administered to 164 people with angina and their non-cohabiting friends matched for age and sex. 132 people with angina and 94 friends completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: Peers are more likely than people with angina to believe that angina is caused by a worn out heart (p &lt;0.01), angina is a small heart attack (p = 0.02), and that it causes permanent damage to the heart (p &lt;0.001). Peers were also more likely to believe that people with angina should take life easy (p &lt;0.01) and avoid exercise (p = 0.04) and excitement (p &lt;0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The beliefs of the peer group about causation and coping in angina run counter to professional advice. Over time this may contribute to a reduction in patient concordance with risk factor reduction, and may help to create cardiac invalids.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/37/1/1471-2261-2-4.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2261</dc:source><dc:title>A comparison of the illness beliefs of people with angina and their peers: a questionnaire study</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9669-2413">Bull, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lewin, R.J.P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Furze, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roebuck, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thompson, D.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-02-20</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-2-4</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:36
Date: 2016-10-24

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      <datestamp>2016-10-24T18:32:04Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND: &#13;
&#13;
Differential methylation of the two alleles is a hallmark of imprinted genes. Correspondingly, loss of DNA methyltransferase function results in aberrant imprinting and abnormal post-fertilization development. In the mouse, mutations of the oocyte-specific isoform of the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 (Dnmt1o) and of the methyltransferase-like Dnmt3L gene result in specific failures of imprint establishment or maintenance, at multiple loci. We have previously shown in humans that an analogous inherited failure to establish imprinting at multiple loci in the female germline underlies a rare phenotype of recurrent hydatidiform mole.&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS: &#13;
&#13;
We have identified a human homologue of the murine Dnmt1o and assessed its pattern of expression. Human DNMT1o mRNA is detectable in mature oocytes and early fertilized embryos but not in any somatic tissues analysed. The somatic isoform of DNMT1 mRNA, in contrast, is not detectable in human oocytes. In the previously-described family with multi-locus imprinting failure, mutation of DNMT1o and of the other known members of this gene family has been excluded.&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSIONS: &#13;
&#13;
Mutation of the known DNMT genes does not underlie familial hydatidiform mole, at least in the family under study. This suggests that trans-acting factors other than the known methyltransferases are required for imprint establishment in humans, a concept that has indirect support from recent biochemical studies of DNMT3L.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/36/1/1471-2156-4-2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2156</dc:source><dc:title>Lack of involvement of known DNA methyltransferases in familial hydatidiform mole implies the involvement of other factors in establishment of imprinting in the human female germline&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hayward, B. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>De Vos, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Judson, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodge, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Huntriss, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Picton,  H.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sheridan, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bonthron, D.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-01-20</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-4-2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:32
Date: 2017-08-28

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:32</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-28T19:53:00Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often seen as the treatment of choice for preventing fractures in women. We undertook a recent meta-analysis of randomised trials which suggested that HRT reduced non-vertebral fractures by 30%. In this analysis we extend that analysis to vertebral fractures. METHODS: We searched the main electronic databases until the end of August 2001. We sought all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of HRT where women had been randomised to at least 12 months of HRT or to no HRT. RESULTS: We found 13 RCTs. Overall there was a 33% reduction in vertebral factures (95% confidence interval (CI) 45% to 98%). CONCLUSIONS: This review and meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in vertebral fractures associated with HRT use.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/32/1/1471-2474-2-7.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2474</dc:source><dc:title>Hormone replacement therapy and prevention of vertebral fractures: a meta-analysis of randomised trials</dc:title><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-4275">Torgerson, David J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bell-Syer, Sally E.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-11-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-2-7</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:31
Date: 2017-09-20

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:31</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-09-20T02:31:50Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Background: Economic evaluations alongside clinical trials are becoming increasingly common. Cost data are often collected through the use of postal questionnaires; however, the accuracy of this method is uncertain. We compared postal questionnaires with hospital records for collecting data on physiotherapy service use. Methods: As part of a randomised trial of orthopaedic medicine compared with orthopaedic surgery we collected physiotherapy use data on a group of patients from retrospective postal questionnaires and from hospital records. Results: 315 patients were referred for physiotherapy. Hospital data on attendances was available for 30% ( n = 96), compared with 48% ( n = 150) of patients completing questionnaire data (95% Cl for difference = 10% to 24%); 19% ( n = 59) had data available from both sources. The two methods produced an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.54 (95% Cl 0.31 to 0.70). However, the two methods produced significantly different estimates of resource use with patient self report recalling a mean of 1.3 extra visits (95% Cl 0.4 to 2.2) compared with hospital records. Conclusions: Using questionnaires in this study produced data on a greater number of patients compared with examination of hospital records. However, the two data sources did differ in the quantity of physiotherapy used and this should be taken into account in any analysis.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/31/1/1472-6963-2-2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1472-6963</dc:source><dc:title>Resource use data by patient report or hospital records: Do they agree?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kennedy, Andrew D.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Leigh-Brown, Anne P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-4275">Torgerson, David J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Campbell, James</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Grant, Adrian</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-01-17</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-2-2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:30
Date: 2017-07-18

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:30</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-18T18:59:46Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND: The specific associations between plant roots and the soil microbial community are key to understanding nutrient cycling in grasslands, but grass roots can be difficult to identify using morphology alone. A molecular technique to identify plant species from root DNA would greatly facilitate investigations of the root rhizosphere. RESULTS: We show that trnL PCR product length heterogeneity and a maximum of two restriction digests can separate 14 common grassland species. The RFLP key was used to identify root fragments at least to genus level in a field study of upland grassland community diversity. Roots which could not be matched to known types were putatively identified by comparison of the nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence to the GenBank database. Ten taxa were identified among almost 600 root fragments. Additionally, we have employed capillary electrophoresis of fluorescent trnL PCR products (fluorescent fragment length polymorphism, FFLP) to discriminate all taxa identified at the field site. CONCLUSION: We have developed a molecular database for the identification of some common grassland species based on PCR-RFLP of the plastid transfer RNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron. This technique will allow fine-scale studies of the rhizosphere, where root identification by morphology is unrealistic and high throughput is desirable.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/30/1/1472-6785-3-8.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1472-6785</dc:source><dc:title>Identification of roots from grass swards using PCR-RFLP and FFLP of the plastid trnL (UAA) intron</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Ridgway, Karyn P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Duck, Janette M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author id="http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5259-4830">Young, J. Peter W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-10-16</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6785-3-8</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:29
Date: 2016-10-25

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:29</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-25T05:04:06Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>As we move further into the first decade of a new century, it seems a good point to reflect on where the e-journal has come from, the position it is at now, and where it might be going in the immediate and long-term future. My concern within this article is to look backwards and forwards and consider this revolution in serials publishing, and the impact it has had on different user groups from the traditional academic audience to the general internet-savvy population.&#13;
&#13;
This article will therefore be structured in the following way: first, I will be looking at the birth of the e-journal, and the development of technologies through the last twenty years which influenced it; then move on to consider popular models of electronic serial publishing; to consider whether ‘born digital’ content is really in the long-term an advantage; to discuss the impact of new publishing models; and finally to look at where the e-journal fits as a source for support, and an outlet, for scholarly research. In conclusion I will present some thoughts on future development for this form of information sharing.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/29/1/backtobasics.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Haworth Press</dc:publisher><dc:source>0361-526X</dc:source><dc:title>Back to basics: what is the e-journal?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cole, Louise</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1300/J123v47n01_05</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:27
Date: 2017-10-01

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:27</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-10-01T00:16:22Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND: In the era of evidence based medicine, with systematic reviews as its cornerstone, adequate quality assessment tools should be available. There is currently a lack of a systematically developed and evaluated tool for the assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. The aim of this project was to combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method to develop a tool to be used in systematic reviews to assess the quality of primary studies of diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: We conducted a Delphi procedure to develop the quality assessment tool by refining an initial list of items. Members of the Delphi panel were experts in the area of diagnostic research. The results of three previously conducted reviews of the diagnostic literature were used to generate a list of potential items for inclusion in the tool and to provide an evidence base upon which to develop the tool. RESULTS: A total of nine experts in the field of diagnostics took part in the Delphi procedure. The Delphi procedure consisted of four rounds, after which agreement was reached on the items to be included in the tool which we have called QUADAS. The initial list of 28 items was reduced to fourteen items in the final tool. Items included covered patient spectrum, reference standard, disease progression bias, verification bias, review bias, clinical review bias, incorporation bias, test execution, study withdrawals, and indeterminate results. The QUADAS tool is presented together with guidelines for scoring each of the items included in the tool. CONCLUSIONS: This project has produced an evidence based quality assessment tool to be used in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies. Further work to determine the usability and validity of the tool continues</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/27/1/1471-2288-3-25.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2288</dc:source><dc:title>The development of QUADAS : a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Whiting, P</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rutjes, A W S</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Reitsma, J B</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bossuyt, P M M</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kleijnen, J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-11-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-3-25</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:26
Date: 2017-08-23

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:26</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-08-23T05:45:11Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>BACKGROUND: This paper demonstrates how structural equation modelling (SEM) can be used as a tool to aid in carrying out power analyses. For many complex multivariate designs that are increasingly being employed, power analyses can be difficult to carry out, because the software available lacks sufficient flexibility. Satorra and Saris developed a method for estimating the power of the likelihood ratio test for structural equation models. Whilst the Satorra and Saris approach is familiar to researchers who use the structural equation modelling approach, it is less well known amongst other researchers. The SEM approach can be equivalent to other multivariate statistical tests, and therefore the Satorra and Saris approach to power analysis can be used. METHODS: The covariance matrix, along with a vector of means, relating to the alternative hypothesis is generated. This represents the hypothesised population effects. A model (representing the null hypothesis) is then tested in a structural equation model, using the population parameters as input. An analysis based on the chi-square of this model can provide estimates of the sample size required for different levels of power to reject the null hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The SEM based power analysis approach may prove useful for researchers designing research in the health and medical spheres.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/26/1/1471-2288-3-27.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-2288</dc:source><dc:title>A framework for power analysis using a structural equation modelling procedure</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Miles, Jeremy</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-12-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-3-27</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:7
Date: 2016-10-27

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:7</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-27T17:21:35Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Agitated or violent patients constitute 10% of all emergency psychiatric treatment. Management guidelines, the preferred treatment of clinicians and clinical practice all differ. Systematic reviews show that all relevant studies are small and none are likely to have adequate power to show true differences between treatments. Worldwide, current treatment is not based on evidence from randomised trials. In Brazil, the combination haloperidol-promethazine is frequently used, but no studies involving this mix exist.&#13;
&#13;
TREC-Rio (Tranquilização Rápida-Ensaio Clínico [Translation: Rapid Tranquillisation-Clinical Trial]) will compare midazolam with haloperidol-promethazine mix for treatment of agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. TREC-Rio is a randomised, controlled, pragmatic and open study. Primary measure of outcome is tranquillisation at 20 minutes but effects on other measures of morbidity will also be assessed.&#13;
&#13;
TREC-Rio will involve the collaboration of as many health care professionals based in four psychiatric emergency rooms of Rio as possible. Because the design of this trial does not substantially complicate clinical management, and in several aspects simplifies it, the study can be large, and treatments used in everyday practice can be evaluated.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/7/1/1471-244X-2-11.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-244X</dc:source><dc:subject>RC0321</dc:subject><dc:title>TREC-Rio trial: a randomised controlled trial for rapid tranquillisation for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms [ISRCTN44153243]&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Huf, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coutinho, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Adams, C.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-10-16</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:6
Date: 2016-10-26

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:6</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-26T03:17:56Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D4D454453:4C656564732E53522D4C494853:4C656564732E44492D50535259</setSpec>
      <setSpec>696E737469747574696F6E3D4C65656473</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials.&#13;
&#13;
Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies.&#13;
&#13;
GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76). Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world.&#13;
&#13;
This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/6/1/1471-244X-3-18.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-244X</dc:source><dc:subject>RC0321</dc:subject><dc:title>Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Moll, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gessler, U.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bartsch, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>El-Sayeh, H.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fenton, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Adams, C.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-12-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:5
Date: 2016-10-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.whiterose.ac.uk:5</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-10-28T17:09:02Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec>
      <setSpec>756E69743D4C65656473:4C656564732E46412D4D444845:4C656564732E52432D4D454453:4C656564732E53522D4C494853:4C656564732E44492D50535259</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The medical management of aggressive and violent behaviour is a critical situation for which there is little evidence. In order to prepare for a randomised trial, due to start in the psychiatric emergency rooms of Rio de Janeiro in 2001, a survey of current practice was necessary.&#13;
&#13;
A seven day survey of pharmacological management of aggressive people with psychosis in the emergency rooms of all four public psychiatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.&#13;
&#13;
In one hospital data were not available. Of the 764 people with psychosis attending these ERs, 74 were given IM medication for rapid tranquillisation (9.7%, 2.1/week/100,000). A haloperidol-promethazine mix (with or without other drugs) was used for the majority of patients (83%).&#13;
&#13;
The haloperidol-promethazine mix, given intramuscularly for rapid tranquilization, is prevalent in Rio, where it is considered both safe and efficient. However, scientific evaluation of all pharmacological approaches to rapid tranquilization of psychotic people is inadequate or incomplete and a randomized trial of IM haloperidol-promethazine is overdue.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/5/1/1471-244X-2-4.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1471-244X</dc:source><dc:subject>RC0321</dc:subject><dc:title>Current practices in managing acutely disturbed patients at three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil: a prevalence study&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Adams, C.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Huf, G</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coutinho, E</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fagundes, H.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oliveira, E.S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lopez, J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gewandszajder, M</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Carvalho, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Keusen, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-01-22</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>

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