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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:210
Date: 2015-10-27

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:210</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-10-27T10:48:02Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-03-03">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background&#13;
&#13;
A high proportion of children with persistent diarrhoea in middle and low income countries die. The best treatment is not clear. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial drug treatment for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause.&#13;
&#13;
Methods&#13;
&#13;
We included randomized comparisons of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under the age of six years in low and middle income countries. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, WEB OF SCIENCE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to May 2008 for relevant randomized or quasi randomized controlled trials. We summarised the characteristics of the eligible trials, assessed their quality using standard criteria, and extracted relevant outcomes data. Where appropriate, we combined the results of different trials.&#13;
&#13;
Results&#13;
&#13;
Three trials from South East Asia and one from Guatemala were included, all were small, and three had adequate allocation concealment. Two were in patients with diarrhoea of unknown cause, and two were in patients in whom known bacterial or parasitological causes of diarrhoea had been excluded. No difference was demonstrated for oral gentamicin compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 6 or 7 days; 2 trials, n = 151); and for metronidazole compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 3, 5 and 7 days; 1 trial, n = 99). In one small trial, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim appeared better than placebo in relation to diarrhoea at seven days and total stool volume (n = 55).&#13;
&#13;
Conclusion&#13;
&#13;
There is little evidence as to whether or not antimicrobials help treat persistent diarrhoea in young children in low and middle income countries.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/210/1/Abba_Antimicrobial_drug_for_persistent_diarrhoea....pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BioMed Central</dc:publisher><dc:source>BMC Infectious Diseases</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_312</dc:subject><dc:subject>wi_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_430</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_410</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_143</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>wi_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_420</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_421</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_440</dc:subject><dc:title>Antimicrobial drugs for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under six in low and middle income countries: systematic review of randomized controlled trials</dc:title><dcterms:dateAccepted>2009-03-03</dcterms:dateAccepted><rioxxterms:author>Abba, Katharine</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sinfield, Rebecca</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hart, C. Anthony</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Garner, Paul</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-9-24</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:211
Date: 2015-10-27

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:211</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-10-27T10:44:33Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-06-10">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background: Persistent diarrhoea in children is a common problem in low and middle income countries. To help target appropriate treatment for specific pathogens in the absence of diagnostic tests, we systematically reviewed pathogens most commonly associated with persistent diarrhoea in children. Methods: We sought all descriptive studies of pathogens in the stool of children with diarrhoea of over 14 days duration in low and middle income countries with a comprehensive search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases. We described the study designs and populations, assessed the quality of the laboratory tests, and extracted and summarised data on pathogens. For Escherichia coli, we calculated high and low prevalence estimates of all enteropathic types combined. Results across studies were compared for geographical patterns. Results: Nineteen studies were included. Some used episodes of diarrhoea as the unit of analysis, others used children. The quality of reporting of laboratory procedures varied, and pathogens (particularly E. coli types) were classified in different ways. As there were no apparent regional differences in pathogen prevalence, we aggregated data between studies to give a guide to overall prevalence. Enteropathic E. coli types were commonly found in children with persistent diarrhoea (up to 63%). Various other organisms, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, were detected but across all studies their prevalence was under 10%. However, these pathogens were also found in similar frequencies in children without diarrhoea. Conclusion: A number of pathogens are commonly associated with persistent diarrhoea in children, but in children without diarrhoea the pathogens are found with similar frequencies. New research with carefully selected controls and standardised laboratory investigations across countries will help map causes and help explore effective options for presumptive treatment.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/211/1/Abba_Pathogens_associated_with_persistent_diarrhoea....pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BioMed Central</dc:publisher><dc:source>BMC Infectious Diseases</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_312</dc:subject><dc:subject>wi_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>qz_140</dc:subject><dc:subject>wi_140</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>qz_40</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wi_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_310</dc:subject><dc:title>Pathogens associated with persistent diarrhoea in children in low and middle income countries: systematic review</dc:title><dcterms:dateAccepted>2009-06-10</dcterms:dateAccepted><rioxxterms:author>Abba, Katharine</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sinfield, Rebecca</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hart, C. Anthony</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Garner, Paul</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-9-88</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:212
Date: 2015-06-08

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
PropertyError
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:212</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-06-08T13:36:28Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>To reduce the horrific maternal mortality figures that we have globally especially in resource poor countries, there was a global commitment to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters by 2015 using 1990 as a baseline. To measure the achievement of this goal, two indicators: maternal mortality ratio and proportion of births attended by skilled attendance were selected. To ensure skilled attendance at birth for all women, the international community set a target of 80% by 2005, 85% by 2010 and 90% coverage by 2015. However, in 2008 only 65.7% of all women were attended to by a skilled attendant during pregnancy, childbirth and immediately postpartum globally with some countries having less than 20% coverage. With the global human resource crisis, achieving this target is challenging but possible. This paper provides a narrative review of the literature on the skilled birth attendance strategy identifying key challenges and lessons learnt.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley</dc:publisher><dc:source>BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics &amp; Gynaecology</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_310</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_300</dc:subject><dc:title>Skilled birth attendance-lessons learnt</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Adegoke, Adetoro</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Den Broek, Nynke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02336.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:213
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
PropertyError
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:213</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:47Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Every minute of every day a woman in the developing world dies of an avoidable cause of death. For every woman dying there are at least another 20 women who are left with severe morbidity. These deaths can be prevented. The interventions required are clear, inexpensive and effective. Yet they are not universally available or accessible. The call for action has been made, yet the speed of progress is slow.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_175</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_240</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wp_140</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>qz_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wp_141</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_155</dc:subject><dc:subject>wp_400</dc:subject><dc:subject>wp_570</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_152</dc:subject><dc:subject>wp_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_330</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:title>Priorities in obstetrics and gynaecology in the developing world</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Agrawal, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Den Broek, Nynke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogrm.2009.03.006</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:214
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:214</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:23:56Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-04-09">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background and Aim&#13;
&#13;
The diagnosis of pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult and often requires hospitalization. We explored whether the yield of specimens collected for smear microscopy from different anatomical sites in one visit is comparable to the yield of specimens collected from a single anatomical site over several days.&#13;
&#13;
Methodology and Principal Findings&#13;
&#13;
Children with signs/symptoms of pulmonary TB attending a reference hospital in Sana'a Yemen underwent one nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) the first day of consultation and three gastric aspirates (GA) plus three expectorated/induced sputa over 3 consecutive days. Specimens were examined using smear microscopy (Ziehl-Neelsen) and cultured in solid media (Ogawa). Two hundred and thirteen children (aged 2 months-15 years) were enrolled. One hundred and ninety seven (93%) underwent nasopharyngeal aspirates, 196 (92%) GA, 122 (57%) expectorated sputum and 88 induced sputum. A total 1309 specimens were collected requiring 237 hospitalization days. In total, 29 (13.6%) children were confirmed by culture and 18 (8.5%) by smear microscopy. The NPA identified 10 of the 18 smear-positives; three consecutive GA identified 10 and induced/expectorated sputa identified 13 (6 by induced, 8 by expectorated sputum and one positive by both). In comparison, 22 (3.7%) of 602 specimens obtained the first day were smear-positive and identified 14 (6.6%) smear-positive children. &#13;
&#13;
Conclusion/Significance&#13;
&#13;
The examination of multiple tests the first day of consultation identified a similar proportion of smear-positive children than specimens collected over several days; would require half the number of tests and significantly less hospitalization. Optimized smear microscopy approaches for children should be explored further.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/214/1/Plos_ONE_4_4_e5140.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Public Library of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>PLoS ONE</dc:source><dc:subject>wf_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_450</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_120</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_220</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_205_1</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_430</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_415</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_205</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_440</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_460</dc:subject><dc:title>Multiple sampling in one day to optimize smear microscopy in children with tuberculosis in Yemen</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Al-Aghbari, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Al-Sonboli, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Yassin, Mohammed A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coulter, John B.S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Atef, Z.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Al-Eryani, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cuevas, Luis</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-04-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005140</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:215
Date: 2015-09-08

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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:216
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:216</identifier>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The identification of early markers that predict the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment would facilitate evaluation of new drugs and improve patient management. This study aimed to determine whether selected acute phase proteins and micronutrients measured at the time of diagnosis and during the first weeks of treatment could predict treatment responses during the 2-month standard intensive phase of therapy. For this purpose, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-acid gtycoprotein, alpha 2-macroglobutin, C-reactive protein, C3, C4, zinc, copper and selenium concentrations were measured in Brazilian patients with smear-positive tuberculosis at the time of diagnosis and 1, 3, 5 and 8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Patients were classified into fast (n = 29), intermediate (n = 18) and slow responders (n = 10) if they were smear-negative at 3, 5 or 8 weeks of treatment. alpha 1-acid gtycoprotein on enrolment and 1 week of treatment, alpha 1-antitrypsin at week 1 and C-reactive protein and C3 after 3 weeks of therapy were higher in slow responders than in fast responders. alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein may be helpful in predicting treatment response at the time of initiation of therapy, and could be used as early markers to identify patients with an increased likelihood of treatment failure. (C) 2008 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_205</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_310</dc:subject><dc:title>alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 1-antitrypsin as early markers of treatment response in patients receiving the intensive phase of tuberculosis therapy</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Almeida, M. L. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barbieri, M. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gurgel, R. Q.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Abdurrahman, S. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baba, U. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hart, C. Anthony</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Shenkin, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Silva, A. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>de Souza, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cuevas, Luis</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.11.024</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:218
Date: 2015-08-20

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:218</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:45Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This study is designed to investigate the impact of DNA damage on pregnancy and fertilization rate outcome in a sub-sample of women undergoing IVF treatment. Blood and follicular fluid samples (n = 60) were analyzed for DNA adducts. While no BPDE-DNA adducts were detected, other unknown lipophilic adducts were seen in blood and follicular fluid. Women who failed to achieve pregnancy had higher DNA adducts in follicular fluid than those who succeeded (p &lt; 0.05). Follicular fluid cotinine levels were associated with DNA adduct levels in blood and follicular fluid (p &lt; 0.05). Evaluation of DNA damage resulting from oxidative stress could have a role in predicting IVF success rate. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.</dc:description><dc:format>application/msword</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/218/1/BECT_IVF_and_adduct.doc</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer New York</dc:publisher><dc:source>Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology</dc:source><dc:subject>qu_450</dc:subject><dc:subject>wp_565</dc:subject><dc:subject>wp_570</dc:subject><dc:title>Levels of DNA Adducts in the Blood and Follicular Fluid of Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment and Its Correlation with the Pregnancy Outcome</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Al-Saleh, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>El-Doush, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Arif, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coskun, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jaroudi, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Al-Shahrani, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mohamed, Gamal</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2010-10-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>AO</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9889-z</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:219
Date: 2015-05-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:219</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:47Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Tropical Pediatrics</dc:source><dc:subject>ws_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>wh_100</dc:subject><dc:title>Severity of Sickle Cell Disease in Yemeni Children</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Al-Saqladi, A. W. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Delpisheh, Ali</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bin-Gadeem, H. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmn109</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:220
Date: 2015-05-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:220</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:47Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause significant childhood mortality. Nutritional homeostasis, particularly micronutrient levels, is important in modulating response to infection. More information is required regarding micronutrient levels in ARI viral infections, especially newly identified viruses such as human metapneumovirus (HMPV).&#13;
Aim: To describe zinc, copper, selenium and vitamins A and E concentrations in children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and/or HMPV in relation to levels of C-reactive protein (CRP).&#13;
Methods: The presence of RSV/HMPV in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) was identified in 246 children using RTPCR. Zinc, copper, selenium and vitamins A and E concentrations were measured using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography.&#13;
Results: 183 children had RSV, 39 had HMPV and 24 were co-infected. Zinc concentrations were lower in children with HMPV than in children with RSV or RSV/HMPV co-infection. Copper concentrations were lower in children with RSV than in children with RSV/ HMPV or HMPV and zinc/copper ratios were lower in children with HMPV/RSV or RSV than in children with HMPV alone. Retinol and alpha-tocopherol were lower in children with RSV than in children with HMPV. Most children had low selenium concentrations. Children with RSV and raised CRP (&gt;5 mg/L) had higher copper and lower zinc/copper ratios than those with low CRP (&lt;= 5 mg/L). Children with HMPV and raised CRP had higher copper and lower zinc concentrations than children with low CRP. Children with RSV/ HMPV and raised CRP had higher copper concentrations. Children with RSV/ HMPV and raised CRP had higher alpha-tocopherol concentrations.&#13;
Conclusion: The profiles of micronutrients differ in children with RSV and HMPV and are confounded by CRP. These results may guide strategies for micronutrient supplementation in ARI.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Annals of Tropical Paediatrics</dc:source><dc:subject>wd_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_140</dc:subject><dc:title>Micronutrient concentrations in respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in Yemeni children</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Al-Sonboli, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Al-Aghbari, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Al-Aryani, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Atef, Z.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Shenkin, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roberts, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Harper, Gregory</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hart, C. Anthony</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cuevas, Luis</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532809X402015</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:222
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:222</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:47Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A novel series of semi-synthetic trioxaquines and synthetic trioxolaquines were prepared, in moderate to good yields. Antimalarial activity was evaluated against both the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 and resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum and both series of compounds were shown to be active in the low nanomolar range. For comparison the corresponding 9-amino acridine analogues were also prepared and shown to have low nanomolar activity like their quinoline counterparts. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>Bioorganic &amp; Medicinal Chemistry Letters</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_256</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_254</dc:subject><dc:title>Semi-synthetic and synthetic 1,2,4-trioxaquines and 1,2,4-trioxolaquines: synthesis, preliminary SAR and comparison with acridine endoperoxide conjugates</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Araujo, N. C. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barton, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jones, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stocks, Paul A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ward, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Davies, Jill</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bray, Patrick</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Shone, Alison</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cristiano, M. L. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>O'Neill, P. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-04-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.02.013</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:223
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:223</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:48Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Triatoma brasiliensis is an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil. The feeding efficiency on its hosts depends on several parameters including the maintenance of the ingested blood at low viscosity, which could be modulated by the anterior midgut (crop) anticoagulant and haemagglutinant activities. In the present study, we characterized T. brasiliensis crop haemagglutination activity and evaluated its importance in the feeding process. Soluble crop contents (SCC) of T. brasiliensis were able to agglutinate rat, mouse and rabbit eryhtrocytes, but had no activity on cattle and Thrichomys apereoides, a rodent species commonly associated with T. brasiliensis in the wild. The haemagglutination was characterized by the immediate formation of several clusters of erythrocytes connected by flexible elastic-like fibers. The feeding efficiency of T. brasiliensis on rat (agglutinated by SCC) was almost double that from T. apereoides (not agglutinated by SCC). The influence of haemagglutination on feeding was confirmed by artificially feeding bugs on a diet composed of cattle or rat erythrocytes. The bugs fed on cattle erythrocytes had lower ingestion rates in comparison to those fed on rats. The results indicate that, in addition to other parameters, haemagglutination brought about by SCC has an important role in the feeding efficiency of T. brasiliensis. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Insect Physiology</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_70</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_503</dc:subject><dc:subject>wh_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wh_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_450</dc:subject><dc:title>Effect of intestinal erythrocyte agglutination on the feeding performance of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Araujo, R. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pereira, M. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Soares, A. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pereira, Idca</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Diotaiuti, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gontijo, N. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lehane, Mike</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guarneri, A. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2009.06.002</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:224
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:224</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:48Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>To assist haematophagy, Rhodnius prolixus produces several bioactive molecules in its saliva which it injects into the host skin. The most abundant of these molecules are the nitrophorins (NPs). In this work, we reduced the expression of NPI-4 in the saliva of R. prolixus by RNAi and evaluated the subsequent feeding performance of the bugs using the cibarial pump electromyogram either on the dorsal skin or on the tail vein of the mice. NPs salivary mRNA was reduced by &gt; 99% in comparison to controls. Saliva from knockdown nymphs also presented 82% less haemproteins while the total protein was not reduced. Knockdown nymphs feeding on the skin had lower ingestion rates mainly due to the longer cumulative probing time and lower cibarial pump frequency. Another difference was that knockdown insects bit similar to 5 times more. No differences were observed between groups fed on the tail vein. When the feeding sites were compared, nymphs fed on the tail vein had higher effective ingestion rates. These findings endorse the importance of the NPs for the ability of bugs to complete the meal in a short total contact time with a low number of bites, decreasing the perception of the insect by the host. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_503</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_705</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_450</dc:subject><dc:title>The role of salivary nitrophorins in the ingestion of blood by the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus (Reduviidae: Triatominae)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Araujo, R. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Soares, A. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Paim, R. M. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gontijo, N. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gontijo, A. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lehane, Mike</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pereira, M. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.10.002</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:226
Date: 2015-05-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:226</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:48Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is a major concern to malaria vector control programmes. Resistance is mainly due to target-site insensitivity arising from a single point mutation, often referred to as knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic-based resistance mechanisms have also been implicated in pyrethroid resistance in East Africa and are currently being investigated in West Africa. Here we report the co-occurrence of both resistance mechanisms in a population of An. gambiae s.s. from Nigeria. Bioassay, synergist and biochemical analysis carried out on resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae s.s. from the same geographical area revealed &gt;50% of the West African kdr mutation in the resistant mosquitoes but &lt;3% in the susceptible mosquitoes. Resistant mosquitoes synergized using pyperonyl butoxide before permethrin exposure showed a significant increase in mortality compared with the non-synergized. Biochemical assays showed an increased level of monooxygenase but not glutathione-S-transferase or esterase activities in the resistant mosquitoes. Microarray analysis using the An. gambiae detox-chip for expression of detoxifying genes showed five over-expressed genes in the resistant strain when compared with the susceptible one. Two of these, CPLC8 and CPLC#, are cuticular genes not implicated in pyrethroid metabolism in An. gambiae s.s, and could constitute a novel set of candidate genes that warrant further investigation. © 2008 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_515</dc:subject><dc:title>Evidence of multiple pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto from Nigeria</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Awolola, T. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oduola, O. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Strode, Clare</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Koekemoer, L. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brooke, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ranson, Hilary</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.08.021</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:227
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:227</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:48Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Malaria, a leading parasitic disease, inflicts an enormous toll on human lives and is caused by protozoal parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Antimalarial drugs targeting essential biochemical processes in the parasite are the primary resources for management and control. However, the parasite has established mutations, substantially reducing the efficacy of these drugs. First-line therapy is faced the with the consistent evolution of drug-resistant genotypes carrying these mutations. However, drug-resistant genotypes are likely to be less fit than the wild-type, suggesting that they might disappear by reducing the volume of drug pressure. A substantial body of epidemiological evidence confirmed that the frequency of resistant genotypes wanes when active drug selection declines. Drug selection on the parasite genome that removes genetic variation in the vicinity of drug-resistant genes (hitch-hiking) is common among resistant parasites in the field. This can further disadvantage drug-resistant strains and limit their variability in the face of a mounting immune response. Attempts to provide unequivocal evidence for the fitness cost of drug resistance have monitored the outcomes of laboratory competition experiments of deliberate mixtures of sensitive and resistant strains, in the absence of drug pressure, using isogenic clones produced either by drug selection or gene manipulation. Some of these experiments provided inconclusive results, but they all suggested reduced fitness of drug-resistant clones in the absence of drug pressure. In addition, biochemical analyses provided clearer information demonstrating that the mutation of some anti malarial-targeted enzymes lowers their activity compared with the wild-type enzyme. Here, we review current evidences for the disadvantage of drug-resistance mutations, and discuss some strategies of drug deployment to maximize the cost of resistance and limit its spread.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Expert Reviews</dc:publisher><dc:source>Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_680</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_50</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_45</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_695</dc:subject><dc:title>Impaired fitness of drug-resistant malaria parasites: evidence and implication on drug-deployment policies</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Babiker, H. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hastings, Ian</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Swedberg, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eri.09.29</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:228
Date: 2015-05-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:228</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:48Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The processes that drive the evolution of snake venom variability, particularly the role of diet, have been a topic of intense recent research interest. Here, we test whether extensive variation in venom composition in the medically important viper genus Echis is associated with shifts in diet. Examination of stomach and hindgut contents revealed extreme variation between the major clades of Echis in the proportion of arthropod prey consumed. The toxicity (median lethal dose, LD50) of representative Echis venoms to a natural scorpion prey species was found to be strongly associated with the degree of arthropod feeding. Mapping the results onto a novel Echis phylogeny generated from nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data revealed two independent instances of coevolution of venom toxicity and diet. Unlike venom LD50, the speed with which venoms incapacitated and killed scorpions was not associated with the degree of arthropod feeding. The prey-specific venom toxicity of arthropod-feeding Echis may thus be adaptive primarily by reducing venom expenditure. Overall, our results provide strong evidence that variation in snake venom composition results from adaptive evolution driven by natural selection for different diets, and underscores the need for a multi-faceted, integrative approach to the study of the causes of venom evolution.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences</dc:source><dc:subject>wd_410</dc:subject><dc:title>Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Barlow, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pook, C. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Harrison, Robert</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wuster, W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.0048</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:229
Date: 2015-08-20

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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:230
Date: 2015-05-28

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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>SETTING: Detection of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is vital for tuberculosis (TB) control. Methods to augment sputum collection are available, but their additional benefit is uncertain in resource-limited settings.&#13;
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic yields using five methods to obtain sputum from adults diagnosed with smear-negative PTB in Malawi.&#13;
DESIGN: Self-expectorated sputum was collected under supervision for microscopy and mycobacterial culture in the study laboratory. Confirmed smear-negative patients provided physiotherapy-assisted sputum and induced sputum, followed the next morning by gastric washing and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples.&#13;
RESULTS: A total of 150 patients diagnosed with smear-negative PTB by the hospital service were screened; 39 (26%) were smear-positive from supervised self-expectorated sputum examined in the study laboratory. The remaining 111 confirmed smear-negative patients were enrolled in the study; 89% were human immunodeficiency virus positive. Seven additional smear-positive cases were diagnosed using the augmented sputum collection techniques. No differences were observed in the numbers of cases detected using the different methods. Of the 46 smear-positive cases, 44 (95.6%) could be detected from self-expectorated and physiotherapy-assisted samples.&#13;
CONCLUSIONS: For countries such as Malawi, the best use of limited resources to detect smear-positive PTB cases would be to improve the quality of self-expectorated sputum collection and microscopy. The additional diagnostic yield using BAL after induced sputum is limited.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease</dc:source><dc:subject>wf_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_120</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_220</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_205</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_310</dc:subject><dc:title>Simple measures are as effective as invasive techniques in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bell, David J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dacombe, Russell</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Graham, S. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hicks, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cohen, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chikaonda, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>French, Neil</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Molyneux, Malcolm E</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Zijlstra, E. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Squire, Bertie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gordon, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:231
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-08-26">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background: Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the only single dose therapy for uncomplicated malaria, but there is widespread resistance. At the time of this study, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPD), both multi-dose regimes, were considered possible alternatives to SP in Malawi. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of poor adherence on the effectiveness of AL and CPD. Methods: Children &gt;= 12 months and adults with uncomplicated malaria were randomized to receive AL, CPD or SP. Adherence was measured using a questionnaire and electronic monitoring devices, MEMS (TM), pill bottles that recorded the date and time of opening. Day-7 plasma dapsone or lumefantrine concentrations were measured to examine their relationship with adherence and clinical response. Results: 841 patients were recruited. The day-28 adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) rates, using intention to treat analysis (missing data treated as failure), were AL 85.2%, CPD 63.7% and SP 50%. ACPR rates for AL were higher than CPD or SP on days 28 and 42 (p &lt;= 0.002 for all comparisons). CPD was more effective than SP on day-28 (p = 0.01), but not day-42. Very high adherence was reported using the questionnaire, 100% for AL treated patients and 99.2% for the CPD group. Only three CPD participants admitted missing any doses. 164/181 (90.6%) of CPD treated patients took all their doses out of the MEMS T container and they were more likely to have a day-28 ACPR than those who did not take all their medication out of the container, p = 0.024. Only 7/87 (8%) AL treated patients did not take all of their doses out of their MEMS (TM) container and none had treatment failure. Median day-7 dapsone concentrations were higher in CPD treated patients with ACPR than in treatment failures, p = 0.012. There were no differences in day-7 dapsone or lumefantrine concentrations between those who took all their doses from the MEMS (TM) container and those who did not. A day-7 lumefantrine concentration reported to be predictive of AL treatment failure in Thailand was not useful in this population; only one of 16 participants with a concentration below this threshold (175 ng/ml) had treatment failure. Conclusion: This study provides reassurance of the effectiveness of AL, even with unsupervised dosing, as it is rolled out across sub-Saharan Africa. Self-reported adherence appears to be an unreliable measure of adherence in this population.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/231/1/Bell_DJet_al_1475-2875-8-204.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Malaria Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_340</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_38</dc:subject><dc:title>Measurement of adherence, drug concentrations and the effectiveness of artemether-lumefantrine, chlorproguanil-dapsone or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Malawi</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bell, David J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wootton, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mukaka, Mavuto</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Montgomery, Jacqui</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kayange, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chimpeni, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hughes, D. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Molyneux, Malcolm E</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ward, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Winstanley, P. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lalloo, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08-26</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-204</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:232
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The ability of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium parasites is highly variable between individuals. However, the genetic basis of this variability has remained unknown. We combined genome-wide mapping and reciprocal allele-specific RNA interference (rasRNAi) to identify the genomic locus that confers resistance to malaria parasites and demonstrated that polymorphisms in a single gene encoding the antiparasitic thioester-containing protein 1 (TEPl) explain a substantial part of the variability in parasite killing. The link between TEP1 alleles and resistance to malaria may offer new tools for controlling malaria transmission. The successful application of rasRNAi in Anopheles suggests that it could also be applied to other organisms where RNAi is feasible to dissect complex phenotypes to the level of individual quantitative trait alleles.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Association for the Advancement of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>Science</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qu_475</dc:subject><dc:subject>qu_470</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_515</dc:subject><dc:title>Dissecting the genetic basis of resistance to malaria parasites in Anopheles gambiae</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Blandin, S. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wang-Sattler, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lamacchia, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gagneur, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lycett, Gareth</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ning, Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Levashina, E. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Steinmetz, L. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-10-02</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1175241</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:233
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:32Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-05-13">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Many programmes to improve health in poor countries are struggling to meet their targets, but as Moses Bockarie and David Molyneux report, elimination of lymphatic filariasis&#13;
has a real chance of success</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/233/1/End_of_LF_Bockarie_Molyneux_BMJ_2009.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>British Medical Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_880</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:title>Tropical Diseases The end of lymphatic filariasis?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bockarie, Moses</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Molyneux, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-05-13</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b1686</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:234
Date: 2015-08-20

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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:235
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of acute and chronic morbidity in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The availability of safe, single-dose, drug treatment regimens capable of suppressing microfilaremia to very low levels, along with improvements in techniques for diagnosing infection, has resulted in the targeting of this major mosquito-borne disease for global elimination. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000 with the principal objective of breaking the cycles of transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia spp. through the application of annual mass drug administrations (MDAs) to entire at-risk populations. Although significant progress in initiating MDA programs in endemic countries has been made, emerging challenges to this approach have raised questions regarding the effectiveness of using MDA alone to eliminate I-F without the inclusion of supplementary vector control. Here, we review advances in knowledge of vector ecology, vector-parasite relationships, and both empirical and theoretical evidence regarding vector management to assess the feasibility and strategic value of including vector control in the GPELF initiative to achieve the global elimination of LF.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Annual Review of Entomology</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_530</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_38</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_340</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_880</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_330</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:title>Role of Vector Control in the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bockarie, Moses</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pedersen, E. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, G. B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Michael, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.54.110807.090626</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:236
Date: 2015-05-28

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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:238
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Because of our long-standing interest in malaria/HIV co-infection in pregnant women, we were initially pleased to learn that the Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene had published a new review of this topic. However, upon reading this paper by Uneke and Ogbonna we were dismayed to find that many sentences had apparently been copied intact, or very closely paraphrased, from at least 16 other previously published review articles and research reports. The unattributed quotations and close paraphrases (summarized in Supplementary Table 1 comprise over 3000 words of Uneke and Ogbonna's paper.&#13;
Extensive use of unattributed quotations is part of the definition of plagiarism. The Committee on Publication Ethics, for example, defines plagiarism as unattributed use of large portions of text and/or data, presented as if they were by the plagiarist. To the best of our knowledge, this definition of plagiarism applies equally to research reports and other types of papers.&#13;
We have great respect for the Transactions. However, we disagree with the decision to proceed with print publication of the Uneke and Ogbonna paper, for the reasons cited above. We had requested that the paper be retracted after reading the electronic version available on Science Direct.&#13;
We are grateful to the Editor for extending us this opportunity to express our dissenting opinion.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_503</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_310</dc:subject><dc:subject>wz_345</dc:subject><dc:title>Plagiarism</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Brenttinger, P. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Behrens, C. B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Micek, M. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Steketee, R. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Andrews, K. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Skinner-Adams, T. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gardiner, D. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McCarthy, J. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Parikh, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ter Kuile, Feiko</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ayisi, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.05.006</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:241
Date: 2015-05-28

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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:242
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Objective: We investigated and analyzed past and ongoing welfare programs related to health equity, and the relevant policies, documents, and interventions measures for improving China's migrant worker population' s accessibility and utilization of tuberculosis (TB) control services in TB control programs. Then we evaluated their impactin order to provide evidence and suggestions for the further TB prevention and treatment. Methods: We retrieved published documents about TB prevention and treatment of the migrant worker population dating from 1998 to 2008 from MEDLINE, PubMed, CNKI, CBMdisc CDDB, and VIP electronically. Simultaneously, a series of interviews was conducted with patients who used the programs. Results: Totally, 58 documents were retrieved. Of these documents 13 passed eligibility criteria: eight have been published, five have not been published, and only one of them is RCT with B degree for quality of evidence. Secondary document research has suggested that the intervention measures that have been adopted concerning TB in China, including health promotion, providing incentive, patient tracking and supervision management. Although tuberculosis cure rates have improved, the scene interviews show that the majority of TB and suspected cases of patients don't have enough knowledge on TB prevention and free treatment policies. It is often difficult to track the migrant population. TB detection and treatment still need to be enhanced. Conclusions: There it is lack of high-quality documents about good intervention design, so it is difficult to make a objective and fair evaluation to the effects of intervention on the migrant population. In the future, we should carry out large-scale, multicenter, high-quality RCTs specifically for TB controlin the migrant population in order to provide evidencefor making a scientific and feasible intervention project. © 2009 Editorial Board of Chin J Evid-based Med.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_108</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_140</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_205</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_405</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_215</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_105</dc:subject><dc:title>Evidence-based review of the intervention strategies on the TB prevention and treatment among migrants in China</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Chen, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wang, Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tang, X. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Zeng, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Liu, X. X.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Liu, Q.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Long, Q.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thomson, Rachael</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-04-25</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:244
Date: 2015-05-15

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The Biopython project is a mature open source international collaboration of volunteer developers, providing Python libraries for a wide range of bioinformatics problems. Biopython includes modules for reading and writing different sequence. le formats and multiple sequence alignments, dealing with 3D macromolecular structures, interacting with common tools such as BLAST, ClustalW and EMBOSS, accessing key online databases, as well as providing numerical methods for statistical learning.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Bioinformatics</dc:source><dc:subject>qu_26.5</dc:subject><dc:title>Biopython: freely available Python tools for computational molecular biology and bioinformatics</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cock, P. J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rodrigues Antao, Tiago</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chang, J. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chapman, B. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cox, C. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dalke, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Friedberg, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hamelryck, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kauff, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wilczynski, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>de Hoon, M. J. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03-20</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp163</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:245
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-04">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background: Mpumalanga Province, South Africa is a low malaria transmission area that is subject to malaria epidemics. SaTScan methodology was used by the malaria control programme to detect local malaria clusters to assist disease control planning. The third season for case cluster identification overlapped with the first season of implementing an outbreak identification and response system in the area. Methods: SaTScan (TM) software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using definitively confirmed individual cases in seven towns over three malaria seasons. Following passive case reporting at health facilities during the 2002 to 2005 seasons, active case detection was carried out in the communities, this assisted with determining the probable source of infection. The distribution and statistical significance of the clusters were explored by means of Monte Carlo replication of data sets under the null hypothesis with replications greater than 999 to ensure adequate power for defining clusters. Results and discussion: SaTScan detected five space-clusters and two space-time clusters during the study period. There was strong concordance between recognized local clustering of cases and outbreak declaration in specific towns. Both Albertsnek and Thambokulu reported malaria outbreaks in the same season as space-time clusters. This synergy may allow mutual validation of the two systems in confirming outbreaks demanding additional resources and cluster identification at local level to better target resources. Conclusion: Exploring the clustering of cases assisted with the planning of public health activities, including mobilizing health workers and resources. Where appropriate additional indoor residual spraying, focal larviciding and health promotion activities, were all also carried out.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/245/1/1475-2875-8-68.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BioMed Central</dc:publisher><dc:source>Malaria Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_755</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>d67ea616</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_950</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_105</dc:subject><dc:title>Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Coleman, Michael</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mabuza, A. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kok, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coetzee, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Durrheim, D. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coleman, Marlize</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-68</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:246
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>Journal of Infection</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_310</dc:subject><dc:title>Neurobrucellosis in the UK</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cooke, R. P. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Beeching, Nicholas</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2008.11.006</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:247
Date: 2015-05-28

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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:247</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:50Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>In the field of malaria vaccines, there are many barriers to moving lead candidates from the bench into developmental programmes before clinical testing. Many of the same challenges are to be found in the field of vaccines for other infectious diseases. Here, we briefly outline the process of pre-clinical development to help identify ways to support the translation of laboratory-based information into viable vaccine candidates. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Trends in Parasitology</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_765</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_115</dc:subject><dc:title>Malaria vaccines - how and when to proceed?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Craig, Alister</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Holder, A. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Leroy, O. Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ventura, R. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2009.09.005</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:248
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:248</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:34Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-06-03">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>SUMMARY Guidelines recommend praziquantel (PZQ) for the treatment and control of schistosomiasis, with no real alternative. Metrifonate was still widely used against Schistosoma haematobium in the 1990s, and then withdrawn. Experimental studies and clinical trials suggest that artemisinin compounds are active against S. haematobium. In a Cochrane systematic review assessing the efficacy and safety of drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis, 24 randomized controlled trials (n=6315 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. These trials compared a variety of single agent and combination regimens with PZQ, metrifonate or artemisinin derivatives. The review confirmed that both the standard recommended doses of PZQ (single 40 mg/kg oral dose) and metrifonate (3×7·5-10 mg/kg oral doses administered fortnightly) are efficacious and safe in treating urinary schistosomiasis, but there is no study comparing these two regimens head-to-head. There is currently not enough evidence to evaluate artemisinin compounds. Most of the studies included in the Cochrane systematic review were insufficiently powered, lacked standardization in assessing and reporting outcomes, and had a number of methodological limitations. In this paper we discuss the implications of these findings with respect to public health and research methodology and propose priority research needs.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/248/1/Garner_Treatment_of_Urinary_schistosomiasis.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Cambridge University Press</dc:publisher><dc:source>Parasitology</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_810</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_38</dc:subject><dc:title>Treatment of urinary schistosomiasis: methodological issues and research needs identified through a Cochrane systematic review</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Danso-Appiah, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Garner, Paul</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Olliaro, P. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Utzinger, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182009005939</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:249
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:249</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:50Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The disposition of three 4-aminoquinoline leads, namely isoquine (ISO), des-ethyl isoquine (DEI) and N-tert-butyl isoquine (NTBI), were studied in a range of in vivo and in vitro assays to assist in selecting an appropriate candidate for further development. Analogous to amodiaquine (ADQ), ISO undergoes oxidative N-dealkylation to form DEI in vivo. Blood clearance of DEI was as much as 10-fold lower than that of ISO in animals and after oral administration, metabolite exposure exceeded that of parent by as much as 14-fold. Replacement of the N-ethyl with an N-tert-butyl substituent substantially reduced N-dealkylation as blood clearance of NTBI was similar to 2 to 3-fold lower than DEI in mouse, rat, dog and monkey. Mean NTBI oral bioavailability was generally higher than the other leads (&gt;= 68%). Blood cell association was substantial for NTBI, particularly in dog and monkey, where blood to plasma concentration ratios &gt;4 were observed. Human plasma protein binding was similar for NTBI, DEI, and des-ethyl amodiaquine (DEA). Allometric scaling predicted human blood clearance (CL) for NTBI to be low (similar to 12% liver blood flow). All the 4-aminoquinolines inhibited recombinant human cytochrome P450 2D6 with similar potency; DEI also inhibited 1A2. On balance, NTBI appeared the most promising lead to progress towards full development. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:362-377, 2009</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:source>Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_25</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_771</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_256</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:title>Comparative Preclinical Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Novel 4-Aminoquinoline Anti-Malarials</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Davis, C. B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bambal, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Moorthy, G. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hugger, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Xiang, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Park, R. K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Shone, Alison</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>O'Neill, P. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ward, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.21469</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:250
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:250</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:50Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The treatment for hydrocele is expensive, invasive surgery-hydrocelectomy. A drug that could prevent or improve this condition could replace or supplement hydrocelectomy. In Ghana, 42 hydrocele patients participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a six-week regimen of doxycycline, 200 mg/day. Four months after doxycycline treatment. patients received 150 mu g/kg of ivermectin and 400 mg of albendazole, which is used for mass chemotherapy in this area. Patients were monitored for levels of Wolbachia sp., microfilaremia, antigenemia, plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and stage/size of the hydrocele. Wolbachia sp. loads/microfilaria, microfilaremia, and antigenemia were significantly reduced in the doxycycline-treated patients compared with the placebo group. The mean plasma levels of VEGF-A were decreased significantly in the doxycycline-treated patients who had active infection. This finding preceded the reduction of the stage of hydrocele. A six-week regimen of doxycycline treatment against filariasis showed amelioration of pathologic conditions of hydrocele patients with active infection.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_330</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_880</dc:subject><dc:title>Reduction in Levels of Plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Improvement in Hydrocele Patients by Targeting Endosymbiotic Wolbachia sp in Wuchereria bancrofti with Doxycycline</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Debrah, A. Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mand, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marfo-Debrekyei, Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Batsa, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pfarr, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lawson, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Taylor, Mark</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Adjei, O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoerauf, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:251
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:251</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:50Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Objectives: To determine the role of maternal CYP1A1, GSTT1, and GSTM1 metabolic gene polymorphisms in modulating the association between pregnancy smoking exposure and fetal growth restriction.&#13;
Study design: A case-control study was conducted to investigate if the association of pregnancy smoking and birth outcome was modulated by maternal gene polymorphisms. A total of 90 mothers with an IUGR baby (cases) and 180 mothers without IUGR (controls) were enrolled.&#13;
Results: Almost half of smokers who carried a CYP1A1 variant (51.3%), GSTT1 null (43.6%), or GSTM1 null genotypes (64.1%) delivered a baby with IUGR. Smokers with the variant CYP1A1 "aa" genotype had babies with lower mean birthweight than non-smokers with the same genotype (p = 0.004). An interaction test showed increased prevalence of IUGR in smokers with the CYP1A1 (Aa/aa) variant (adjusted OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-5.5, p = 0.01), or with the GSTT1 null (AOR, 1.5; 1.1-3.1, p = 0.001), or GSTM1 null genotypes (AOR, 1.5; 1.2-3.7, p = 0.001).&#13;
Conclusions: Risk of fetal growth restriction in mothers who smoked during pregnancy was modulated by maternal metabolic gene polymorphisms. The genetic control of the conversion of toxic metabolites of tobacco smoke to less damaging substances is important for maternal and fetal health. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>European Journal of Obstetrics &amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology</dc:source><dc:subject>qt_140</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_240</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>qu_450</dc:subject><dc:title>A case-control study of CYP1A1, GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms, pregnancy smoking and fetal growth restriction</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Delpisheh, Ali</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Topping, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Reyad, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tang, A. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2008.11.006</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:252
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Vector control is a key means of combating mosquito-borne diseases and the only tool available for tackling the transmission of dengue, a disease for which no vaccine, prophylaxis, or therapeutant currently exists. The most effective mosquito control methods include a variety of insecticidal tools that target adults or juveniles. Their successful implementation depends on impacting the largest proportion of the vector population possible. We demonstrate a control strategy that dramatically improves the efficiency with which high coverage of aquatic mosquito habitats can be achieved. The method exploits adult mosquitoes as vehicles of insecticide transfer by harnessing their fundamental behaviors to disseminate a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA) between resting and oviposition sites. A series of field trials undertaken in an Amazon city (Iquitos, Peru) showed that the placement of JHA dissemination stations in just 3-5% of the available resting area resulted in almost complete coverage of sentinel aquatic habitats. More than control mortality occurred in 95-100% of the larval cohorts of Aedes aegypti developing at those sites. Overall reductions in adult emergence of 42-98% were achieved during the trials. A deterministic simulation model predicts amplifications in coverage consistent with our observations and highlights the importance of the residual activity of the insecticide for this technique.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_528</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_525</dc:subject><dc:title>Using adult mosquitoes to transfer insecticides to Aedes aegypti larval habitats</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Devine, G. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Perea, E. Z.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Killeen, Gerry</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stancil, J. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Clark, S. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Morrison, A. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07-14</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0901369106</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:253
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:253</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:24:28Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-06-01">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background&#13;
&#13;
Monitoring of insect vector populations with respect to their susceptibility to one or more insecticides is a crucial element of the strategies used for the control of arthropod-borne diseases. This management task can nowadays be achieved more efficiently when assisted by IT (Information Technology) tools, ranging from modern integrated databases to GIS (Geographic Information System). Here we describe an application ontology that we developed de novo, and a specially designed database that, based on this ontology, can be used for the purpose of controlling mosquitoes and, thus, the diseases that they transmit. &#13;
&#13;
Methodology/Principal Findings&#13;
&#13;
The ontology, named MIRO for Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology, developed using the OBO-Edit software, describes all pertinent aspects of insecticide resistance, including specific methodology and mode of action. MIRO, then, forms the basis for the design and development of a dedicated database, IRbase, constructed using open source software, which can be used to retrieve data on mosquito populations in a temporally and spatially separate way, as well as to map the output using a Google Earth interface. The dependency of the database on the MIRO allows for a rational and efficient hierarchical search possibility. &#13;
&#13;
Conclusions/Significance&#13;
&#13;
The fact that the MIRO complies with the rules set forward by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry introduces cross-referencing with other biomedical ontologies and, thus, both MIRO and IRbase are suitable as parts of future comprehensive surveillance tools and decision support systems that will be used for the control of vector-borne diseases. MIRO is downloadable from and IRbase is accessible at VectorBase, the NIAID-sponsored open access database for arthropod vectors of disease.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/253/1/Plos_NTD_3_6_e465.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Public Library of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_700</dc:subject><dc:subject>d67ea616</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_105</dc:subject><dc:title>MIRO and IRbase: IT Tools for the Epidemiological Monitoring of Insecticide Resistance in Mosquito Disease Vectors</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Dialynas, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Topalis, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vontas, John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Louis, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000465</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:255
Date: 2015-06-01

RIOXX

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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:255</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-06-01T10:59:02Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Background &#13;
&#13;
Anthrax is a bacterial zoonosis that occasionally causes human disease and is potentially fatal. Anthrax vaccines include a live-attenuated vaccine, an alum-precipitated cell-free filtrate vaccine, and a recombinant protein vaccine. &#13;
&#13;
Objectives &#13;
&#13;
To evaluate the effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of vaccines for preventing anthrax. &#13;
&#13;
Search strategy &#13;
&#13;
We searched the following databases (November 2008): Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; and mRCT. We also searched reference lists. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of individuals and cluster-RCTs comparing anthrax vaccine with placebo, other (nonanthrax) vaccines, or no intervention; or comparing administration routes or treatment regimens of anthrax vaccine. &#13;
&#13;
Data collection and analysis &#13;
&#13;
Two authors independently considered trial eligibility, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We presented cases of anthrax and seroconversion rates using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We summarized immunoglobulin G(IgG) concentrations using geometric means. We carried out a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of clustering on the results from one cluster-RCT. No meta-analysis was undertaken. &#13;
&#13;
Main results &#13;
&#13;
One cluster-RCT (with 157,259 participants) and four RCTs of individuals (1917 participants) met the inclusion criteria. The clusterRCT from the former USSR showed that, compared with no vaccine, a live-attenuated vaccine (called STI) protected against clinical anthrax whether given by a needleless device (RR 0.16; 102,737 participants, 154 clusters) or the scarification method (RR 0.25; 104,496 participants, 151 clusters). Confidence intervals were statistically significant in unadjusted calculations, but when a small amount of association within clusters was assumed, the differences were not statistically significant. The four RCTs (of individuals) of inactivated vaccines (anthrax vaccine absorbed and recombinant protective antigen) showed a dose response relationship for the anti-protective antigen IgGantibody titre. Intramuscular administration was associated with fewer injection site reactions than subcutaneous injection, and injection site reaction rates were lower when the dosage interval was longer. &#13;
&#13;
Authors' conclusions &#13;
&#13;
One cluster-RCT provides limited evidence that a live-attenuated vaccine is effective in preventing cutaneous anthrax. Vaccines based on anthrax antigens are immunogenic in most vaccinees with few adverse events or reactions. Ongoing randomized controlled trials are investigating the immunogenicity and safety of anthrax vaccines.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>John WIley &amp; Sons Ltd</dc:publisher><dc:source>Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews</dc:source><dc:subject>qw_805</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_305</dc:subject><dc:title>Vaccines for preventing anthrax</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Donegan, Sarah</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bellamy, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gamble, C. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2008-08-27</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006403.pub2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:256
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
PropertyError
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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:256</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:50Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory&#13;
involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Geospatial Health</dc:source><dc:subject>d67ea616</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_515</dc:subject><dc:title>Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Dongus, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nyika, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kannady, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mtasiwa, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mshinda, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gosoniu, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Drescher, A. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fillinger, U.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tanner, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Killeen, Gerry</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Castro, M. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:257
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
PropertyError
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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:257</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:50Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7178:3737373062346631:71785F353130</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Several groups are developing and applying DNA-based technologies to monitor insecticide-based disease control programmes. However, several recent papers have concluded that the knockdown resistance (kdr) genotype-phenotype correlation that is observed in a wide variety of taxa might not hold in all mosquitoes. In this article, we review the evidence to support this putative breakdown and argue that the conclusion follows from unreliable data or the unparsimonious interpretation of data. We assert that the link between kdr genotype and DDT- and pyrethroid-susceptibility phenotype is clear. However, we emphasize that kdr genotype might explain only a portion of heritable variation in resistance and that diagnostic assays to test the importance of other resistance mechanisms in field populations are required.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Trends in Parasitology</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:title>Does kdr genotype predict insecticide-resistance phenotype in mosquitoes?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Donnelly, Martin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Corbel, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Weetman, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wilding, Craig</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Williamson, M. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Black, W. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-05-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2009.02.007</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:258
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
PropertyError
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:258</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:50Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The natural ability of the detoxification enzymes glutathione transferases (GSTs) to interact with xenobiotics can be used for the production of colorimetric assays. Detection is usually based on the inhibition of the GST-catalysed reaction, with detection achieved spectrophotometrically or electrochemically. Here we have adopted a chromogenic (visual) activity assay for screening GSTs with alkyltransferase activity for iodoalkene substrates for detection of insecticides. We screened a number of GSTs from insecticide resistant mosquito species for their ability to catalyse iodoalkane biotransformation reactions. AaGSTE2 was found to metabolise iodoethane with high turnover, which resulted in a dark blue colour in the enzymatic reaction. Following assay optimisation we exploited the high recognition affinity of the AgGSTE2 for insecticides to develop a novel colorimetric detection assay for organochlorine and pyrethroid quantification. Calibration curves were obtained for permethim, deltamethrin. lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT, with useful concentration ranges of 0-40 mu g/ml (0-100 mu M), 0-50 mu g/ml (0-100 mu M), 0-100 mu g/ml (0-220 mu M), and 0-50 mu g/ml (0-140 mu M), respectively. The assay was validated with extracts from insecticide sprayed surfaces and found to be reproducible and reliable compared with HPLC. The assay is therefore suitable for monitoring insecticide residues in insecticide treated materials, and therefore has potential for insect vector control operations. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>Enzyme and Microbial Technology</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_602</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:title>A simple glutathione transferase-based colorimetric endpoint assay for insecticide detection</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Dowd, Andrew</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Steven, Andrew</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Morou, Evangelia</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hemingway, Janet</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vontas, John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Paine, Mark</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2009.05.008</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:259
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:259</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:34Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-09-01">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>OBJECTIVES To explore community perceptions of voluntary health insurance (VHI) as factors influencing low enrolment in VHI.&#13;
METHODS A qualitative study was conducted using focus group discussions with men and women who are members of VHI schemes and who are not members in four districts in rural Vietnam. Data was analysed using grounded theory.&#13;
RESULTS Many perceived that illness and the costs of illness cannot be predicted. Knowledge and understanding about HI (health insurance) schemes was limited. There is a common perception that HI can help with the costs of health care, and this is linked to buying HI when ill. Information about HI schemes is not well disseminated: information is often insufficiently detailed and inconsistent, whilst methods do not reach many. There were several complaints about HI schemes: the premium is too high for individuals and families; delay in receiving HI cards and frequent mistakes on cards prevents people using HI; and the drug list is too narrow, so people need to buy additional drugs. Many people with insurance perceived that they received lower quality care than those who paid fees for healthcare. They reported receiving fewer and cheaper drugs and less sophisticated investigations and treatments. They also felt they had to wait longer to be seen by healthcare workers. These experiences limited willingness to enrol and use of HI cards at outpatient facilities.&#13;
CONCLUSION Low enrolment in VHI is affected by low perceptions of ability to control health risks, lack of understanding of HI in general and specific schemes and perceived problems with scheme administration, benefits and quality of health services. The potential problem of adverse selection may influence the sustainability of the scheme. Recommendations to increase enrolment and benefit from the scheme include improving communication with the rural population on HI, reducing the premium level (consider additional government subsidy), adjusting the benefit package, reducing administrative problems in the schemes and addressing provider payment issues.</dc:description><dc:format>application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/259/1/Tolhurst_Raven_Enrolment_in_health_insurance_in_rural_Vietnam.docx</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>John Wiley &amp; Sons Inc</dc:publisher><dc:source>Tropical Medicine &amp; International Health</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:title>Community perceptions of voluntary health insurance in rural Vietnam</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Duc, T. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Raven, Joanna</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mai, O. N. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thi, P. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tolhurst, Rachel</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02354_1.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:260
Date: 2015-05-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:260</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:50Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Tsetse flies of the palpalis group are major vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis in Africa. Accurate knowledge of species identity is essential for vector control. Here, we combine ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase 1 (COI) and microsatellites to determine the population structure and phylogenetic relations of Glossina p. palpalis in Equatorial Guinea. CO1 sequence data suggest that G. p. palpalis in Equatorial Guinea is a distinct subspecies from previously described G. p. palpalis in West Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo. Glossina p. palpalis in Equatorial Guinea and DRC share a common ancestor which diverged from West African G. p. palpalis around 1.9 Ma. Previous ITS1 length polymorphism data suggested the possible presence of hybrids in Equatorial Guinea. However, ITS1 showed incomplete lineage sorting compared with clearly defined COI groups, and data from 12 unlinked microsatellites provided no evidence of hybridization. Microsatellite data indicated moderate but significant differentiation between the populations analysed (Rio Campo, Mbini and Kogo). Moreover, unlike previous studies of G. p. palpalis, there was no evidence for heterozygote deficiency, presence of migrants or cryptic population structure. Variance effective population size at Rio Campo was estimated at 501-731 assuming eight generations per year. This study of the population genetics of G. p. palpalis in central Africa provides the first estimate of genetic differentiation between geographically separated G. p. palpalis populations.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Molecular Ecology</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_505</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_705</dc:subject><dc:title>Evidence for a discrete evolutionary lineage within Equatorial Guinea suggests that the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis palpalis exists as a species complex</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Dyer, Naomi</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Furtado, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cano, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ferreira, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Afonso, M. O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ndong-Mabale, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ndong-Asumu, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Centeno-Lima, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Benito, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Weetman, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Donnelly, Martin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pinto, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04265.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:261
Date: 2015-05-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:261</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:51Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Background: Ear disease is a major health problem in poorly resourced countries. The role of nutritional deficiencies in its pathogenesis and in relation to chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) has not been reviewed previously. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken using Pubmed, SCOPUS, Cinahl on Ovid, the Cochrane Database and selected medical journals, with no language restriction. Nutritional mechanisms potentially related to ear disease and CSOM risks were reviewed. All studies (observational, case-control, cohort and clinical trials including randomised controlled trials) with nutrition-related information were included. The titles and/or abstracts of all retrieved studies were reviewed and full articles were obtained for relevant studies. Exclusion criteria were multiple publication or studies which did not report nutritional information. Results: Supplementation studies using single micronutrients and vitamins to determine efficacy in reducing acute or chronic otitis media provided some evidence for an association of middle-ear pathology with deficiencies of zinc or vitamin A. Multi-micronutrient supplementation studies provided further support for a beneficial effect, although the number of studies was small and they were heterogeneous and uncontrolled. No human study was identified which specifically examined the association between copper, selenium or vitamin D status and middleear disease or infection. Conclusion: Particularly in developing countries, research on micronutrient status and vitamin deficiency and their influence on middle-ear disease is required to improve knowledge of the pathogenesis of middle-ear infection and to determine the relevance of nutritional interventions in prevention and treatment.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Maney Publishing</dc:publisher><dc:source>Annals of Tropical Paediatrics</dc:source><dc:subject>wd_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_115</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wd_105</dc:subject><dc:subject>wv_150</dc:subject><dc:subject>qz_40</dc:subject><dc:subject>wv_200</dc:subject><dc:title>Nutritional factors in the pathogenesis of ear disease in children: a systematic review</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Elemraid, M. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mackenzie, Ian</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fraser, W. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532809x440707</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:262
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:262</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:51Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Tropical Medicine &amp; International Health</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_795</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_625</dc:subject><dc:title>The first report of two Ornithodoros tick species, the main vectors of relapsing fever from North of Iran, and a review of the disease situation in the country</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Enayati, Ahmad Ali</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Asgarian, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Amouei, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hemingway, Janet</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02354_2.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:263
Date: 2015-05-28

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:263</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:51Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Hard tick infestation is an important problem in both traditional and industrial animal husbandry as well as in veterinary and public health. Several acaricides have been used to control tick infestation in Iran. Poor control has been attributed to acaricide resistance in tick populations although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. In this study, susceptibility status to propetamphos (Blotic) of 2-3-week-old larvae of Rhipicephalus bursa, one of the most common tick species in Iran, was evaluated using the FAO recommended larval packet test (LPT) method with some modifications. Log dosage probit analysis of propetamphos dose-response regression lines produced a resistance ratio based on LC50 in the most resistant strain of approximately 103-fold. Biochemical assays suggested that the tick strains contained multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving elevation of esterases, GSTs, MFOs and alteration of acetylcholinesterase. In light of this data, practical implications for pest and pesticide resistance management strategies are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Veterinary Parasitology</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:title>Propetamphos resistance in Rhipicephalus bursa (Acari, Ixodidae)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Enayati, Ahmad Ali</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Asgarian, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sharif, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Boujhmehrani, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Amouei, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vahedi, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Boudaghi, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Piazak, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hemingway, Janet</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-05-26</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.02.005</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:264
Date: 2015-05-28

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:264</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:51Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We measured serum anti-pneumolysin IgG concentrations in a prospective cohort of 34 HIV infected adults who developed recurrent pneumococcal bacteraemia, and compared baseline levels with HIV positive and HIV negative control subjects that remained free of pneumococcal disease. Anti-pneumolysin concentrations in HIV positive cases and controls were higher compared to HIV negative controls. There was no significant difference in levels between HIV positive subjects who did and did not Subsequently develop pneumococcal bacteraemia (geometric means 849.1 U/ml vs. 564.6 U/ml, p=0.059). Anti-pneumolysin IgG titres before, and after the recurrent episode of pneumococcal bacteraemia did not differ significantly (p=0.95). High levels of anti-pneumolysin IgG do not predict protection from invasive pneumococcal disease or indicate that an effective immune response has occurred in HIV infected patients. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Vaccine</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_204</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_217</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_140</dc:subject><dc:title>Effect of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease on serum anti-pneumolysin IgG titres in HIV infected adults.</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Etuwewe, O. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Swann, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hollingshead, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tolmie, Helen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Zijlstra, E. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Faragher, Brian</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>French, Neil</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gordon, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.026</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:265
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-01-01">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Objective: Few studies have reported on nutritional recovery, survival and growth among severely malnourished children with HIV. This study explores nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children during inpatient nutrition rehabilitation and 4 months of follow-up. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Lilongwe district, Malawi. Main outcome measures: Weight gain, anthropometrics. Results: In our sample of 454 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), 17.4% (n = 79) of children were HIV infected. None of the children were on antiretroviral therapy upon admission. Among the HIV-infected children, 35.4% (28/79) died, compared with 10.4% (39/375) in HIV-uninfected children (p&lt;0.001). All children who survived achieved nutritional recovery (&gt;85% weight for height and no oedema), regardless of HIV status. HIV-infected children had similar weight gain to HIV-uninfected children (8.9 vs 8.0 g/kg/d, not significant (NS)). Mean increases in z-scores for both subscapular (2.72 vs 2.69, NS) and triceps (1.26 vs 1.48, NS) skinfolds were similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children, respectively, during nutrition rehabilitation. 362 children were followed for 4 months, at which time mean weight for height z-score was similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children (20.85 vs 20.64, NS). Conclusions: HIV-infected children with SAM have higher mortality rates than HIV-uninfected children. Among those who survive, however, nutritional recovery is similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/265/1/arch_dis_child_2009_94_512-516.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BMJ Group</dc:publisher><dc:source>Archives of Disease in Childhood</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_503</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_115</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_440</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_430</dc:subject><dc:title>Nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with severe acute malnutrition</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Fergusson, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chinkhumba, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Grijalva-Eternod, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Banda, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mkangama, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tomkins, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-01-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2008.142646</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:267
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Type II NADH: quinone oxidoreductases (ndh) are flavoenzymes found in a broad range of organisms including plants, fungi, protozoa, and bacteria. The ndh enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH with concomitant reduction of quinone (Q). These membrane-bound respiratory enzymes differ from the canonical NADH: dehydrogenase (complex I), because they are not involved in the vectorial transfer of protons across membranes. In Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causative agents of malaria and tuberculosis, respectively, ndhs have aroused interest because of the essential role played in maintaining a reduced Q-pool during infection. In this chapter, we present methods for the measurement of steady-state parameters for ndhs from both pathogens, highlighting best practices and caveats. In addition, owing to the interest in ndhs as potential chemotherapeutic targets, we describe a miniaturized endpoint assay that is validated for high-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical libraries. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Academic Press</dc:publisher><dc:source>Methods in Enzymology</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:title>Chapter 17 Type II NADH: Quinone Oxidoreductases of Plasmodium Falciparum and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Kinetic and High-Throughput Assays</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Fisher, Nicholas</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Warman, Ashley</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ward, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Biagini, Giancarlo</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Allison, W. S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Scheffler, I. E.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2010-03-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(08)04417-0</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
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Date: 2015-08-20

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&#13;
Cathepsin-like enzymes have been identified as potential targets for drug or vaccine development in many parasites, as their functions appear to be essential in a variety of important biological processes within the host, such as molting, cuticle remodeling, embryogenesis, feeding and immune evasion. Functional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans cathepsin L (Ce-cpl-1) and cathepsin Z (Ce-cpz-1) has established that both genes are required for early embryogenesis, with Ce-cpl-1 having a role in regulating in part the processing of yolk proteins. Ce-cpz-1 also has an important role during molting. &#13;
&#13;
Methods and Findings&#13;
&#13;
RNA interference assays have allowed us to verify whether the functions of the orthologous filarial genes in Brugia malayi adult female worms are similar. Treatment of B. malayi adult female worms with Bm-cpl-1, Bm-cpl-5, which belong to group Ia of the filarial cpl gene family, or Bm-cpz-1 dsRNA resulted in decreased numbers of secreted microfilariae in vitro. In addition, analysis of the intrauterine progeny of the Bm-cpl-5 or Bm- cpl Pro dsRNA- and siRNA treated worms revealed a clear disruption in the process of embryogenesis resulting in structural abnormalities in embryos and a varied differential development of embryonic stages.&#13;
&#13;
Conclusions&#13;
&#13;
Our studies suggest that these filarial cathepsin-like cysteine proteases are likely to be functional orthologs of the C. elegans genes. This functional conservation may thus allow for a more thorough investigation of their distinct functions and their development as potential drug targets.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/268/1/Plos_NTD_3_2_e377.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Public Library of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases</dc:source><dc:subject>qw_805</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_700</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_806</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_755</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_880</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_203</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_45</dc:subject><dc:title>Functional Analysis of the Cathepsin-Like Cysteine Protease Genes in Adult Brugia malayi Using RNA Interference</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Ford, Louise</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Zhang, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Liu, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hashmi, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fuhrman, J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oksov, Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lustigman, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-02-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000377</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:270
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Background: This study aims to evaluate the association between environmental and socio-economic conditions with asthma prevalence in the eight ISAAC centres in North-East Brazil. Methods: Estimates on occurrence, severity and medical diagnoses of asthma in the previous 12 months were compared using environmental and socioeconomic indicators. Associations were assessed using simple linear regression and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: There was no difference in asthma prevalence between centres. Active asthma prevalence increased with increasing water privation, and this would explain 62% of the observed prevalence. Median temperature increase was inversely related to active asthma (r = 0.81; p &lt; 0.05). There was a positive association between latitude and active asthma prevalence (r = 0.82; p &lt; 0.005), a negative association between severe asthma and yearly medium temperature (r = -0.89; p &lt; 0.05), and a positive association with latitude (r = 0.78; p &lt; 0.05). Conclusion: Relation between the tropical weather and high prevalence of asthma was not confirmed. There were associations with water privation and latitude. (c) 2008 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Allergologia Et Immunopathologia</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_700</dc:subject><dc:subject>qt_162</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_100</dc:subject><dc:title>Socio-environmental conditions and geographical variability of asthma prevalence in Northeast Brazil</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Franco, J. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gurgel, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sole, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Franca, V. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brazilian, Isaac Grp</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1016/S0301-0546(09)71722-7</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
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Date: 2015-05-28

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Healthy volunteers attending for research bronchoscopy in Malawi completed a questionnaire assessment of smoke exposure. Particulate matter visible in alveolar macrophages (AM) was quantified using digital image analysis. The geometric mean of the percentage area of the cytoplasm occupied by particulates in 50 cover-slip adherent AM was calculated and termed particulate load.&#13;
In 57 subjects (40 men and 17 women) there was a significant difference between the particulate load in groups divided according to pre-dominant lighting form used at home (anovaP = 0.0009) and type of cooking fuel (P = 0.0078).&#13;
Particulate load observed in macrophages is associated with the reported type of biomass fuel exposure. Macrophage function in relation to respiratory health should now be investigated in biomass smoke exposed subjects.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:source>Tropical Medicine &amp; International Health</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_670</dc:subject><dc:subject>wd_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_20</dc:subject><dc:title>Domestic smoke exposure is associated with alveolar macrophage particulate load</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Fullerton, Duncan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jere, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jambo, Kondwani C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kulkarni, N. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Zijlstra, E. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Grigg, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>French, Neil</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Molyneux, Malcolm E</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gordon, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-02-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02230.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:273
Date: 2015-05-28

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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:274
Date: 2015-08-20

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&#13;
Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. &#13;
&#13;
Methods and Findings&#13;
&#13;
Microbial larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti)) was applied weekly through programmatic, non-randomized community-based, but vertically managed, delivery systems in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Continuous, randomized cluster sampling of malaria infection prevalence and non-random programmatic surveillance of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) respectively constituted the primary and secondary outcomes surveyed within a population of approximately 612,000 residents in 15 fully urban wards covering 55 km2. Bti application for one year in 3 of those wards (17 km2 with 128,000 residents) reduced crude annual transmission estimates (Relative EIR [95% Confidence Interval] = 0.683 [0.491-0.952], P = 0.024) but program effectiveness peaked between July and September (Relative EIR [CI] = 0.354 [0.193 to 0.650], P = 0.001) when 45% (9/20) of directly observed transmission events occurred. Larviciding reduced malaria infection risk among children ≤5 years of age (OR [CI] = 0.284 [0.101 to 0.801], P = 0.017) and provided protection at least as good as personal use of an insecticide treated net (OR [CI] = 0.764 [0.614-0.951], P = 0.016). &#13;
&#13;
Conclusions&#13;
&#13;
In this context, larviciding reduced malaria prevalence and complemented existing protection provided by insecticide-treated nets. Larviciding may represent a useful option for integrated vector management in Africa, particularly in its rapidly growing urban centres.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/274/1/Plos_ONE_4_3_e5107.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Public Library of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>PLoS ONE</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_108</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_700</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_806</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_680</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_755</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_765</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_695</dc:subject><dc:title>Microbial larvicide application by a large-scale, community-based program reduces malaria infection prevalence in urban Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Geissbühler, Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kannady, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chaki, Prosper P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Emidi, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Govella, Nicodem J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mayagaya, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kiama, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mtasiwa, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mshinda, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lindsay, S. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tanner, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fillinger, U.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>de Castro, M. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Killeen, Gerry</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03-31</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005107</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:275
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy were assessed in a health center randomized trial comparing intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) with and without community based promotional activities in rural Burkina Faso. The study involved 2,240 secundigravidae and secundigravidae and evaluated factors associated with antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance and uptake of IPTp-SP With promotion, 64.2% completed &gt;= 3 ANC visits compared with 44.7% without (P = 0.05). Complete uptake of IPTp-SP was 71.8% with and 49.1.% without promotion (P = 0.008). The IPTp-SP uptake was lowest in adolescents delivering during high malaria transmission with (29%) or without promotion (30%). Uptake of SP was higher during the low transmission season than in the high transmission season (adjusted odds ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.59-3.03). Community sensitization increased ANC attendance and IPTp-SP uptake. Adolescents were the most difficult to reach, particularly during the high malaria transmission period. The impact of IPTp-SP will be limited unless this high risk group is protected.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_108</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_240</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_755</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_765</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:title>Community-Based Promotional Campaign to Improve Uptake of Intermittent Preventive Antimalarial Treatment in Pregnancy in Burkina Faso</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gies, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coulibaly, S. O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ky, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ouattara, F. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>D'Alessandro, U.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:278
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BMJ Publishing Group</dc:publisher><dc:source>Thorax</dc:source><dc:subject>qt_140</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_670</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_700</dc:subject><dc:subject>qt_230</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_215</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_250</dc:subject><dc:title>Where there's smoke ... there's tuberculosis</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gordon, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rylance, Jamie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.2009.116400</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:279
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:279</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:44Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-07-14">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background: Mosquito sampling methods are essential for monitoring and evaluating malaria vector control interventions. In urban Dar es Salaam, human landing catch (HLC) is the only method sufficiently sensitive for monitoring malaria-transmitting Anopheles. HLC is labour intensive, cumbersome, hazardous, and requires such intense supervision that is difficulty to sustain on large scales. Methods: Novel tent traps were developed as alternatives to HLC. The Furvela tent, designed in Mozambique, incorporates a CDC Light trap (LT) components, while two others from Ifakara, Tanzania (designs A and B) require no electricity or moving parts. Their sensitivity for sampling malaria vectors was compared with LT and HLC over a wide range of vector abundances in rural and urban settings in Tanzania, with endophagic and exophagic populations, respectively, using randomised Latin-square and cross-over experimental designs. Results: The sensitivity of LTs was greater than HLC while the opposite was true of Ifakara tent traps (crude mean catch of An. gambiae sensu lato relative to HLC = 0.28, 0.65 and 1.30 for designs A, B and LT in a rural setting and 0.32 for design B in an urban setting). However, Ifakara B catches correlated far better to HLC (r(2) = 0.73, P &lt; 0.001) than any other method tested (r(2) = 0.04, P = 0.426 and r(2) = 0.19, P = 0.006 for Ifakara A and LTs respectively). Only Ifakara B in a rural setting with high vector density exhibited constant sampling efficiency relative to HLC. The relative sensitivity of Ifakara B increased as vector densities decreased in the urban setting and exceeded that of HLC at the lowest densities. None of the tent traps differed from HLC in terms of the proportions of parous mosquitoes (P &gt;= 0.849) or An. gambiae s.l. sibling species (P &gt;= 0.280) they sampled but both Ifakara A and B designs failed to reduce the proportion of blood-fed mosquitoes caught (Odds ratio [95% Confidence Interval] = 1.6 [1.2, 2.1] and 1.0 [0.8, 1.2], P = 0.002 and 0.998, respectively), probably because of operator exposure while emptying the trap each morning. Conclusion: The Ifakara B trap may have potential for monitoring and evaluating a variety of endophagic and exophagic Afrotropical malaria vectors, particularly at low but epidemiologically relevant population densities. However, operator exposure to mosquito bites remains a concern so additional modifications or protective measures will be required before this design can be considered for widespread, routine use.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/279/1/1475-2875-8-157.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BioMed Central</dc:publisher><dc:source>Malaria Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_515</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:title>A new tent trap for sampling exophagic and endophagic members of the Anopheles gambiae complex</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Govella, Nicodem</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chaki, Prosper P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Geissbuhler, Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kannady, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Okumu, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Charlwood, J. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Anderson, R. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Killeen, Gerry</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07-14</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-157</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:280
Date: 2015-05-28

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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Background/Objectives: The use of multimicronutrient (MMN) supplementation to reduce the burden of anaemia in nonpregnant women of reproductive age has been little studied, particularly in Africa. The objective of the study was to evaluate haematological outcomes in non-pregnant, rural Gambian women of reproductive age, receiving daily MMN supplements for 1 year. Subjects/Methods: The study in 293 women aged from 17 to 45 years old was nested within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial of periconceptional MMN supplementation [ISRCTN 13687662], using the United Nations International Multiple Micronutrient Preparation (UNIMMAP), received daily for 1 year or until conception. Red cell parameters and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration were measured at baseline and after 12 months in those women who did not conceive. Results: Anaemic women (haemoglobin concentration &lt;12 g per 100 ml) were more likely to be older and in economic deficit at baseline. Mean change in haemoglobin concentration was +0.6 +/- 1.4 g per 100 ml in the intervention arm and -0.2 +/- 1.2 g per 100 ml in the placebo arm (P&lt;0.001). After supplementation with MMN, the relative risk of anaemia (&lt;12 g per 100 ml) was 0.59 ( 0.46, 0.76) compared with placebo. Anaemic subjects at baseline showed an increase in mean haemoglobin from 10.6 g per 100 ml to 11.8 g/l (P&lt;0.001) after MMN supplementation. Conclusions: MMN supplementation should be considered as a strategy for improving the micronutrient and haematological status of non-pregnant women of reproductive age. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009) 63, 970-977; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.11; published online 4 March 2009</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>European Journal of Clinical Nutrition</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wd_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wp_565</dc:subject><dc:subject>wh_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wh_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>qt_162</dc:subject><dc:title>Haematological effects of multimicronutrient supplementation in non-pregnant Gambian women</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gulati, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bailey, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Prentice, A. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Owens, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.11</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:281
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-02-03">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background&#13;
&#13;
Tropical diseases caused by parasites continue to cause socioeconomic devastation that reverberates worldwide. There is a growing need for new control measures for many of these diseases due to increasing drug resistance exhibited by the parasites and problems with drug toxicity. One new approach is to apply host defense peptides (HDP; formerly called antimicrobial peptides) to disease control, either to treat infected hosts, or to prevent disease transmission by interfering with parasites in their insect vectors. A potent anti-parasite effector is bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide27 (BMAP-27), a member of the cathelicidin family. Although BMAP-27 is a potent inhibitor of microbial growth, at higher concentrations it also exhibits cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. We tested the anti-parasite activity of BMAP-18, a truncated peptide that lacks the hydrophobic C-terminal sequence of the BMAP-27 parent molecule, an alteration that confers reduced toxicity to mammalian cells. &#13;
&#13;
Methodology/Principal Findings&#13;
&#13;
BMAP-18 showed strong growth inhibitory activity against several species and life cycle stages of African trypanosomes, fish trypanosomes and Leishmania parasites in vitro. When compared to native BMAP-27, the truncated BMAP-18 peptide showed reduced cytotoxicity on a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells and on Sodalis glossindius, a bacterial symbiont of the tsetse vector. The fluorescent stain rhodamine 123 was used in immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry experiments to show that BMAP-18 at low concentrations rapidly disrupted mitochondrial potential without obvious alteration of parasite plasma membranes, thus inducing death by apoptosis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that higher concentrations of BMAP-18 induced membrane lesions in the parasites as early as 15 minutes after exposure, thus killing them by necrosis. In addition to direct killing of parasites, BMAP-18 was shown to inhibit LPS-induced secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine that is associated with inflammation and cachexia (wasting) in sleeping sickness patients. As a prelude to in vivo applications, high affinity antibodies to BMAP-18 were produced in rabbits and used in immuno-mass spectrometry assays to detect the intact peptide in human blood and plasma. &#13;
&#13;
Conclusions/Significance&#13;
&#13;
BMAP-18, a truncated form of the potent antimicrobial BMAP-27, showed low toxicity to mammalian cells, insect cells and the tsetse bacterial symbiont Sodalis glossinidius while retaining an ability to kill a variety of species and life cycle stages of pathogenic kinetoplastid parasites in vitro. BMAP-18 also inhibited secretion of TNF-alpha, an inflammatory cytokine that plays a role in the cachexia associated with African sleeping sickness. These findings support the idea that BMAP-18 should be explored as a candidate for therapy of economically important trypanosome-infected hosts, such as cattle, fish and humans, and for paratransgenic expression in Sodalis glossinidius, a bacterial symbiont in the tsetse vector, as a strategy for interference with trypanosome transmission.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/281/1/Plos_NTD_3_2_e373.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Public Library of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_70</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_505</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_765</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_705</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:title>Killing of Trypanosomatid Parasites by a Modified Bovine Host Defense Peptide, BMAP-18</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Haines, Lee</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thomas, J. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jackson, A. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Eyford, B. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Razavi, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Watson, C. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gowen, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hancock, R. E. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pearson, T. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-02-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000373</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:282
Date: 2015-05-28

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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:284
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:284</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:52Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Cell division and cell wall biosynthesis in prokaryotes are driven by partially overlapping multiprotein machineries whose activities are tightly controlled and co-ordinated. So far, a number of protein components have been identified and acknowledged as essential for both fundamental cellular processes. Genes for enzymes of both machineries have been found in the genomes of the cell wall-less genera Chlamydia and Wolbachia, raising questions as to the functionality of the lipid Il biosynthesis pathway and reasons for its conservation. We provide evidence on three levels that the lipid II biosynthesis pathway is indeed functional and essential in both genera: (i) fosfomycin, an inhibitor of MurA, catalysing the initial reaction in lipid II biosynthesis, has a detrimental effect on growth of Wolbachia cells; (ii) isolated cytoplasmic membranes from Wolbachia synthesize lipid II ex vivo; and (iii) recombinant MraY and MurG from Chlamydia and Wolbachia exhibit in vitro activity, synthesizing lipid I and lipid II respectively. We discuss the hypothesis that the necessity for maintaining lipid II biosynthesis in cell wall-lacking bacteria reflects an essential role of the precursor in © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Molecular Microbiology</dc:source><dc:subject>qw_51</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_600</dc:subject><dc:title>Functional conservation of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway in the cell wall-less bacteria chlamydia and wolbachia: Why is lipid II needed?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Henrichfreise, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Schiefer, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Schneider, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nzukou, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Poellinger, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoffmann, T. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Johnston, Kelly</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Moelleken, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wiedemann, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pfarr, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoerauf, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sahl, H. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06815.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:286
Date: 2015-08-20

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:286</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:47Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major human health scourge and a key cause of mortality. Its pathogenicity partly results from the phenomenon of "cytoadherence" mediated by the PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) family. Extracellular domains of PfEMP1s are variable and bind various host endothelial receptors, whereas their cytoplasmic domains (VARCs) are relatively conserved. VARCs affix PfEMP1s in the human erythrocyte membrane by interacting with host cytoskeleton proteins and exported parasite proteins. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for PfEMP1 phosphorylation (on VARC) and propose an important function for this modification. Specific inhibitors and enhancers have been used to identify erythrocytic casein kinase II (CKII) as the enzyme responsible for VARC modification activity. We have also delineated probable CKII target residues on VARC, which mainly reside in an N-terminal acidic cluster. Our data show that VARC phosphorylation alters its binding to parasite encoded knob-associated histidine-rich protein (KAHRP). Finally, we demonstrate reduced cytoadherence of infected RBCs to endothelial receptors like ICAM-1 and CSA (these contribute to cerebral and placental malaria, respectively) in response to their CKII inhibition. Collectively, this study furthers our understanding of VARC function, underscores the importance of erythrocytic CKII in cytoadherence, and suggests a possible new target for anti-cytoadherence molecules.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/286/1/JBiolChem_6260.full.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Society for Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology</dc:publisher><dc:source>Journal of Biological Chemistry</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_45</dc:subject><dc:title>Erythrocytic Casein Kinase II Regulates Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Red Blood Cells</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hora, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bridges, D. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Craig, Alister</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sharma, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:287
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:287</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:46Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-08-04">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background: Rosetting and cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells have been associated with severity of malaria. ICAM-1 and CD36 are the main host cell receptors, while PfEMP1-DBL alpha is a major parasite ligand, which can contribute to rosette formation. This study is aimed at demonstrating whether the highly polymorphic PfEMP1-DBL alpha sequences occurring among Thai isolates causing severe and uncomplicated malaria are associated with their ability to form rosettes and reflected the clinical outcome of the patients. Methods: Two hundred and ninety five PfEMP1-DBL alpha sequences from Thai clinical isolates causing severe and uncomplicated malaria were evaluated by sequencing and direct comparison using the specific text string analysis functions in Microsoft Excel and Perl. The relationships between the PfEMP1-DBL alpha sequences were also analysed by network analysis. The binding abilities of parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs) to CD36, wild type ICAM-1, ICAM-1Kilifi and ICAM-1S22/A under static condition were included. Results: Two hundred and eighty one non-identical amino acid sequences were identified (&lt; 95% sequence identity). When the distributions of semi-conserved features (PoLV1-4 and sequence group) within the rosetting domain PfEMP1-DBL alpha were observed, close similarity was found between isolates from the two disease groups. The sequence group 1 representing uncomplicated malaria was significantly different from the sequence group 3 representing the majority of severe malaria (p = 0.027). By using a simple non-phylogenetic approach to visualize the sharing of polymorphic blocks (position specific polymorphic block, PSPB) and cys/PoLV among DBL alpha sequences, the sequence group 1 was split from the other five sequence groups. The isolates belonging to sequence group 5 gave the highest mean rosetting rate (21.31%). However, within sequence group 2 and group 6, the isolates causing severe malaria had significantly higher rosetting rate than those causing uncomplicated malaria (p = 0.014, p = 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: This is the first report of PfEMP1-DBL alpha analysis in clinical Thai isolates using semi-conserved features (cys/PoLV and PSPBs). The cys/PoLV group 5 gave the highest rosetting rate. PfEMP1-DBL alpha domains in Thai isolates are highly diverse, however, clinical isolates from severe and uncomplicated malaria shared common sequences.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/287/1/1475-2875-8-184.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BioMed Central</dc:publisher><dc:source>Malaria Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_450</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_402</dc:subject><dc:title>Sequence variation of PfEMP1-DBL alpha in association with rosette formation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates causing severe and uncomplicated malaria</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Horata, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kalambaheti, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Craig, Alister</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Khusmith, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-184</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:288
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>The Lancet</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_765</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_680</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_755</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_770</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:title>Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hotez, P. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fenwick, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Savioli, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Molyneux, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60233-6</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:289
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-09-12">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Purpose: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is an immune-mediated disorder with autoimmune insult directed against antigens associated with melanocytes. The genetic predisposition among VKH has not been explored in Saudi Arabia. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles to VKH patients and to clarify the molecular genetic mechanism underlying the susceptibility or resistance to VKH disease. Methods: Genomic DNA from a total of 30 patients with VKH and 29 control subjects was extracted from peripheral blood, and HLA-DRB1 alleles were typed by polymerase chain reaction and sequence based typing (SBT). Results: We found a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HLA-DRB1 *0405 between the VKH patients and control subjects (p&lt;0.05). Eleven out of thirty (36.6%) patients with VKH had positive HLA-DRB1 *0405 compared to two out of twenty-nine (6.9%) control subjects. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the HLA-DRB1 alleles *01, *0101, *0102, *0301, *04, *0403, *0404, *0701, *1001, *1101, *1112, *1301, *1302, *1303, *1501, and *1502 between the VKH patients and controls. Conclusions: Patients with VKH had significantly greater incidence of HLA-DRB1 *0405 when compared to age and sex-matched controls. Consequently, this finding suggests that HLA-DRB1 *0405 allele might play a role in the pathogenesis of VKH disease. © 2009 Molecular Vision.</dc:description><dc:format>text/html</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/289/1/index.html</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Molecular Vision</dc:source><dc:subject>wd_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_720</dc:subject><dc:title>HLA-DRB1 among patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease in Saudi Arabia</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Iqniebi, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gaafar, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sheereen, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Al-Suliman, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mohamed, Gamal</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Al-Hussein, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tabbara, K. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:290
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BMJ Publishing Group</dc:publisher><dc:source>Thorax</dc:source><dc:subject>qw_700</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_140</dc:subject><dc:title>Presence of MBL in airways: is it a disease severity marker or an additional host defence mechanism?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Jambo, Kondwani C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gordon, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:292
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>International travel is increasing. Most physicians and general practitioners will encounter returned travellers with fever and the majority of travel-related infection is associated with travel to the tropics. In those returning from the tropics malaria must always be excluded, and HIV considered, from all settings. Common causes of non-malarial fever include from Africa rickettsial, diseases, amoebic liver abscess and Katayama syndrome; from South and South East Asia, enteric fever and arboviral infection; from the Middle East, brucellosis and from the Horn of Africa visceral leishmaniasis. Other rare but important diseases from particular geographical areas include leptospirosis, trypanosomiasis and viral haemorrhagic fever. North and South America, Europe and Australia also have infections which are geographically concentrated. Empirical treatment may have to be started based on epidemiological probability of infection whilst waiting for results to return. The evidence base for much of the management of tropical infections is limited. These recommendations provide a pragmatic approach to the initial diagnosis and management of fever in returned travellers, based on evidence where it is available and on consensus of expert opinion where it is not. With early diagnosis and treatment the majority of patients with a potentially fatal infection related to travel will make a rapid and full recovery. (c) 2009 The British Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Infection</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_755_1</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_680</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_755</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_705</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_310</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_715</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_420</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_765</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_695</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_105</dc:subject><dc:title>Fever in returned travellers presenting in the United Kingdom: Recommendations for investigation and initial management</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Johnston, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stockley, J. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dockrell, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Warrell, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bailey, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pasvol, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Klein, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ustianowski, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jones, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Beeching, Nicholas</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brown, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chapman, A. L. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sanderson, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Whitty, C. J. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>British Infection Soc; Hosp Tropical, Dis</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2009.05.005</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:293
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:293</identifier>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Artemisinin-acridine hybrids were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro activity against tumour cell lines and a chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum. They showed a 2-4-fold increase in activity against HL60, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in comparison with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and moderate antimalarial activity. Strong evidence that the compounds induce apoptosis in HL60 cells was obtained by flow cytometry, which indicated accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>Bioorganic &amp; Medicinal Chemistry Letters</dc:source><dc:subject>qz_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_256</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_254</dc:subject><dc:title>Antitumour and antimalarial activity of artemisinin-acridine hybrids</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Jones, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mercer, A. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stocks, Paul A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>La Pensee, L. J. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cosstick, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Park, B. K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kennedy, M. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Piantanida, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ward, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Davies, Jill</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bray, Patrick</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rawe, S. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baird, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Charidza, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Janneh, O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>O'Neill, P. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-04-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.02.028</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:294
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the incidence of infectious morbidity in infants in rural Malawi in relation to birth weight and fetal anaemia, a cohort of babies was followed for a year on the basis of LBW (&lt;2500) and FA (cord haemoglobin &lt;12.5g/dl). A matched group of normal birth weight (NBW), non-anaemic (NFA) new-borns were enrolled as controls. Morbidity episodes were recorded at 4-weekly intervals and at each extra visit made to a health centre with any illness. Infants in the NBW NFA group experienced an average of 1.15 (95% C.I. 0.99, 1.31), 1.04 (0.89, 1.19), 0.92 (0.73, 1.11) episodes per year of malaria, respiratory infection and diarrhoea respectively. Corresponding values for the LBW FA group were 0.83 (0.5, 1.16), 0.82 (0.5, 1.16) and 0.76 (0.33, 1.19). FA was not associated with a higher incidence of morbidity, but was significantly associated with a shorter time to first illness episode (p=0.014). LBW was not a significant risk factor for higher morbidity incidence. LBW and FA were not significant risk factors for incidence of illness episodes in infants.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Medical Association of Malawi</dc:publisher><dc:source>Malawi medical journal</dc:source><dc:subject>ws_115</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>wd_105</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_421</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_420</dc:subject><dc:subject>wh_100</dc:subject><dc:title>Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity in rural Malawi</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kalanda, Boniface F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Verhoeff, Francine H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>le Cessie, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brabin, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:295
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:295</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:53Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The neonicotinoid imidacloprid is one of the most important insecticides worldwide. It is used extensively against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an insect pest of eminent importance globally, which was also the first pest to develop high levels of resistance against imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids in the field. Recent reports indicated that in both the B and Q biotypes of B. tabaci, the resistant phenotype is associated with over-expression of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP6CM1. In this study, molecular docking and dynamic simulations were used to analyze interactions of imidacloprid with the biotype Q variant of the CYP6CM1 enzyme (CYP6CM1vQ). The binding mode with the lowest energy in the enzyme active site, the key amino acids involved (i.e. Phe-130 and Phe-226), and the putative hydroxylation site (lowest distance to carbon 5 of the imidazolidine ring system of imidacloprid) were predicted. Heterologous expression of the CYP6CM1vQ confirmed the accuracy of our predictions and demonstrated that the enzyme catalyses the hydroxylation of imidacloprid to its less toxic 5-hydroxy form (Kcat = 3.2 pmol/min/pmol P450, Km = 36 μM). The data identify CYP6CM1vQ as a principle target for inhibitor design, aimed at inactivating insecticide-metabolizing P450s in natural insect pest populations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_503</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:title>Structural model and functional characterization of the Bemisia tabaci CYP6CM1vQ, a cytochrome P450 associated with high levels of imidacloprid resistance</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Karunker, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Morou, Evangelia</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nikou, Dimitra</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nauen, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sertchook, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stevenson, Bradley</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Paine, Mark</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Morin, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vontas, John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2009.08.006</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:297
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-01-23">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious tropical disease that causes more than one million deaths each year, most of them in Africa. It is transmitted by a range of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of disease varies greatly across the continent. The "entomological inoculation rate" is the commonly-used measure of the intensity of malaria transmission, yet the methods used are currently not standardized, nor do they take the ecological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences across populations into account. To better understand the multiplicity of malaria transmission, this study examines the distribution of transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa, reviews the range of methods used, and explores ecological parameters in selected locations. It builds on an extensive geo-referenced database and uses geographical information systems to highlight transmission patterns, knowledge gaps, trends and changes in methodologies over time, and key differences between land use, population density, climate, and the main mosquito species. The aim is to improve the methods of measuring malaria transmission, to help develop the way forward so that we can better assess the impact of the large-scale intervention programmes, and rapid demographic and environmental change taking place across Africa.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/297/1/The_multiplicity_of_malaria_transmission_a_review_of_entomological_inoculation_rate_measurements_and_methods_across_sub_Saharan_Africa.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Malaria Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_680</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_515</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_700</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_695</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_115</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_105</dc:subject><dc:title>The multiplicity of malaria transmission: a review of entomological inoculation rate measurements and methods across sub-Saharan Africa</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kelly-Hope, Louise</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McKenzie, F. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-01-23</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-19</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:300
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:35Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-09-01">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>OBJECTIVES To improve enrolment in voluntary health insurance in rural Vietnam by increasing community understanding and knowledge of the schemes and ease of participation through a multi-faceted intervention including information, education and communication activities and efforts to improve the administration&#13;
of health insurance.&#13;
&#13;
METHODS The study took place in four rural districts in&#13;
Vietnam. In two of these districts a multi-faceted intervention was carried out which included strengthening the awareness and understanding of local people of Health Insurance schemes, through the development and distribution of information education and communication (IEC) messages and materials and training for Health Insurance partners and collaborators on IEC and efforts to improve the administration of the scheme. Pre- and post-intervention household surveys were conducted to investigate enrolment in and knowledge of health insurance, health seeking&#13;
behaviour, and costs of seeking healthcare. Pre- and postintervention qualitative studies were undertaken to investigate population, policy makers’ and service providers’ perceptions and experiences of health insurance, the interventions and attribution of any changes over the intervention period.&#13;
&#13;
RESULTS Following the intervention, enrolment in health insuranceincreased by 6.9% and 7.4% in the two intervention districts.&#13;
Community awareness of health insurance has improved in the&#13;
intervention districts. Following the intervention, there were 42% and 38% increases in awareness of voluntary health insurance schemes in the two districts. Similarly, community awareness of health insurance for the poor has also increased with 25% and 22% increases in the two districts. From the qualitative study factors affecting changes in enrolment and awareness emerged.&#13;
Health insurance collaborators provided information on health insurance to community members in their homes. There was better involvement of social organisations, such as the Red Cross, in promoting and administering health insurance. Enrolment procedures have improved resulting in fewer mistakes on health insurance cards and less delay in receiving cards. Procedures for admission to hospitals for people with health insurance have improved in the two intervention districts.&#13;
&#13;
CONCLUSION Enrolment has increased in the study areas.&#13;
Changes in awareness of HI and HI for the poor are likely to have contributed to the increases in enrolment. Interventions aiming to increase awareness of HI in the intervention districts appear to have contributed to this effect. Improvements in the administration of the schemes were also perceived to have contributed to increases&#13;
in enrolment.</dc:description><dc:format>application/msword</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/300/1/Tolhurst_Raven_Enrolment_in_health_insurance_in_rural_Vietnam.doc</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:relation>http://www.festmih.org/verona2009/</dc:relation><dc:source>Tropical Medicine &amp; International Health</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:title>Enrolment in health insurance in rural Vietnam</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Khan, P. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tolhurst, Rachel</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Duc, T. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thi, P. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pham, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Liu, X.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Raven, Joanna</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:301
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Problem Comprehensive service delivery models for providing post-rape care are largely from resource-rich countries and do not translate easily to resource-limited settings such as Kenya, despite an identified need and high rates of sexual violence and HIV. Approach Starting in 2002, we undertook to work through existing governmental structures to establish and sustain health sector services for survivors of sexual violence. Local setting In 2003 there was a lack of policy, coordination and service delivery mechanisms for post-rape care services in Kenya. Post-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection was not offered. Relevant changes A standard of care and a simple post-rape care systems algorithm were designed. A counselling protocol was developed. Targeted training that was knowledge-, skills- and values-based was provided to clinicians, laboratory personnel and trauma counsellors. The standard of care included clinical evaluation and documentation; clinical management, counselling and referral mechanisms. Between early 2004 and the end of 2007, a total of 784 survivors were seen in the three centres at an average cost of US$ 27, with numbers increasing each year Almost half (43%) of these were children less than 15 years of age. Lessons learned This paper describes how multisectoral teams at district level in Kenya agreed that they would provide post-exposure prophylaxis, physical examination, sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention services. These services were provided at casualty departments as well as through voluntary HIV counselling and testing sites. The paper outlines which considerations they took into account, who accessed the services and how the lessons learned were translated into national policy and the scale-up of post-rape care services through the key involvement of the Division of Reproductive Health.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>World Health Organization</dc:publisher><dc:source>Bulletin of the World Health Organization</dc:source><dc:subject>wb_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_19</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:title>Delivering post-rape care services: Kenya's experience in developing integrated services</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kilonzo, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Theobald, Sally</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nyamato, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ajema, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Muchela, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kibaru, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rogena, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Taegtmeyer, Miriam</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-04-16</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.08.052340</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:302
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Does scaling up of malaria: control by combining indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) enhance protection to populations? Results from a literature search and from recent household surveys in Bioko, Equatorial Guinea, and Zambezia, Mozambique are presented. Five out of eight previous studies reported a reduced risk of infection in those protected by both interventions compared with one intervention alone. Surveys in Bioko and Zambezia showed strong evidence of a protective effect of IRS combined with nets relative to IRS alone (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-0.86 for Bioko, and OR = 0.63,95% CI 0.50-0.79, for Zambezia). The effect of both interventions combined, compared with those who had neither, was OR 0.46, (95% CI = 0.76-0.81) in Bioko and 0.34 (95% CI = 0.21-0.56) in Zambezia. Although the effects of confounding cannot be excluded, these results provide encouragement that the additional resources for combining IRS and LLIN are justified.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:publisher><dc:source>American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_108</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_240</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_765</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:title>Combining Indoor Residual Spraying and Insecticide-Treated Net Interventions</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kleinschmidt, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Schwabe, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Shiva, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Segura, J. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sima, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mabunda, S. J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coleman, Michael</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:303
Date: 2015-05-28

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ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:304
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Objective To establish a baseline for the availability, utilisation and quality of maternal and neonatal health care services for monitoring and evaluation of a maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality reduction programme in three districts in the Central Region of Malawi. Methods Survey of all the 73 health facilities (13 hospitals and 60 health centres) that provide maternity services in the three districts (population, 2,812,183). Results There were 1.6 comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) facilities per 500,000 population and 0.8 basic emergency obstetric care (BEmOC) facilities per 125,000 population. About 23% of deliveries were conducted in emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities and the met need for emergency obstetric complications was 20.7%. The case fatality rate for emergency obstetric complications treated in health facilities was 2.0%. Up to 86.7% of pregnant women attended antenatal clinic at least once and only 12.0% of them attend postnatal clinic at least once. There is a shortage of qualified staff and unequal distribution with more staff in hospitals leaving health centres severely understaffed. Conclusions The total number of CEmOC facilities is adequate but the distribution is unequal, leaving some rural areas with poor access to CEmOC services. There are no functional BEmOC facilities in the three districts. In order to reduce maternal mortality in Malawi and countries with similar socio-economic profile, there is a need to upgrade some health facilities to at least BEmOC level by training staff and providing equipment and supplies.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer Netherlands</dc:publisher><dc:source>Maternal and Child Health Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_240</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_330</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_400</dc:subject><dc:title>Availability, Utilisation and Quality of Basic and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Malawi</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hofman, Jan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kongnyuy, Eugene J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mlava, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mhango, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Den Broek, Nynke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-008-0380-y</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:305
Date: 2015-05-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:305</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:54Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Although Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC) is globally accepted as a key strategy to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality, there is still a lot of debate surrounding its use - What is EOC? Is it evidence-based? How can we measure it? How can we improve access to EOC? This paper attempts to answer these questions. Although there are no randomized controlled trials, there is strong evidence from quasi-experimental, observational and ecological studies that EOC should be a critical component of any programme to reduce maternal mortality. This paper also identifies the barriers to accessing EOC and proposes strategies to overcome them which could contribute to achieving Millennium Development Goal 5.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley</dc:publisher><dc:source>BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics &amp; Gynaecology</dc:source><dc:subject>wq_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_310</dc:subject><dc:title>Ensuring effective Essential Obstetric Care in resource poor settings</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kongnyuy, Eugene J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hofman, Jan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Den Broek, Nynke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-09-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02332.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:306
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:306</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:38Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-02-27">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background: To assess the acceptability of intrapartum HIV testing and determine the prevalence of HIV among labouring women with unknown HIV status in Cameroon. Method: The study was conducted in four hospitals (two referral and two districts hospitals) in Cameroon. Labouring women with unknown HIV status were counselled and those who accepted were tested for HIV. Results: A total of 2413 women were counselled and 2130 (88.3%) accepted to be tested for HIV. Of the 2130 women tested, 214 (10.1%) were HIV positive. Acceptability of HIV testing during labour was negatively associated with maternal age, parity and number of antenatal visits, but positively associated with level of education. HIV sero-status was positively associated with maternal age, parity, number of antenatal visits and level education. Conclusion: Acceptability of intrapartum HIV testing is high and the prevalence of HIV is also high among women with unknown HIV sero-status in Cameroon. We recommend an opt-out approach (where women are informed that HIV testing will be routine during labour if HIV status is unknown but each person may decline to be tested) for Cameroon and countries with similar social profiles. © 2009 Kongnyuy et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/306/1/1471-2393-9-9.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth</dc:source><dc:subject>wq_240</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_400</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:title>Acceptability of intrapartum HIV counselling and testing in Cameroon</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kongnyuy, Eugene J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mbu, E. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mbopi-Keou, F. X.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fomulu, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nana, P. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tebeu, P. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tonye, R. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Leke, R. J. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-02-27</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-9-9</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:307
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:307</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:54Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>To assess and improve the management of obstructed labour in maternity units in Malawi. &#13;
A criterion based audit of the management of obstructed labour was conducted in 8 hospitals in three districts in Malawi. Management practices were: (a) assessed by a retrospective review of 44 cases notes, and (b) compared with local standards established, by a multidisciplinary team, based on the Malawi Ministry of Health guidelines and World Health Organisation manuals. Gaps in current practice were identified, reasons discussed, and recommendations made and implemented. A re-audit (41 case notes) was conducted 3 months later. &#13;
There were significant improvements in the attainment of four standards: draining of urinary bladder (70.5 vs. 90.2%; P = 0.022), administration of broad spectrum antibiotics (72.7 vs. 90.2%; P = 0.039), commencement of Caesarean section within 1 hour or delivery of the foetus within 2 h of diagnosis (38.6 vs. 61.0%; P = 0.023), and maintaining an observation chart (45.5 vs. 61.0%; P &lt; 0.001). However, there was no significant change in two standards: securing an intravenous line and hydrating the patient (95.5 vs. 97.6%; P = 0.804), and typing and cross-match of blood (77.3 vs. 63.4%; P = 0.197). There was a reduction in case fatality rate (9.1 vs. 2.4%; P = 0.361) and perinatal mortality (18.8 vs. 12.2%, P = 0.462).&#13;
Criterion based audit can improve the management of obstructed labour in countries with limited resources.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics</dc:source><dc:subject>wq_330</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_430</dc:subject><dc:title>A criterion based audit of the management of obstructed labour in Malawi</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kongnyuy, Eugene J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mlava, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Den Broek, Nynke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-008-0786-1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:308
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:308</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:54Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Aim: To assess and improve women-friendly care in. maternity units in Malawi. Methods: We interviewed 280 women about the care they received during childbirth at 29 different health centers. Results were compared with standards for women-friendly care, developed locally and based on evidence from World Health Organization manuals. The audit results were presented, and recommendations were made and implemented. A re-audit (involving 367 women) was conducted 3 months later. Results: Significant improvements were recorded on greeting clients (74.6 vs 87.7%; P &lt; 0.001), respect for clients (91.1 vs 98.6%; P &lt; 0.001), support by a companion during labor (58.9 vs 75.60%; P &lt; 0.001), informing clients about different birthing positions (68.6 vs 79.30%; P = 0.002), allowing clients to adopt different birthing positions (67.9 vs 83.4%; P &lt; 0.001), cleanliness of maternity wards (89.6 vs 97.0%; P &lt; 0.001), speaking to clients using simple language (92.1. vs 98.6%; P &lt; 0.001), ensuring privacy with curtains or screens (86.1 vs 92.1%; P &lt; 0.012), and client willing to recommend the health facility to a friend (94.6 vs 98.6%; P = 0.004). However, there were no significant changes in the level of self-introduction by providers (62.5 vs 68.7%; P = 0.103) and provision of a clean bathroom and toilet (83.6 vs 80.4%; P = 0.282). Surprisingly, there was a significant deterioration in the use of linen to ensure privacy (86.4% vs 74.9%; P &lt; 0.001). Overall, satisfaction of women increased by 9%. Conclusion: The criteria-based audit was associated with an improvement in the quality of women-friendly care services in maternity units in Malawi.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:source>Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_160</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_175</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_20_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_20</dc:subject><dc:title>Criteria-based audit to improve women-friendly care in maternity units in Malawi</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kongnyuy, Eugene J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mlava, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Den Broek, Nynke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-06-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0756.2008.00990.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:309
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:309</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:54Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Purpose. We sought to determine the causes and characteristics maternal deaths that occur in health facilities in Malawi. Methods. Forty-three maternal deaths were reviewed in 9 hospitals in 3 districts in Central Malawi over a 1-year period. Causes and avoidable factors of maternal deaths were identified during the review, and recommendations made and implemented. Main Findings. There were 28 (65.1%) direct obstetric deaths and 15 (34.9%) indirect obstetric deaths. The major causes of maternal deaths were postpartum hemorrhage (25.6%), postpartum sepsis (16.3%), HIV/AIDS (16.3%), ruptured uterus (7.0%), complications of abortion (7.0%), anemia (7.0%), antepartum hemorrhage (4.7), and eclampsia (4.7). Two thirds of the women were referred either from another health facility (51.2%) or by a traditional birth attendant (TBA; 11.6%), and up to 79.1% were critically ill on admission. Four groups of factors that contributed to maternal deaths were identified: 1) health worker factors, 2) administrative factors, 3) patient/family factors, and 4) TBA factors. The major health worker factors were inadequate resuscitation (69.8%), lack of obstetric life-saving skills (60.5%), inadequate monitoring (55.8%), initial assessment incomplete (46.5%), and delay in starting treatment (46.5%). The most common administrative factor was lack of blood for transfusion (20.9%). The major problems encountered include shortage of staff and other resources, difficulty in maintaining anonymity, poor quality of data, and difficulty in implementing recommendations. Conclusion. Adequate training on obstetric life-saving skills, addressing HIV/AIDS, and raising community awareness could be important factors for reducing maternal mortality in Malawi and countries with similar socioeconomic profiles.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Womens Health Issues</dc:source><dc:subject>wq_330</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_240</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_310</dc:subject><dc:title>Facility-Based Maternal Death Review In Three Districts In The Central Region of Malawi : An Analysis of Causes and Characteristics of Maternal Deaths</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kongnyuy, Eugene J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mlava, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Den Broek, Nynke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2008.09.008</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:310
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Objective: The goal of this study was to assess and improve the management of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in maternity units in Malawi. The main objective was to determine whether criteria-based audit can improve adherence to standards for the management of PPH. Methods: We used a before-and-after design and univariate statistics for data analysis. A retrospective review of 40 consecutive cases of PPH was conducted in eight hospitals and the results compared with standards for PPH, established based on World Health Organisation manuals. Results of the audit were presented to healthcare providers who made and implemented recommendations for improvement. A re-audit (45 cases) was conducted 3 months later. Results: There was a significant improvement in adherence to three standards: typing and cross-match carried out (65.0% vs. 84.4%; P = 0.034), patient's hematocrit or haemoglobin established (67.5% vs. 86.7%; P = 0.029), and fluid intake/output chart maintained (0.0% vs 33.3%; P &lt; 0.001). There was no significant change in close monitoring of vital signs (32.5% vs. 53.3%, P = 0.065) and case fatality rate (10.0% vs. 6.7%, P = 0.702), intravenous access achieved and intravenous fluids administered (100.0% vs. 97.8%; P = 0.735), and oxytocic drugs administered (100.0% vs. 95.6%; P = 0.357). Conclusion: Introduction of criteria-based audit can improve the management of postpartum haemorrhage in countries with limited resources. Future studies should consider using larger sample size to evaluate the effect of criteria-based audit on mortality. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer Netherlands</dc:publisher><dc:source>Maternal and Child Health Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_330</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_400</dc:subject><dc:title>Using criteria-based audit to improve the management of postpartum haemorrhage in resource limited countries: A case study of Malawi</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kongnyuy, Eugene J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mlava, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Den Broek, Nynke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-008-0408-3</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:311
Date: 2015-02-17

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Although there is evidence that audit and feedback can improve health outcomes, little is known about the effect of audit on the quality of care from client's perspective. The aim of the current review was to explore the use of criterion-based audit to improve quality of obstetric care from both the midwives/doctors' and women/mothers' perspectives. Electronic searches of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were conducted. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and before-and-after studies that assessed the effect of criterion-based audit on health outcomes or women/mothers' perception of obstetric care were set as selection criteria. Data were extracted, analyzed using Revman 4.2 software, and results expressed as weighted mean differences for continuous data, and odds ratios for dichotomous data. Nineteen studies (one RCT and 18 before-and-after studies) involving 32,972 participants met our inclusion criteria. None of these studies assessed the effect of audit on quality from the women/mothers' perspective and none of the studies compared the effectiveness of different types of feedback. Ninety-five percentage (18/19) of studies showed significant improvement in at least one standard measured. Criterion-based audit has been used in obstetrics to improve quality from one dimension, namely the midwives/doctors' perspective. Midwives/doctors should consider the use of audit to improve quality of care from the mothers' view. There is need for well-designed RCTs to assess the effectiveness of different types of feedback in criterion-based audit.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Taylor and Francis</dc:publisher><dc:source>Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_240</dc:subject><dc:subject>f0e481db</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_430</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_300</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:subject>wq_400</dc:subject><dc:title>Use of criterion-based clinical audit to improve the quality of obstetric care: A systematic review</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kongnyuy, Eugene J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Uthman, Olalekan A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016340903093542</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:314
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-07-06">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background: Male mosquitoes do not feed on blood and are not involved in delivery of pathogens to humans. Consequently, they are seldom the subjects of research, which results in a very poor understanding of their biology. To gain insights into male developmental processes we sought to identify genes transcribed exclusively in the reproductive tissues of male Anopheles gambiae pupae. Results: Using a cDNA subtraction strategy, five male-specifically or highly male-biased expressed genes were isolated, four of which remain unannotated in the An. gambiae genome. Spatial and temporal expression patterns suggest that each of these genes is involved in the mid-late stages of spermatogenesis. Their sequences are rapidly evolving; however, two genes possess clear homologs in a wide range of taxa and one of these probably acts in a sperm motility control mechanism conserved in many organisms, including humans. The other three genes have no match to sequences from non-mosquito taxa, thus can be regarded as orphans. RNA in situ hybridization demonstrated that one of the orphans is transcribed in spermatids, which suggests its involvement in sperm maturation. Two other orphans have unknown functions. Expression analysis of orthologs of all five genes indicated that male-biased transcription was not conserved in the majority of cases in Aedes and Culex. Conclusion: Discovery of testis-expressed orphan genes in mosquitoes opens new prospects for the development of innovative control methods. The orphan encoded proteins may represent unique targets of selective anti-mosquito sterilizing agents that will not affect non-target organisms.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/314/1/1471-2164-10-300.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BioMed Central</dc:publisher><dc:source>Bmc Genomics</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_530</dc:subject><dc:subject>qu_450</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_515</dc:subject><dc:subject>qu_350</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_525</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_541</dc:subject><dc:title>Analysis of expression in the Anopheles gambiae developing testes reveals rapidly evolving lineage-specific genes in mosquitoes</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Krzywinska, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Krzywinski, Jaroslaw</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-300</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:315
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:315</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:55Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Infection</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_770</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_748</dc:subject><dc:title>Corrigendum to "UK malaria treatment guidelines" [Journal of Infection 54 (2007)111-121]</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Lalloo, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Shingadia, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pasvol, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chiodini, P. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Whitty, C. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Beeching, Nicholas</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hill, D. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Warrell, D. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bannister, B. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Preventi, H. P. A. Advisory Comm Malaria</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2009.04.007</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:316
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-03-20">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Plasmodium falciparum infection results in adhesion of infected erythrocytes to blood vessel endothelium, and acute endothelial cell activation, together with sequestration of platelets and leucocytes. We have previously shown that patients with severe infection or fulminant cerebral malaria have significantly increased circulatory levels of the adhesive glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its propeptide, both of which are indices of endothelial cell activation. In this prospective study of patients from Ghana with severe (n = 20) and cerebral (n = 13) P. falciparum malaria, we demonstrate that increased plasma VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) level is associated with disproportionately increased VWF function. VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB) was significantly increased in patients with cerebral malaria and severe malaria (medians 7.6 and 7.0 lU/ml versus 1.9 IU/ml;p&lt;0.005). This increased VWF:CB correlated with the presence of abnormal ultra-large VWF multimers in patient rather than control plasmas. Concomitant with the increase in VWF:Ag and VWF:CB was a significant persistent reduction in the activity of the VWF-specific cleaving protease ADAMTS13 (∼55% of normal;p&lt;0.005). Mixing studies were performed using P. falciparum patient plasma and normal pooled plasma, in the presence or absence of exogenous recombinant ADAMTS13. These studies demonstrated that in malarial plasma, ADAMTS13 function was persistently inhibited in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect was not associated with the presence of known inhibitors of ADAMTS13 enzymatic function (interleukin-6, free haemoglobin, factor VIII or thrombospondin-1). These novel findings suggest that severe P. falciparum infection is associated with acute endothelial cell activation, abnormal circulating ULVWF multimers, and a significant reduction in plasma ADAMTS13 function which is mediated at least in part by an unidentified inhibitor.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/316/1/Plos_Path_5_3_e1000349.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Public Library of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>PLoS Pathogens</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_515</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_105</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_680</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_695</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>wh_312</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_421</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_430</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_440</dc:subject><dc:title>Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with circulating ultra-large von willebrand multimers and ADAMTS13 inhibition</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Larkin, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>De Laat, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jenkins, P. V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bunn, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Craig, Alister</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Terraube, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Preston, R. J. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Donkor, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Grau, G. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Van Mourik, J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>O'Donnell, J. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03-20</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000349</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:317
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Background/Objectives: Iron deficiency anemia is a major public health problem in developing countries and may affect school performance and physical work capacity in nonpregnant adolescents, and may increase the risk of anemia during subsequent teenage pregnancies. We assessed the effect of weekly iron (120 mg elemental iron) and vitamin A (25 000 IU) supplementation on hemoglobin, iron status and malaria and nonmalaria morbidity in adolescent schoolgirls.&#13;
Subjects/Methods: A total of 279 schoolgirls aged 12-18 years from public primary schools in Kisumu, western Kenya. Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial using a factorial design.&#13;
Results: Five months of iron supplementation was associated with a 0.52 g dl(-1) (0.21, 0.82) greater increase in hemoglobin relative to iron placebo. The effect was only observed in girls with iron deficiency on enrollment (1.34 g dl(-1) (0.79, 1.88)), but not in iron-replete girls (-0.20 g dl(-1) (-0.59, 0.18)). Similar differences in treatment effect were seen between menstruating and nonmenstruating girls. The effect of iron was independent of vitamin A. The baseline prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was low (6.7%) and no sustained increase in hemoglobin was seen with weekly vitamin A (-0.07 g dl(-1) (-0.38, 0.25)). Incidence of malaria parasitemia was higher in the iron than iron-placebo groups (Rate ratio 1.33 (0.94, 1.88)).&#13;
Conclusions: Weekly iron supplementation results in substantial increases in hemoglobin concentration in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya, which may outweigh possible risks caused by malaria, but only in iron-deficient or menstruating girls and not in iron-replete and nonmenstruating girls.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>European Journal of Clinical Nutrition</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wd_105</dc:subject><dc:subject>wh_160</dc:subject><dc:subject>ws_460</dc:subject><dc:title>The effect of weekly iron and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin levels and iron status in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Leenstra, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kariuki, S. K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kurtis, J. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oloo, A. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kager, P. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ter Kuile, Feiko</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007-10-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602919</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:318
Date: 2015-08-20

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:318</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:44Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-03-06">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background: Malaria is a global health emergency, and yet our understanding of the energy metabolism of the principle causative agent of this devastating disease, Plasmodium falciparum, remains rather basic. Glucose was shown to be an essential nutritional requirement nearly 100 years ago and since this original observation, much of the current knowledge of Plasmodium energy metabolism is based on early biochemical work, performed using basic analytical techniques (e.g. paper chromatography), carried out almost exclusively on avian and rodent malaria. Data derived from malaria parasite genome and transcriptome studies suggest that the energy metabolism of the parasite may be more complex than hitherto anticipated. This study was undertaken in order to further characterize the fate of glucose catabolism in the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum.&#13;
Methods: Products of glucose catabolism were determined by incubating erythrocyte-freed parasites with D-[1-C-13] glucose under controlled conditions and metabolites were identified using C-13-NMR spectroscopy.&#13;
Results: Following a 2 h incubation of freed-P. falciparum parasites with 25 mM D-[1-C-13] glucose (n = 4), the major metabolites identified included; [3-C-13] lactate, [1,3-C-13] glycerol, [3-C-13] pyruvate, [3-C-13] alanine and [3-C-13] glycerol-3-phosphate. Control experiments performed with uninfected erythrocytes incubated under identical conditions did not show any metabolism of D-[1-C-13] glucose to glycerol or glycerol-3-phosphate.&#13;
Discussion: The identification of glycerol as a major glucose metabolite confirms the view that energy metabolism in this parasite is more complex than previously proposed. It is hypothesized here that glycerol production by the malaria parasite is the result of a metabolic adaptation to growth in O-2-limited (and CO2 elevated) conditions by the operation of a glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle for the re-oxidation of assimilatory NADH. Similar metabolic adaptations have been reported previously for other microaerobic/anaerobic organisms, such as yeast, rumen protozoa and human parasitic protozoa.&#13;
Conclusion: These data highlight the need to re-evaluate the carbon and redox balance of this important human pathogen, ultimately leading to a better understanding of how the parasite is able to adapt to the variable environments encountered during parasite development and disease progression.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/318/1/MalariaJ_1475-2875-8-38.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Malaria Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:title>Glycerol: An unexpected major metabolite of energy metabolism by the human malaria parasite</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Lian, L. Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Al-Helal, Mohammed</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roslaini, A. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fisher, Nicholas</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bray, Patrick</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ward, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Biagini, Giancarlo</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-03-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-38</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:319
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-07-07">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Tsetse flies, which transmit sleeping sickness to humans and nagana to cattle, are commonly controlled by stationary artificial baits consisting of traps or insecticide-treated screens known as targets. In Kenya the use of electrocuting sampling devices showed that the numbers of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Newstead) visiting a biconical trap were nearly double those visiting a black target of 100 cm x 100 cm. However, only 40% of the males and 21% of the females entered the trap, whereas 71% and 34%, respectively, alighted on the target. The greater number visiting the trap appeared to be due to its being largely blue, rather than being three-dimensional or raised above the ground. Through a series of variations of target design we show that a blue-and-black panel of cloth (0.06 m(2)) flanked by a panel (0.06 m(2)) of fine black netting, placed at ground level, would be about ten times more cost-effective than traps or large targets in control campaigns. This finding has important implications for controlling all subspecies of G. fuscipes, which are currently responsible for more than 90% of sleeping sickness cases.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/319/1/Plos_NTD_3_7_e474.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Public Library of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_505</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:title>Improving the Cost-Effectiveness of Artificial Visual Baits for Controlling the Tsetse Fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Lindh, Jenny</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Torr, Stephen J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vale, G. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lehane, Mike</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000474</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:321
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-05-05">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Background. The HIV and AIDS epidemic in Malawi poses multiple challenges from an equity perspective. It is estimated that 12% of Malawians are living with HIV or AIDS among the 15-49 age group. This paper synthesises available information to bring an equity lens on Counselling and Testing (CT) and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) policy, practice and provision in Malawi. Methods. A synthesis of a wide range of published and unpublished reports and studies using a variety of methodological approaches was undertaken. The analysis and recommendations were developed, through consultation with key stakeholders in Malawi. Findings. At the policy level Malawi is unique in having an equity in access to ART policy, and equity considerations are also included in key CT documents. The number of people accessing CT has increased considerably from 149,540 in 2002 to 482,364 in 2005. There is urban bias in provision of CT and more women than men access CT. ART has been provided free since June 2004 and scale up of ART provision is gathering pace. By end December 2006, there were 85,168 patients who had ever started on ART in both the public and private health sector, 39% of the patients were male while 61% were female. The majority of patients were adults, and 7% were children, aged 14 years or below. Despite free ART services, patients, especially poor rural patients face significant barriers in access and adherence to services. There are missed opportunities in strengthening integration between CT and ART and TB, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and maternal health services. Conclusion. To promote equitable access for CT and ART in Malawi there is need to further invest in human resources for health, and seize opportunities to integrate CT and ART services with tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections and maternal health services. This should not only promote access to services but also ensure that resources available for CT and ART strengthen rather than undermine the provision of the essential health package in Malawi. Ongoing equity analysis of services is important in analyzing which groups are unrepresented in services and developing initiatives to address these. Creative models of decentralization, whilst maintaining quality of services are needed to further enhance access of poor rural women, men, girls and boys.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/321/1/Theobald_Who_has_access_to_counseling_and_testing_anti_retro_viral_therapy.....pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>BioMed Central Ltd</dc:publisher><dc:source>International Journal for Equity in Health</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_503_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_305</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503_6</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503</dc:subject><dc:subject>f0e481db</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503_5</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_340</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_330</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_142</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_525</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_503_2</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_140</dc:subject><dc:title>Who has access to counseling and testing and anti-retroviral therapy in Malawi - An equity analysis</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Makwiza, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nyirenda, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bongololo, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Banda, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chimzizi, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Theobald, Sally</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-05-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-8-13</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:322
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2009-01-15">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1) is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, which have key and diverse roles in the gene-regulatory networks of the immune system. IRF-1 has been described as a critical mediator of IFN-gamma signalling and as the major player in driving TH1 type responses. It is therefore likely to be crucial in both innate and adaptive responses against intracellular pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum. Polymorphisms at the human IRF1 locus have been previously found to be associated with the ability to control P. falciparum infection in populations naturally exposed to malaria. In order to test whether genetic variation at the IRF1 locus also affects the risk of developing severe malaria, we performed a family-based test of association for 18 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) across the gene in three African populations, using genotype data from 961 trios consisting of one affected child and his/her two parents (555 from The Gambia, 204 from Kenya and 202 from Malawi). No significant association with severe malaria or severe malaria subphenotypes (cerebral malaria and severe malaria anaemia) was observed for any of the SNPs/haplotypes tested in any of the study populations. Our results offer no evidence that the molecular pathways regulated by the transcription factor IRF-1 are involved in the immune-based pathogenesis of severe malaria.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/322/1/Plos_ONE_4_1_e4206.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Public Library of Science</dc:publisher><dc:source>PLoS ONE</dc:source><dc:subject>qw_552</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_553</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_551</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_680</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_755</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>qu_450</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_110</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_563</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_765</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_695</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_115</dc:subject><dc:subject>qw_541</dc:subject><dc:title>Lack of association of interferon regulatory factor 1 with severe malaria in affected child-parental trio studies across three african populations</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mangano, V. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Clark, T. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Auburn, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Campino, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Diakite, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fry, A. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Green, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Richardson, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jallow, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sisay-Joof, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pinder, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Griffiths, M. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Newton, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Peshu, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Williams, T. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marsh, Kevin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Molyneux, Malcolm E</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Taylor, T. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Modiano, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kwiatkowski, D. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rockett, K. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-01-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004206</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:323
Date: 2015-05-28

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      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:323</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:55Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Determining malaria vector species and age is crucial to measure malaria risk. Although different in ecology and susceptibility to control, the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis are morphologically similar and can be differentiated only by molecular techniques. Furthermore, few reliable methods exist to estimate the age of these vectors, which is a key predictor of malaria transmission intensity. We evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine vector species and age. This non-destructive technique predicted the species of field-collected mosquitoes with approximately 80% accuracy and predicted the species of laboratory-reared insects with almost 100% accuracy. The relative age of young or old females was predicted with approximately 80% accuracy, and young and old insects were predicted with ≥ 90% accuracy. For applications where rapid assessment of the age structure and species composition of wild vector populations is needed, NIRS offers a valuable alternative to traditional methods. Copyright © 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:publisher><dc:source>American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene</dc:source><dc:subject>qx_20</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_650</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_600</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_515</dc:subject><dc:title>Non-destructive determination of age and species of Anopheles gambiae s.l. using near-infrared spectroscopy</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mayagaya, V. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Michel, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Benedict, M. Q.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Killeen, Gerry</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wirtz, R. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ferguson, H. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dowell, F. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0192</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:324
Date: 2015-05-28

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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:324</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:56Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>OBJECTIVES To ascertain the known burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Africa and of spirometry use to indicate the possibility of further unpublished data becoming shortly available. METHOD Literature review. results Screening of 132 articles yielded 22 relevant articles, of which only six used spirometry based data. A total of 106 physicians in 34 countries were contacted and only 23 reported satisfactory use and availability of spirometry. CONCLUSIONS Current estimates of COPD burden in Africa are based on an unreliably small dataset. Acquisition of further data will require substantial investment in lung function equipment and training.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Tropical Medicine &amp; International Health</dc:source><dc:subject>wa_30</dc:subject><dc:subject>wa_395</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_140</dc:subject><dc:subject>wf_100</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_143</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_200</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_141</dc:subject><dc:title>The burden of COPD in Africa: a literature review and prospective survey of the availability of spirometry for COPD diagnosis in Africa</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mehrotra, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oluwole, A. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gordon, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-08-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02308.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:325
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:325</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:32Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Aims: To identify priorities for improving effective use of laboratory services in a district hospital in Malawi. Methods: A prospective observational study of clinician-patient interactions to analyse laboratory test requesting practices and utilisation of laboratory results. The proportion of tests that was appropriately ordered, processed and ultimately influenced clinical management was used to assess effectiveness of utilisation. Results: 420 clinical consultations between health professionals and patients were observed. 92% of tests were ordered appropriately, 84% were processed by the laboratory and 64% of results influenced patient management. 73-79% of high-volume tests (haemoglobin, microscopy for malaria and tuberculosis) and 32% of low-volume tests influenced management. Conclusions: 25% of commonly requested laboratory tests were not utilised effectively; because of the high volume, interventions to improve their use are likely to be cost effective. Although 68% of low-volume tests were not used efficiently, the cost of providing support for these tests in a resource-poor setting needs to be balanced against their clinical usefulness. In contrast to published information, this study shows significant underrequesting of laboratory tests that were available. Measures to increase appropriate test requests will have implications for clinician education as well as laboratory space, budgets and staffing levels.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/325/1/Utilisation_of_laboratory_services_by_health_workers_in_a_district_hospital_in_malawi.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Clinical Pathology</dc:source><dc:subject>qz_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>f0e481db</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_4</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_710</dc:subject><dc:subject>wb_141</dc:subject><dc:subject>qy_250</dc:subject><dc:title>Utilisation of laboratory services by health workers in a district hospital in Malawi</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mepham, S. O.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Squire, Bertie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chisuwo, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kandulu, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bates, Imelda</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2009.069062</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:327
Date: 2015-08-20

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:327</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T16:19:46Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The survival rate of infected vectors represents one of the fundamental components that influence the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases. Despite the occurrence of a number of studies investigating Mosquito survival after infection with filarial worms, there remains conflicting evidence from both laboratory and field experiments as to the existence and mechanism for parasite-induced mortality among filarial mosquitoes, Here, we used a mixed effects meta-analytical framework to combine the data front all available vector-human host blood feeding experiments to evaluate, the evidence for the impact of parasite load oil the mortality rates of the three major lymphatic filariasis transmitting mosquito genera, Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles mosquitoes, over the extrinsic incubation period of parasitic infection. The results slow that, despite the application of this approach, or in the case of Anopheles using a convention fixed effects logistic regression analysis supplemented with additional survival analysis of longitudinal data, no strong association between mortality rate and microfilariae (mf) uptake for either of the three mosquito genera is apparent in the combined data. Instead, a key finding is that study effects played a more crucial role in determining the levels of mortality observed in these experimental studies. This was most revealing in the case of Cidex, given that the largest single study in terms of both the number of data points and range of mf intensities, in contrast to smaller studies, showed a significant positive association between mf intensity and mortality, indicating that in this genus at least, the detrimental effect of infection may be manifested only at the highest mf intakes. Although no density dependence in vector mortality was also observed for Aedes, possibly because of the use of restricted human mf intensity range in previous studies, all intriguing finding was that a significantly higher overall mortality was observed for this genus over mf intake ranges that produced much less corresponding mortality in Culex and Anopheles. The results also indicate that currently very little can be said about the survival rate of Anopheles mosquitoes infected with filarial worms because of the striking paucity of data for this genus. Further studies, using standardized methods and covering an appropriate range of mf uptake intensities and using study frameworks that allow the design and comparison of data from both experimental and field experiments, are clearly indicated if we are to reliably quantify the likely effect of filarial infection on vector survival.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/327/1/Michael%2C_Snow%2C_Bockarie_JEM.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Medical Entomology</dc:source><dc:subject>wc_880</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_510</dc:subject><dc:title>Ecological Meta-Analysis of Density-Dependent Processes in the Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis: Survival of Infected Vectors</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Michael, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Snow, L. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bockarie, Moses</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0420</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:328
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
PropertyError
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:328</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:55:56Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Chlorproguanil (CPG)-dapsone (DDS)-artesunate was in development for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The pharmacokinetics of CPG, DDS, artesunate and their metabolites chlorcycloguanil (CCG), monoacetyl dapsone (MADDS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were investigated in patients with P. falciparum given CPG-DDS alone or plus artesunate. Adult patients from Malawi and The Gambia taking part in a phase II clinical trial were randomised to receive a 3-day treatment of CPG-DDS alone (2/2.5 mg/kg/day) or plus 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg/day artesunate. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-first dose. The pharmacokinetic analysis included 115 patients. For CPG, there was no significant effect of artesunate on C-max or AUC(0-24), except the 90% confidence interval (CI) for AUC(0-24) for the 4 mg/kg artesunate dose was slightly below that for the standard bioequivalence range (90% CI 0.78, 1.11); this was not considered clinically relevant. Artesunate increased the CCG AUC(0-24) by 6-17% and C-max by 0-16%. Artesunate had no significant effect on the rate or extent of absorption of DDS. For MADDS, artesunate increased the AUC(0-24) by 13-47% and C-max by 8-45%. For 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg artesunate dosing, artesunate AUC(0-a) was 64.6, 151 and 400 ng center dot h/ml and C-max 48.9, 106 and 224 ng/ml respectively; DHA AUC(0-a) was 538, 1,445 and 3,837 ng center dot h/ml and C-max 228, 581 and 1,414 ng/ml respectively. Using a power model, the point estimates of slope were greater than 1 for artesunate AUC(0-t) by 16% and C-max by 5% and for DHA by 39 and 21% respectively. Artesunate did not significantly affect CPG or DDS pharmacokinetics. For CCG and MADDS, small to moderate increases in exposure with artesunate dosing were observed. There was a greater than proportional increase in artesunate and DHA exposure with increasing artesunate dose. These effects are not considered to be clinically relevant. It should be noted that the CPG-DDS-artesunate programme has now been stopped following unacceptable haematological toxicity in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency during a phase III trial. In addition, the CPG-DDS combination has been withdrawn from clinical use.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer Verlag</dc:publisher><dc:source>European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology</dc:source><dc:subject>qv_256</dc:subject><dc:subject>wc_750</dc:subject><dc:subject>qx_135</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_34</dc:subject><dc:subject>qv_38</dc:subject><dc:title>Pharmacokinetics of chlorproguanil, dapsone, artesunate and their major metabolites in patients during treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Miller, A. K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bandyopadhyay, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wootton, D. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Duparc, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kirby, P. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Winstanley, P. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ward, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2009-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-009-0672-1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:archive.lstmed.ac.uk:329
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
PropertyError
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
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Date: 2015-05-28

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Date: 2015-05-28

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