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ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3214
Date: 2016-04-27

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3214</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-04-27T17:23:15Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-12-15">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>It has been proposed that the ventilation of the deep Pacific carbon pool was not significantly reduced during the last glacial period, posing a problem for canonical theories of glacial–interglacial CO2 change. However, using radiocarbon dates of marine tephra deposited off New Zealand, we show that deep- (&gt;2000 m&gt;2000 m) and shallow sub-surface ocean–atmosphere 14C age offsets (i.e. ‘reservoir-’ or ‘ventilation’ ages) in the southwest Pacific increased by ∼1089 and 337 yrs respectively, reaching ∼2689 and ∼1037 yrs during the late glacial. A comparison with other radiocarbon data from the southern high-latitudes suggests that broadly similar changes were experienced right across the Southern Ocean. If, like today, the Southern Ocean was the main source of water to the glacial ocean interior, these observations would imply a significant change in the global radiocarbon inventory during the last glacial period, possibly equivalent to an increase in the average radiocarbon age &gt;2 km&gt;2 km of ∼700 yrs∼700 yrs. Simple mass balance arguments and numerical model sensitivity tests suggest that such a change in the ocean's mean radiocarbon age would have had a major impact on the marine carbon inventory and atmospheric CO2, possibly accounting for nearly half of the glacial–interglacial CO2 change. If confirmed, these findings would underline the special role of high latitude shallow sub-surface mixing and air–sea gas exchange in regulating atmospheric CO2 during the late Pleistocene.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3214/1/%2715a%20Skinner%20et%20SW%20Pac%20ventilation%2C%20EPSL.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>0012-821X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:title>Reduced ventilation and enhanced magnitude of the deep Pacific carbon pool during the last glacial period</dc:title><dcterms:dateAccepted>2014-11-06</dcterms:dateAccepted><rioxxterms:apc>paid</rioxxterms:apc><rioxxterms:author>Skinner, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McCave, I. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Carter, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fallon, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Scrivner, A. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Primeau, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:project funder_id="http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000270" funder_name="Natural Environment Research Council">NE/L006421/1</rioxxterms:project><rioxxterms:publication_date>2015-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.11.024</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3210
Date: 2015-05-28

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dc:relation'doi:10.1002/jgrb.50207' is not a valid HTTP URI in dc:relation

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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PropertyError
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
dc:relation'doi:10.1002/jgrb.50207' is not a valid HTTP URI in dc:relation
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3210</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T16:32:11Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>[1] Observations of coseismic and postseismic deformation associated with the 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule earthquake in south-central Chile provide constraints on the spatial heterogeneities of frictional properties on a major subduction megathrust and how they have influenced the seismic rupture and postseismic effects. We find that the bulk of coseismic slip occurs within a single elongated patch approximately 460 km long and 100 km wide between the depths of 15 and 40 km. We infer three major patches of afterslip: one extends northward along strike and downdip of the major coseismic patch between 40 and 60 km depth; the other two bound the northern and southern ends of the coseismic patch. The southern patch offshore of the Arauco Peninsula is the only place showing resolvable afterslip shallower than 20 km depth. Estimated slip potency associated with postseismic slip in the 1.3 years following the earthquake amounts to 20–30% of that generated coseismically. Our estimates of the megathrust frictional properties show that the Arauco Peninsula area has positive but relatively low (a−b)σn values (0.01 ~ 0.22 MPa), that would have allowed dynamic rupture propagation into this rate-strengthening area and afterslip. Given the only modestly rate-strengthening megathrust friction in this region, the barrier effect may be attributed to its relatively large size of the rate-strengthening patch. Coseismic and postseismic uplift of the Arauco Peninsula exceeds interseismic subsidence since the time of the last major earthquake in 1835, suggesting that coseismic and postseismic deformation has resulted in some permanent strain in the forearc.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3210/1/jgrb50207.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:relation>doi:10.1002/jgrb.50207</dc:relation><dc:source>2156-2202</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Coseismic and postseismic slip associated with the 2010 Maule Earthquake, Chile: Characterizing the Arauco Peninsula barrier effect</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Lin, Y.-N.N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sladen, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ortega-Culaciati, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Simons, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Avouac, J.-P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fielding, E.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brooks, B.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bevis, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Genrich, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rietbrock, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vigny, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Smalley, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Socquet, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:project funder_name="NSF">EAR-1118239</rioxxterms:project><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgrb.50207/abstract</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3209
Date: 2015-04-22

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3209</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-04-22T23:09:01Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3032</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We investigate fault friction from dynamic modeling of fault slip prior to and following the Mw 6.0 earthquake which ruptured the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault in 2004. The dynamic modeling assumes a purely rate-strengthening friction law, with a logarithmic dependency on sliding rate: μ=μ *+a-blnvv*. The initial state of stress is explicitly taken into account, and afterslip is triggered by the stress change induced by the earthquake source model given a priori. We consider different initial stress states and two coseismic models, and invert for the other model parameters using a nonlinear inversion scheme. The model parameters include the reference friction μ*, the friction rate dependency characterized by the quantity a-b, assumed to be either uniform or depth dependent. The model parameters are determined from fitting the transient postseismic geodetic signal measured at continuous GPS stations. Our study provides a view of frictional properties at the kilometers scale over the 0-15 km depth illuminated by the coseismic stress change induced by the Parkfield earthquake. The reference friction is estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.5. With independent a priori constraints on the amplitude of differential stress, the range of possible values narrows down to 0.1-0.17. The friction rate coefficient a-b is estimated to be � 10- 3 - 10- 2 with a hint that it increases upward from about 1-3 � 10-3 at 3-7 km depth to about 4-7 � 10-3 at 0-1 km depth. It is remarkable that our results are consistent with frictional properties measured on rock samples recovered from the fault zone thanks to the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth experiment. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3209/1/jgrb50231.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>2156-2202</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Spatially variable fault friction derived from dynamic modeling of aseismic afterslip due to the 2004 Parkfield earthquake</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Chang, S.-H.a b</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Avouac, J.-P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barbot, S.a c</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lee, J.-C.b</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgrb.50231</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3208
Date: 2015-04-22

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3208</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-04-22T23:04:54Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3032</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>A sequence of large strike-slip earthquakes occurred west of Sunda Trench beneath the Wharton Basin. First reports indicate that the main shock was extremely complex, involving three to four subevents (Mw &amp;gt; 8) with a maze of aftershocks. We investigate slip models of the two largest earthquakes by joint inversion of regional and teleseismic waveform data. Using the Mw7.2 foreshock, we developed hybrid Green's Functions for the regional stations to approximate the mixture of oceanic and continental paths. The main shock fault geometry is defined based on the back projection results, point-source mechanisms, aftershock distribution, and fine tune of grid searches. The fault system contains three faults, labeled F1 (89°/289° for dip/strike), F2 (74°/20°), and F3 (60°/310°). The inversion indicates that the main rupture consisted of a cascade of high-stress drop asperities (up to 30 MPa), extending as deep as 50 km. The rupture propagated smoothly from one fault to the next (F1, F2, and F3 in sequence) with rupture velocities of 2.0-2.5 km/s. The whole process lasted about 200 s, and the major moment release (&amp;gt;70) took place on the N-S oriented F2. The Mw8.2 aftershock happened about 2 h later on a N-S oriented fault with a relatively short duration (~60 s) and also ruptured as deep as 50 km. The slip distributions suggest that the earthquake sequence was part of a broad left-lateral shear zone between the Australian and Indian plates and ruptured the whole lithosphere. These earthquakes apparently reactivated existing fracture zones and were probably triggered by unclamping of the great Sumatran earthquake of 2004. Key Points Regional path calibration could be obtained from aftershock and foreshocks. The 2012 Sumatra Earthquake sequence has ruptured the entire oceanic lithosphere Fracture zones in the Wharton Basin were reactivated by the earthquakes. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3208/1/jgrb50267.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>2156-2202</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Modeling the 2012 Wharton basin earthquakes off-Sumatra: Complete lithospheric failure</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Wei, S.a b</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Helmberger, D.a b</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Avouac, J.-P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgrb.50267</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3207
Date: 2015-05-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3207</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-28T13:54:05Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3032</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2013-01-07">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>The accuracy, reliability and best practises of Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry (TitaniQ) in greenschist facies rocks have not been established. To address these issues, we measured Ti concentrations in rutile-bearing samples of moderately deformed, partially recrystallized quartzite and vein quartz from the Hsüehshan range, Taiwan. The spread of Ti concentrations of recrystallized grains in quartzite correlates with recrystallized grain size. Recrystallized quartz (grain size ~100–200 μm) that formed during early deformation within the biotite stability field shows a marked increase in intermediate Ti-concentration grains (~1–10 ppm) relative to detrital porphyroclasts (Ti ~0.1–200 ppm). Fine recrystallized quartz (~5% of the samples by area, grain size ~10–20 μm) has a further restricted Ti concentration peaking at 0.8–2 ppm. This trend suggests equilibration of Ti in recrystallized quartz with a matrix phase during deformation and cooling. Unlike previously documented examples, Ti concentration in the quartzite is inversely correlated with blue cathodoluminescence. Deformation was associated with a minimum grain boundary diffusivity of Ti on the order of 10−22m2 s−1. Vein emplacement and quartzite recrystallization are independently shown to have occurred at 250–350 °C and 300–410 °C, respectively, with lithostatic pressure of 3–4 kbar (assuming a geothermal gradient of 25° km−1), and with hydrostatic fluid pressure. Estimates of the accuracy of TitaniQ at these conditions depend on whether lithostatic or fluid pressure is used in the TitaniQ calibration. Using lithostatic pressure and these temperatures, the Thomas et al. (2010) calibration yields Ti concentrations within error of concentrations measured by SIMS. If fluid pressure is instead used, predicted temperatures are ~30–40 °C too low. TitaniQ has potential to yield accurate PT information for vein emplacement and dynamic recrystallization of quartz at temperatures as low as ~250 °C, however clarification of the relevant pressure term and further tests in rutile-present rocks are warranted.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3207/1/se-4-1-2013.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>European Geosciences Union (society) &amp; Copernicus publications (commercial)</dc:publisher><dc:source>1869-9510, ESSN: 1869-9529</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Application of titanium-in-quartz thermobarometry to greenschist facies veins and recrystallized quartzites in the Hsüehshan range, Taiwan</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kidder, S.A.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Avouac, J.-P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chan, Y.-C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/se-4-1-2013</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3189
Date: 2016-06-22

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dcterms:dateAcceptedMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dcterms:dateAccepted - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3189</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T16:51:15Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3035</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Crust at many divergent plate boundaries forms primarily by the injection of vertical sheet-like dykes, some tens of kilometres long1. Previous models of rifting events indicate either lateral dyke growth away from a feeding source, with propagation rates decreasing as the dyke lengthens or magma flowing vertically into dykes from an underlying source with the role of topography on the evolution of lateral dykes not clear. Here we show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system grew laterally for more than 45 kilometres at a variable rate, with topography influencing the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred primarily over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground deformation mapped by Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric analysis of satellite radar images (InSAR), and graben formation. The strike of the dyke segments varies from an initially radial direction away from the Bárðarbunga caldera, towards alignment with that expected from regional stress at the distal end. A model minimizing the combined strain and gravitational potential energy explains the propagation path. Dyke opening and seismicity focused at the most distal segment at any given time, and were simultaneous with magma source deflation and slow collapse at the Bárðarbunga caldera, accompanied by a series of magnitude M &gt; 5 earthquakes. Dyke growth was slowed down by an effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. Lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up in the dyke distal end explains how focused upwelling of magma under central volcanoes is effectively redistributed over long distances to create new upper crust at divergent plate boundaries.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3189/1/225%20Freysteinn%20etal%20Nature%202014.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0028-0836</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sigmundsson, Freysteinn</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hooper, Andrew</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Vogfjörd, Kristín S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Heimisson, Elías Rafn</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dumont, Stéphanie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Parks, Michelle</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Spaans, Karsten</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gudmundsson, Gunnar B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Drouin, Vincent</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Árnadóttir, Thóra</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jónsdóttir, Kristín</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gudmundsson, Magnús T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Högnadóttir, Thórdís</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fridriksdóttir, Hildur María</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hensch, Martin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Einarsson, Páll</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Magnússon, Eyjólfur</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Samsonov, Sergey</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brandsdóttir, Bryndís</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, Robert S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Greenfield, Tim</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Green, Robert G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hjartardóttir, Ásta Rut</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pedersen, Rikke</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bennett, Richard A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Geirsson, Halldór</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>La Femina, Peter C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Björnsson, Helgi</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pálsson, Finnur</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sturkell, Erik</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bean, Christopher J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Möllhoff, Martin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Braiden, Aoife K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Eibl, Eva P. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14111</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3187
Date: 2015-08-25

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3187</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-25T14:21:33Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>KTaO3 is an incipient ferroelectric material with an extrapolated transition temperature below 0 K. It contains a small number of “unavoidable defects” which are randomly distributed. Some of these defects are polar and their interaction leads to macroscopic coherent polar structures at low temperatures. In this article it is shown that freezing of local defect dipoles coincides with elastic stiffening and damping of ultrasonic waves in KTaO3. The elastic freezing anomalies are accompanied by stepwise increases of piezoelectricity, forming a thermal polar staircase below ca. 120 K and a gigantic enhancement below 50 K. A small spontaneous polarization also emerges below this temperature, gradually increasing to a value of 0.045 μC cm−2 at 5 K with increasing coherency of defect dipoles. The orientation of this spontaneous polarization depends on a weak strain-induced anisotropy of the macroscopic sample. Defect-induced ferroelectricity, as demonstrated for KTaO3, may be a possible way forward to develop functional device materials based on the switching of coherently interacting defects.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3187/1/PhysRevB.90.165309.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1098-0121</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-03</dc:subject><dc:title>Polar correlations and defect-induced ferroelectricity in cryogenic KTaO3</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Aktas, Oktay</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Crossley, Sam</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Carpenter, Michael A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Salje, Ekhard K. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.90.165309</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3185
Date: 2015-09-01

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      <datestamp>2015-09-01T16:53:07Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2015-01">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>How ocean acidification affects marine life is a major concern for science and society. However, its impacts on encrusting biofouling communities, that are both the initial colonizers of hard substrata and of great economic importance, are almost unknown. We showed that community composition changed significantly, from 92% spirorbids, 3% ascidians and 4% sponges initially to 47% spirorbids, 23% ascidians and 29% sponges after 100 days in acidified conditions (pH 7.7). In low pH, numbers of the spirorbid Neodexiospira pseudocorrugata were reduced ×5 compared to controls. The two ascidians present behaved differently with Aplidium sp. decreasing ×10 in pH 7.7, whereas Molgula sp. numbers were ×4 higher in low pH than controls. Calcareous sponge (Leucosolenia sp.) numbers increased ×2.5 in pH 7.7 over controls. The diatom and filamentous algal community was also more poorly developed in the low pH treatments compared to controls. Colonization of new surfaces likewise showed large decreases in spirorbid numbers, but numbers of sponges and Molgula sp. increased. Spirorbid losses appeared due to both recruitment failure and loss of existing tubes. Spirorbid tubes are comprised of a loose prismatic fabric of calcite crystals. Loss of tube materials appeared due to changes in the binding matrix and not crystal dissolution, as SEM analyses showed crystal surfaces were not pitted or dissolved in low pH conditions. Biofouling communities face dramatic future changes with reductions in groups with hard exposed exoskeletons and domination by soft-bodied ascidians and sponges.</dc:description><dc:format>image/png</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3185/3/gcb12841-fig-0004.png</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd</dc:publisher><dc:source>1354-1013</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Acidification effects on biofouling communities: winners and losers</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Peck, Lloyd S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Clark, Melody S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Power, Deborah</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rei, João</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Batista, Frederico M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Harper, Elizabeth M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12841</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3182
Date: 2015-09-01

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3182</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-09-01T16:47:39Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2015-06">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Ediacaran macrofossils from the Avalon Terrane (primarily eastern Newfoundland and the central UK) record some of the earliest large and complex multicellular organisms on Earth. Perhaps the greatest unknown regarding these fossils is their relevance to the early evolutionary history of the Kingdom Animalia. In recent years, new data and discoveries have revealed insights into Ediacaran paleobiology, taxonomic relationships, paleoecology and taphonomy, significantly refining our understanding of Avalonian ecosystems. Here, we summarise recent observational and quantitative studies, and their bearing on the current understanding of Avalonian benthic marine ecosystems. A review of existing knowledge of the biological composition of Avalonian marine assemblages demonstrates that they record densely-populated ecosystems inhabited by a diverse range of organisms, likely representing multiple biological Kingdoms. Appreciation of this diversity, and of the complexities it introduces to paleoecological studies, is vital when considering the relationship between macroevolution and contemporaneous climatic, tectonic and geochemical events. We then summarise current understanding of Avalonian paleoecology. Studies into locomotion, reproduction, feeding strategies, and community structure and succession reveal that these ecosystems were considerably different to Phanerozoic settings. Furthermore, we suggest that Avalonian ecosystems witnessed the appearance of novel nutrient sources, offering new opportunities and niches for benthic organisms. The suggestion that the numerically dominant rangeomorphs were osmotrophic is reviewed and appraised in light of geochemical, morphological, and biological information. Finally, the use of modern ecological metrics in the study of Ediacaran fossil assemblages is assessed. Concerns regarding the interpretation of paleoecological data are outlined in light of current taphonomic and sedimentological understanding, and these cast doubt on previous suggestions that the Avalonian assemblages were largely composed of metazoans. Nevertheless, we emphasise that if treated with necessary caution, paleoecological data can play a significant role in assisting efforts to determine the biological affinities of late Ediacaran macroscopic organisms.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3182/1/Liu%20et%20al.%20-%20Remarkable%20insights%20into%20the%20paleoecology%20of%20the%20A.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1342-937X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Remarkable insights into the paleoecology of the Avalonian Ediacaran macrobiota</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Liu, Alexander G. S. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kenchington, Charlotte G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mitchell, Emily G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2014.11.002</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3179
Date: 2015-04-25

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3179</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-04-25T00:00:03Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The Mg/Ca compositions of benthic foraminifera from the superfamily Miliolacea have been studied to explore the use of these high-Mg foraminifera as a proxy for deep ocean conditions. Taxonomic analyses, relative abundance, and depth distributions of different Miliolacea species were carried out on a collection of core top samples, covering a depth range of 131 m to 2530 m, along the Australian coast of the Timor Sea. Pyrgo sp., composed of Pyrgo sarsi and Pyrgo murrhina, was found to be the most suitable for proxy studies. Mg/Ca values of this group of foraminifera show a strong correlation with bottom water temperatures and carbonate ion saturation described by the linear relationship: Mg/Ca = 2.53(±0.22) × BWT + 0.129(±0.023) × Δ[CO32−] + 4.63(±0.53), within the −1°C to 8°C temperature range. Absolute Mg/Ca values of Pyrgo sp. calcite and their temperature sensitivity are similar to those observed for inorganic calcite, suggesting that Mg composition of Pyrgo sp. calcite is mainly controlled by inorganic processes. The Mg/Ca composition of Pyrgo sp. calcite provides a new tool for reconstructing both water temperature and carbonate ion saturation when combined with other proxies for one of these parameters. A down core record from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific has been generated to illustrate how Mg/Ca values can be used for paleoclimate studies. This down core record shows large changes in Pacific bottom waters [CO32−] across glacial-interglacial transition, implying an increase in [CO32−] during the glacial period.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3179/1/Sadekov%20et%20al.%20-%202014%20-%20MgCa%20composition%20of%20benthic%20foraminifera%20Miliolac.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1944-9186</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:title>Mg/Ca composition of benthic foraminifera Miliolacea as a new tool of paleoceanography</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sadekov, Aleksey Yu.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bush, Flora</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kerr, Joanna</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ganeshram, Raja</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Elderfield, Henry</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014PA002654</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3167
Date: 2015-08-30

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      <datestamp>2015-08-30T02:29:27Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-10">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>The Tien Shan is the largest active intracontinental orogenic belt on Earth. To better understand the processes causing mountains to form at great distances from a plate boundary, we analyse passive source seismic data collected on 40 broad-band stations of the MANAS project (2005–2007) and 12 stations of the permanent KRNET seismic network to determine variations in crustal thickness and shear wave speed across the range. We jointly invert P- and S-wave receiver functions with surface wave observations from both earthquakes and ambient noise to reduce the ambiguity inherent in the images obtained from the techniques applied individually. Inclusion of ambient noise data improves constraints on the upper crust by allowing dispersion measurements to be made at shorter periods. Joint inversion can also reduce the ambiguity in interpretation by revealing the extent to which various features in the receiver functions are amplified or eliminated by interference from multiples. The resulting wave speed model shows a variation in crustal thickness across the range. We find that crustal velocities extend to \~75 km beneath the Kokshaal Range, which we attribute to underthrusting of the Tarim Basin beneath the southern Tien Shan. This result supports the plate model of intracontinental convergence. Crustal thickness elsewhere beneath the range is about 50 km, including beneath the Naryn Valley in the central Tien Shan where previous studies reported a shallow Moho. This difference apparently is the result of wave speed variations in the upper crust that were not previously taken into account. Finally, a high velocity lid appears in the upper mantle of the Central and Northern part of the Tien Shan, which we interpret as a remnant of material that may have delaminated elsewhere under the range</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3167/1/Geophys.%20J.%20Int.-2014-Gilligan-480-98.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0956-540X, 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Shear velocity model for the Kyrgyz Tien Shan from joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave data</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gilligan, Amy</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roecker, Steven W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Priestley, Keith F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nunn, Ceri</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu225</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3166
Date: 2016-01-21

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>High resolution structures of the lithosphere–asthenosphere system beneath a seismic profile in Iran are obtained by the simultaneous inversion of data from receiver functions and fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity and validated by modeling Bouguer gravity anomaly data. The seismic data are gathered over a profile extending across Zagros, Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone (SSZ), Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), Central Iran, Alborz–Binalud Mountain ranges and Kopeh Dagh Mountain ranges. The results confirm the presence of crustal roots at the north and south of Iranian Plateau where it meets the Arabian Plate and Eurasia. The high velocity lithosphere of the Arabian Plate gently plunges NNE-ward beneath Central Iran supporting the subduction of the continental lithosphere responsible for the seismicity of the area. The crust and lithosphere are thinner beneath Central Iran, where two low velocity structures are very likely related to magma sources of the UDMA and in east of Iran, around Lut block, where the volcanism shows calcalkaline subduction-related geochemistry. The crustal-lithospheric root to the north of the Iranian Plateau may represent the relict of a previous “cimmeric” subduction zone. Therefore the Iranian lithosphere–asthenosphere system could be the result of the coalescence of two separate subduction zones.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3166/1/Motaghi%20et%20al.%20-%20The%20deep%20structure%20of%20the%20Iranian%20Plateau.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1342-937X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>The deep structure of the Iranian Plateau</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Motaghi, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tatar, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Priestley, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Romanelli, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Doglioni, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Panza, G. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2014.04.009</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3165
Date: 2015-03-04

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3165</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-03-04T01:00:02Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Gravity-driven flows in the subsurface have attracted recent interest in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. After injection, the CO2 will spread and migrate as a buoyant gravity current relative to the denser, ambient brine. Although the CO2 and the brine are immiscible, the impact of capillarity on CO2 spreading and migration is poorly understood. We previously studied the early time evolution of an immiscible gravity current, showing that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the macroscopic fluid-fluid interface and that this can eventually stop the flow. Here we study the full lifetime of such a gravity current. Using tabletop experiments in packings of glass beads, we show that the horizontal extent of the pinned region grows with time and that this is ultimately responsible for limiting the migration of the current to a finite distance. We also find that capillarity blunts the leading edge of the current, which contributes to further limiting the migration distance. Using experiments in etched micromodels, we show that the thickness of the blunted nose is controlled by the distribution of pore-throat sizes and the strength of capillarity relative to buoyancy. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. By applying this model to representative aquifers, we show that capillary pinning and blunting can exert an important control on gravity currents in the context of geological CO2 storage.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3165/1/Zhao%20et%20al.%20-%202014%20-%20Capillary%20pinning%20and%20blunting%20of%20immiscible%20gravi.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>1944-7973</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-99</dc:subject><dc:title>Capillary pinning and blunting of immiscible gravity currents in porous media</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Zhao, Benzhong</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>MacMinn, Christopher W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Huppert, Herbert  E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Juanes, Ruben</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015335/abstract</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3152
Date: 2015-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3152</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-02-17T12:53:25Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-10-31">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Magma mixing and crystal mush disaggregation are important processes in basaltic magma reservoirs. We carried out a detailed petrological and geochemical study on a highly plagioclase-phyric eruption within the Eastern Volcanic Zone of Iceland—the Skuggafjöll eruption—to investigate crystal storage and transport processes within a single magmatic system. Crystal content and phase proportions vary between samples: the least phyric samples have phase proportions similar to the low-pressure, three-phase gabbro eutectic (plg:cpx:ol \~ 11:6:3), whereas highly phyric samples are strongly enriched in plagioclase (plg:cpx:ol \~ 8:1:1). Statistically significant geochemical variability in 28 whole-rock samples collected across the eruption can be accounted for by variable accumulation of a troctolitic assemblage containing plagioclase and olivine in an approximately 9:1 ratio. Two macrocryst assemblages are defined using compositional and textural information recorded in QEMSCAN® images: a primitive assemblage of high-anorthite plagioclase (An\textgreater83) and high-forsterite olivine (Fo\textgreater84), and an evolved assemblage of low-anorthite plagioclase (An\textless79), low-forsterite olivine (Fo\textless82) and clinopyroxene (Mg# \~ 82). Plagioclase and olivine have strongly bimodal composition distributions whereas the composition distribution of clinopyroxene is unimodal. The mean trace element composition of melt inclusions hosted within high-forsterite olivine and high-anorthite plagioclase macrocrysts is the same (mean Ce/Y \~ 0·47–0·48), confirming that both primitive macrocryst phases crystallized from the same distribution of melts. Clinopyroxene macrocrysts and matrix glasses are in Ce/Yb equilibrium with each other, indicating that the evolved assemblage crystallized from melts with a more incompatible trace element-enriched composition (mean Ce/Y \~ 0·65–71) than the primitive assemblage. Variability in whole-rock, macrocryst and melt inclusion compositions suggests that the Skuggafjöll magma experienced two stages of crystallization. Primitive macrocrysts crystallized first from incompatible trace element-depleted melts within a shallow crustal magma reservoir. These primitive macrocrysts were subsequently stored in crystal mushes that ultimately disaggregated into an evolved and incompatible trace element-enriched magma from which the evolved assemblage crystallized. On average, \~17% of the erupted magma at Skuggafjöll is composed of accumulated macrocrysts entrained from crystal mushes. The timescale between mush disaggregation and eruption, during which crystal accumulation occurred, was short—of the order of years—according to simple diffusion calculations. Striking petrological similarities between Skuggafjöll and other highly phyric eruptions both in Iceland and along mid-ocean ridges indicate that crystal accumulation by mush disaggregation is likely to be an important mechanism for generating highly phyric magmas in basaltic plumbing sy</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3152/1/Neave.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>OUP</dc:publisher><dc:source>0022-3530, 1460-2415</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Crystal Storage and Transfer in Basaltic Systems: the Skuggafjöll Eruption, Iceland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Neave, David A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Maclennan, John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hartley, Margaret E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, Marie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thordarson, Thorvaldur</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egu058</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3146
Date: 2015-08-30

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3146</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T02:28:30Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-10">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>The lowermost few hundreds of kilometres of the Earth's mantle are elastically anisotropic; seismic velocities vary with direction of propagation and polarization. Observations of strong seismic anisotropy correlate with regions where subducted slab material is expected. In this study, we evaluate the hypothesis that crystal preferred orientation (CPO) in a slab, as it impinges on the core–mantle boundary, is the cause of the observed anisotropy. Next, we determine if fast polarization directions seen by shear waves can be mapped to directions of geodynamic flow. This approach is similar to our previous study performed for a 2-D geodynamic model. In this study, we employ a 3-D geodynamic model with temperature-dependent viscosity and kinematic velocity boundary conditions defined at the surface of the Earth to create a broad downwelling slab. Tracers track the deformation that we assume to be accommodated by dislocation creep. We evaluate the models for the presence of perovskite or post-perovskite and for different main slip systems along which dislocation creep may occur in post-perovskite [(100),(010) and (001)]—resulting in four different mineralogical models of CPO. Combining the crystal pole orientations with single crystal elastic constants results in seismically distinguishable models of seismic anisotropy. The models are evaluated against published seismic observations by analysing different anisotropic components: the radial anisotropy, the splitting for (sub-)vertical phases (i.e. azimuthal anisotropy), and the splitting for subhorizontal phases. The patterns in radial anisotropy confirm our earlier results in 2-D. Observations of radial anisotropy and splitting in subhorizontal phases are mostly consistent with our models of post-perovskite with (010)-slip and (001)-slip. Our model of (001)-slip predicts stronger splitting than for (010)-slip for horizontally propagating phases in all directions. The strongest seismic anisotropy in this model occurs where the slab impinges on the core–mantle boundary. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern for (001)-slip shows fast axis directions at the edges of the slab (sub-)parallel to flow directions, suggesting horizontal flows may be mapped out in the lowermost mantle using seismic observations.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3146/1/Geophys.%20J.%20Int.-2014-Cottaar-164-77.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0956-540X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Synthetic seismic anisotropy models within a slab impinging on the core-mantle boundary</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cottaar, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Li, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, A. K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Romanowicz, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wenk, H.-R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu244</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3144
Date: 2015-02-28

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3144</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-02-28T01:00:03Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Volcanic plumes are sites of dynamic chemistry involving halogen gases. Here we present new data on the relative abundances of SO2, BrO and OClO gases emitted from Soufrière Hills Volcano [SHV). They were collected during an eruptive hiatus but during sustained degassing at this halogen-rich volcano. By comparison with data from a previous study during an eruptive phase and application of the data and modeling of Villemant et al. (2008), we suggest that, after consideration of errors, either the rate of HBr conversion to BrO is variable, ranging from ∼30% to ∼15%, and/or the relative partitioning of Cl and Br into the gas phase from the melt changes according to eruptive activity. We examine the potential implications of this for fluid-melt partitioning, and compare our results with data from the experimental literature. Our work contributes toward understanding the controls on the BrO/SO2 ratio for volcano monitoring purposes; the changes in plume chemistry with regard to bromine at the onset of lava extrusion may be large and rapid. OClO was detected in the plume at SHV for the first time. This species has only previously been detected in emissions from Mount Etna (using ground-based methods) and from Puyehue Cordon Caulle (using satellite-based methods). No HCHO or NOy species were detected in the spectra.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3144/1/Donovan%20et%20al.%20-%202014%20-%20Reactive%20halogens%20%28BrO%20and%20OClO%29%20detected%20in%20the%20p.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>1525-2027</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Reactive halogens (BrO and OClO) detected in the plume of Soufrière Hills Volcano during an eruption hiatus</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Donovan, Amy</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tsanev, Vitchko</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oppenheimer, Clive</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, Marie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GC005419</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3135
Date: 2015-04-28

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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3135</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-04-28T00:00:03Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Long-lived detachment faults play an important role in the construction of new oceanic crust at slow-spreading mid-oceanic ridges. Although the corrugated surfaces of exposed low-angle faults demonstrate past slip, it is difficult to determine whether a given fault is currently active. If inactive, it is unclear when slip ceased. This judgment is crucial for tectonic reconstructions where detachment faults are present, and for models of plate spreading. We quantify variation in sediment thickness over two corrugated surfaces near 16.5°N at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge using near-bottom Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) data. We show that the distribution of sediment and tectonic features at one detachment fault is consistent with slip occurring today. In contrast, another corrugated surface 20 km to the south shows a sediment distribution suggesting that slip ceased ~150,000 years ago. Data presented here provide new evidence for active detachment faulting, and suggest along-axis variations in fault activity occur over tens of kilometers.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3135/1/grl52195.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>0094-8276</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Sedimentation Rates Test Models of Oceanic Detachment Faulting</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Parnell-Turner, Ross</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cann, Johnson</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Smith, Deborah K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Schouten, Hans</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Yoerger, Dana</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Palmiotto, Camilla</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Zheleznov, Alexey</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bai, Hailong</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061555</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3132
Date: 2015-09-01

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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3132</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-09-01T16:55:13Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Chaotic breccias and megabreccias – locally called gash breccias – hosted within the Pembroke Limestone Group (Visean, Mississippian, lower Carboniferous) of southwest Wales are re-mapped along with spatially-related crackle and mosaic breccias. Of thirteen studied megabreccia bodies, seven lie along steep, NNW- or NNE-striking strike-slip faults originating during north–south Variscan (late Carboniferous) shortening, though reactivated during later extension. Four bodies are conformable with E–W striking, steeply-dipping bedding, and two have irregular or indeterminate margins. The bedding-parallel zones are interpreted as the dilational tips of listric normal faults, and the cross-strike faults as transtensional transfer zones. Sub-horizontal clast fabrics suggest brecciation by gravitational collapse into opening fissures rather than by cataclasis along the faults. Most fissures have geometrically matched margins produced by this dilational faulting, and only locally have the indented margins indicating solutional processes. The most likely age for the main fissure extension and fill is late Triassic, based on analogous dated fills at the eastern end of the Bristol Channel Basin. The Pembroke megabreccias blur the distinction between fault rocks formed by deformation and those formed by redeposition along fault zones.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3132/1/1-s2.0-S0191814114002338-main.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>ISSN: 0191-8141</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Chaotic breccia zones on the Pembroke Peninsula, South Wales: collapse into voids along dilational faults</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Woodcock, N. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Miller, A. V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Woodhouse, C.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2014.09.019</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3126
Date: 2015-12-10

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3126</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-12-10T01:00:03Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Primordial silicate differentiation controlled the composition of Earth's oldest crust. Inherited 142Nd anomalies in Archean rocks are vestiges of the mantle-crust differentiation before ca. 4300 Ma. Here we report new whole-rock 147,146Sm-143,142Nd data for the Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC; Northwest Territories, Canada). Our 147Sm-143Nd data combined with literature data define an age of 3371 ± 141 Ma (2 SD) and yield an initial ε143Nd of −5.6 ± 2.1. These results are at odds with the Acasta zircon U-Pb record, which comprises emplacement ages of 3920–3960 Ma. Ten of our thirteen samples show 142Nd deficits of −9.6 ± 4.8 ppm (2 SD) relative to the modern Earth. The discrepancy between 142Nd anomalies and a mid-Archean 147Sm-143Nd age can be reconciled with Nd isotope reequilibration of the AGC during metamorphic perturbations at ca. 3400 Ma. A model age of ca. 4310 Ma is derived for the early enrichment of the Acasta source. Two compositional end-members can be identified: a felsic component with 142Nd/144Nd identical to the modern Earth and a mafic component with 142Nd/144Nd as low as −14.1 ppm. The ca. 4310 Ma AGC source is ∼200 Myr younger than those estimated for Nuvvuagittuq (northern Québec) and Isua (Itsaq Gneiss Complex, West Greenland). The AGC does not have the same decoupled Nd-Hf isotope systematics as these other two terranes, which have been attributed to the crystallization of an early magma ocean. The Acasta signature rather is ascribed to the formation of Hadean crust that was preserved for several hundred Myr. Its longevity can be linked to 142Nd evolution in the mantle and does not require slow mantle stirring times nor modification of its convective mode.</dc:description><dc:format>image/png</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3126/1/ggge20474-fig-0001.png</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.agu.com</dc:relation><dc:source>Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Combined147,146Sm-143,142Nd constraints on the longevity and residence time of early terrestrial crust</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Roth, Antoine S. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bourdon, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mojzsis, Stephen J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rudge, John F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guitreau, Martin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Blichert-Toft, Janne</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GC005313</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3123
Date: 2015-08-30

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3123</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T01:38:21Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Motivated by the very low diffusivity recently found in ab initio simulations of liquid water, we have studied its dependence with temperature, system size, and duration of the simulations. We use ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), following the Born-Oppenheimer forces obtained from density-functional theory (DFT). The linear-scaling capability of our method allows the consideration of larger system sizes (up to 128 molecules in this study), even if the main emphasis of this work is in the time scale. We obtain diffusivities that are substantially lower than the experimental values, in agreement with recent findings using similar methods. A fairly good agreement with D(T) experiments is obtained if the simulation temperature is scaled down by approximately 20%. It is still an open question whether the deviation is due to the limited accuracy of present density functionals or to quantum fluctuations, but neither technical approximations (basis set, localization for linear scaling) nor the system size (down to 32 molecules) deteriorate the DFT description in an appreciable way. We find that the need for long equilibration times is consequence of the slow process of rearranging the H-bond network (at least 20 ps at AIMDs room temperature). The diffusivity is observed to be very directly linked to network imperfection. This link does not appear an artifact of the simulations, but a genuine property of liquid water.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3123/1/1.1813431.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Institute of Physics (AIP)</dc:publisher><dc:source>0021-9606, ESSN: 1089-7690</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-03</dc:subject><dc:title>Network equilibration and first-principles liquid water</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Fernández-Serra, M. V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Artacho, Emilio</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1813431</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3121
Date: 2015-02-15

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3121</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-02-15T01:00:02Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We present observations of active faulting within peninsular India, far from the surrounding plate boundaries. Offset alluvial fan surfaces indicate one or more magnitude 7.6–8.4 thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Tapti Fault (Maharashtra, western India) during the Holocene. The high ratio of fault displacement to length on the alluvial fan offsets implies high stress-drop faulting, as has been observed elsewhere in the peninsula. The along-strike extent of the fan offsets is similar to the thickness of the seismogenic layer, suggesting a roughly equidimensional fault rupture. The subsiding footwall of the fault is likely to have been responsible for altering the continental-scale drainage pattern in central India and creating the large west flowing catchment of the Tapti river. A preexisting sedimentary basin in the uplifting hanging wall implies that the Tapti Fault was active as a normal fault during the Mesozoic and has been reactivated as a thrust, highlighting the role of preexisting structures in determining the rheology and deformation of the lithosphere. The slip sense of faults and earthquakes in India suggests that deformation south of the Ganges foreland basin is driven by the compressive force transmitted between India and the Tibetan Plateau. The along-strike continuation of faulting to the east of the Holocene ruptures we have studied represents a significant seismic hazard in central India.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3121/1/jgrb50772.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ewf.nerc.ac.uk/</dc:relation><dc:source>Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: Rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Copley, Alex</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mitra, Supriyo</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sloan, R. Alastair</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gaonkar, Sharad</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Reynolds, Kirsty</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:project funder_name="The Earthquakes without frontiers project is funded by NERC and ESRC">Earthquakes without Frontiers</rioxxterms:project><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014JB011294</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3120
Date: 2015-02-28

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3120</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-02-28T01:00:02Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Conservation laws that describe the behavior of partially molten mantle rock have been established for several decades, but the associated rheology remains poorly understood. Constraints on the rheology may be obtained from recently published experiments involving deformation of partially molten rock around a rigid, spherical inclusion. These experiments give rise to patterns of melt segregation that exhibit the competing effects of pressure shadows and melt-rich bands. Such patterns provide an opportunity to infer rheological parameters through comparison with models based on the conservation laws and constitutive relations that hypothetically govern the system. To this end, we have developed software tools to simulate finite strain, two-phase flow around a circular inclusion in a configuration that mirrors the experiments. Simulations indicate that the evolution of porosity is predominantly controlled by the porosity-weakening exponent of the shear viscosity and the poorly known bulk viscosity. In two-dimensional simulations presented here, we find that the balance of pressure shadows and melt-rich bands observed in experiments only occurs for bulk-to-shear viscosity ratio of less than about five. However, the evolution of porosity in simulations with such low bulk viscosity exceeds physical bounds at unrealistically small strain due to the unchecked, exponential growth of the porosity variations. Processes that limit or balance porosity localization should be incorporated in the formulation of the model to produce results that are consistent with the porosity evolution in experiments.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3120/1/jgrb50720.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Compaction around a rigid, circular inclusion in partially molten rock</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Alisic, Laura</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rudge, John F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Katz, Richard F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wells, Garth N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rhebergen, Sander</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1002/2013JB010906</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3119
Date: 2015-09-01

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dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3119</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-09-01T16:53:32Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D626F6F6B5F73656374696F6E</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Magnetite is a particularly favourable site for heterogeneous bubble nucleation in magma and yet only very rarely is evidence for this preserved due to the myriad of processes that act to overprint such an association. The possibility of bubble-magnetite aggregates in magmas carries with it interesting implications for the fluid mechanics of magma bodies and for the magma mixing process responsible for the formation of andesites. We use image analysis and statistical methods to illustrate a spatial association between magnetite and bubbles in mafic enclaves. There is a large range in magnetite contents in the enclaves (up to 7.5%) which is related to the porosity of the enclaves, indicating a mechanism of enrichment of the mafic magma in magnetite. In the andesite there is no spatial association between bubbles and magnetite and the magnetite content of the andesite is small. We suggest a mechanism for enclave formation whereby in vapour-saturated magma, bubbles nucleate on magnetite. Upon intrusion into the base of an andesite magma body, these bubble-magnetite aggregates rise and ‘sweep up’ other magnetites, resulting in the accumulation of aggregates at the magma interface. Instabilities lead to the flotation of enclaves, characterized by enrichment in magnetite and bubbles.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>The Geological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>9781862396890</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Magnetite-bubble aggregates at mixing interfaces in andesite magma bodies</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brett, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Herd, R. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Humphreys, M. C. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Woods, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>The Geological Society</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1144/SP410.7</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3118
Date: 2015-04-17

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3118</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-04-17T12:09:49Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>In the North Atlantic Ocean, a mid-oceanic ridge bisects the Icelandic mantle plume, providing a window into the temporal evolution of this major convective upwelling 1–3 . It is generally accepted that this plume’s transient behavior is indirectly recorded within the fabric &#13;
of oceanic floor south of Iceland 4–7 . Despite its significance, the structure of this region is &#13;
poorly known. Here, we present long seismic reflection profiles that traverse the oceanic basin between northwest Europe and Greenland. A diachronous pattern of V-shaped ridges is imaged beneath a thickening blanket of sediment, revealing a complete record of transient periodicity that can be traced continuously back to ∼ 55 Myrs— the longest record of its kind. This periodicity increases from ∼ 3 to ∼ 8 Myr with clear evidence for minor, but systematic, asymmetric crustal accretion. V-shaped ridges grow with time and reflect small (e.g. 5–30◦&#13;
C) fluctuations of mantle temperature, consistent with quasi-periodic generation of hot solitary waves triggered by growth of thermal boundary layer instabilities within the mantle . Our continuous record of convective activity predicts a history of regional elevation change which moderated overflow of the Neogene precursor of North Atlantic Deep Water and which controlled the growth and decay of multiple Paleogene buried landscapes.</dc:description><dc:format>image/jpeg</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3118/8/ngeo2281-f1.jpg</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Nature Publishing Group</dc:publisher><dc:source>1752-0894  EISSN: 1752-0908</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>A Continuous 55 Million Year Record of Transient Mantle&#13;
Plume Activity Beneath Iceland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Parnell-Turner, Ross</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, Nicky</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Henstock, Tim</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Murton, Bramley</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Maclennan, John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jones, Stephen M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3097
Date: 2015-08-30

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3097</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T02:30:52Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-05">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>This paper presents InSAR observations of postseismic afterslip occurring up to 30 yr after the Mw7.3 1978 Tabas-e-Golshan thrust-faulting earthquake in eastern Iran. Comparison of the surface motion from 1996 to 1999 with that from 2003 to 2010, along with information provided by the Quaternary-averaged slip rates of faults in the region, suggests that the imaged slip is transient and decaying through time. Models of the surface deformation field imply slip on faults dipping at 55 ± 10°, reaching from the surface to depths of 4–5 km, and slipping at 5 ± 1 mm yr-1. These faults outcrop on the margins of low anticlinal hills composed of actively uplifting Neogene deposits. When compared with the previously studied main shock focal parameters (slip on a plane dipping at 16 ± 5° with a centroid depth of \~9 km), and the aftershock distribution (a band at \~6–14 km), the InSAR results imply postseismic slip on a high-angle thrust ramp connecting the surface anticlines to the coseismic low-angle fault plane at depth. In one location, both a thrust ramp and also a backthrust are postseismically active. The InSAR observations demonstrate the role of postseismic afterslip in the growth of these commonly observed thrust belt geometries, and highlight that deformation throughout the seismic cycle can contribute to the geological evolution of regions of active faultin</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3097/1/AC.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Postseismic afterslip 30 years after the 1978 Tabas-e-Golshan (Iran) earthquake: observations and implications for the geological evolution of thrust belts</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Copley, Alex</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:project funder_name="Natural Environment Research Council">Earth-quakes without Frontiers</rioxxterms:project><rioxxterms:project funder_name="Economic and Social Research Council">Earth-quakes without Frontiers</rioxxterms:project><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu023</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3089
Date: 2015-04-09

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3089</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-04-09T09:44:07Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>It is generally accepted that the Arabian Peninsula has been uplifted by subcrustal processes. Positive residual depth anomalies from oceanic crust in the Red Sea and in the Gulf of Aden suggest that a region surrounding this peninsula is dynamically supported. Admittance calculations, surface wave tomography studies, and receiver function analyses all imply that regional topography is generated and maintained by some combination of mantle convective circulation and lithospheric thickness changes. Despite these significant advances, the spatial and temporal uplift rate history of the Arabian Peninsula is not well known. Here we show that a regional uplift rate history can be obtained by jointly inverting 225 longitudinal river profiles that drain this peninsula. Our strategy assumes that shapes of individual river profiles are controlled by uplift rate history and moderated by erosional processes. We used local measurements of incision rate to calibrate the relevant erosional parameters. In our inverse algorithm, uplift rate is permitted to vary smoothly as a function of space and time but upstream drainage area remains invariant. We also assume that knickzone migration is not lithologically controlled. Implications of these important assumptions have been investigated. Our results suggest that the Arabian Peninsula underwent two phases of asymmetric uplift during the last 20–30 Ma at rates of 0.05–0.1 mm a−1. The southwestern flank of the peninsula has been uplifted by 1.5–2.5 km. Regional stratigraphic constraints, the age and composition of volcanism, paleosol formation, incised peneplains, emergent marine terraces, and thermochronometric measurements corroborate our calculated patterns of uplift. Progressive development of three domal swells along the western margin of the peninsula is consistent with localized upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3089/1/ggge20556.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>1525-2027</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Cenozoic Epeirogeny of Arabian Peninsula from Drainage Modeling</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Wilson, J. W. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roberts, G. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoggard, M. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, N. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GC005283</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3087
Date: 2016-07-08

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3087</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-07-08T17:08:02Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The Cotiella Massif in the south-central Pyrenees hosts upper Cretaceous gravity-driven extensional faults which were developed in the Bay of Biscay–Pyrenean paleorift margin of the Atlantic Ocean. They accommodate up to 6 km of post-rift carbonates above relict upper Triassic salt. Subsequent Pyrenean contractional deformation preserved the main extensional features, but most of the upper Triassic salt was expulsed and then dissolved, leaving little indications of the original salt volume. Nonetheless, several distinctive salt-related features are still recognizable both at outcrop and at basin scale, providing an exposed analogue for salt-floored extensional basins developed on passive margins. Based on field research, we re-interpret the tectonic evolution of the area and suggest that passive diapirs were coeval with gravity-driven extension during the development of the Cotiella basin. The given interpretations are supported with detailed geological maps, original structural data, cross sections and outcrop photographs. The discovery of previously unknown post-rift salt structures in the Cotiella Massif is an extra element to consider in the paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper Cretaceous passive margin of the Bay of Biscay–Pyrenean realm and consequently helps in our understanding of the evolution of current Atlantic-type margins.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3087/1/art%253A10.1007%252Fs00531-014-1091-9.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer Verlag (Germany)</dc:publisher><dc:source>1437-3262</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Extensional salt tectonics in the partially inverted Cotiella post-rift basin (south-central Pyrenees): structure and evolution</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Lopez-Mir, Berta</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Muñoz, Josep Anton</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>García Senz, Jesus</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00531-014-1091-9</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3074
Date: 2016-08-25

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3074</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-08-25T12:11:34Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Satellite-measured SO2 mass loadings and ground-based measurements of SO2 emission rate are not directly comparable, with ∼40% differences between mean emissions reported by each technique from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, during late 2007. Numerical simulations of postemission processing and dispersal of Tungurahua's SO2 emissions enable more effective comparison of ground- and satellite-based SO2 data sets, reducing the difference between them and constraining the impact of plume processing on satellite SO2 observations. Ground-based measurements of SO2 emission rate are used as the model input, and simulated SO2 mass loadings are compared to those measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The changing extent of SO2 processing has a significant impact on daily variation in SO2 mass loading for a fixed volcanic emission rate. However, variations in emission rate at Tungurahua are large, suggesting that overall volcanic source strength and not subsequent processing is more likely to be the dominant control on atmospheric mass loading. SO2 emission rate estimates are derived directly from the OMI observations using modeled SO2 lifetime. Good agreement is achieved between both observed and simulated mass loadings (∼21%) and satellite-derived and ground-measured SO2 emission rates (∼18%), with a factor of 2 improvement over the differences found by simple direct comparison. While the balance of emission source strength and postemission processing will differ between volcanoes and regions, under good observation conditions and where SO2 lifetime is ∼24 hours, satellite-based sensors like OMI may provide daily observations of SO2 mass loading which are a good proxy for volcanic source strength.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3074/1/jgrd51272.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>2169897X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>A comparison of satellite- and ground-based measurements of SO2emissions from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McCormick, Brendan T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Herzog, Michael</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Yang, Jian</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, Marie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mather, Tamsin A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Carn, Simon A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hidalgo, Silvana</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Langmann, Baerbel</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013JD019771</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3066
Date: 2016-07-08

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3066</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-07-08T17:29:52Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3032</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The generation of short-period multiples between highly heterogeneous layers of basalt flows can strongly alter transmitted seismic wavefields. These layers filter and modify penetrating waves, producing apparent attenuation and phase changes in the observed waveforms. We investigated the waveform and apparent phase changes of the primary seismic signal using mainly the maximum kurtosis approach. We compared the seismic recordings from two short-offset vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) with synthetic seismograms, generated from sonic logs in the same wells, and we found that short-period multiples cause a rapid broadening of the primary arrivals and strong apparent phase changes within a short depth interval below the top of the basalt flows. Relatively large uncertainties were associated with estimating constant phase shifts of the seismic arrivals within the topmost 250 m of the basalt sequences, where complex scattering occurred. Within this interval of the Brugdan I well, a phase-only compensation of the first arrivals with a frequency-independent, combined scattering, and intrinsic attenuation operator was unfeasible. At a greater depth, we found that the phase shifts, predicted by a VSP-derived effective Q value, were similar to those estimated from the VSP signals using the kurtosis method. Thus, phase-only compensation with a combined scattering and intrinsic attenuation operator could work well depending on the seismic signal bandwidth and the distribution, depth, and magnitude of the impedance contrasts in the basalt sequence.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3066/1/D265.full.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Society of exploration geophysicists</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/247609</dc:relation><dc:source>Online ISSN: 1942-2156     Print ISSN: 0016-8033</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Effect of flood basalt stratigraphy on seismic waveforms recorded offshore Faroe Islands</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Schuler, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Christie, P. A. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:project funder_id="0000 0004 0612 6974" funder_name="University of Cambridge Department of Earth Sciences">esc.3066</rioxxterms:project><rioxxterms:project funder_name="Natural Environment Research Council" funder_id="http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000270">NE/H025006/1</rioxxterms:project><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/geo2014-0308.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3065
Date: 2016-06-30

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3065</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-30T00:00:04Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3034</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-06-01">http://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved</ali:license_ref><dc:description>The early Paleozoic Tumblagooda Sandstone outcrops principally in the vicinity of the Murchison&#13;
River in Kalbarri National Park, Western Australia. It contains a great variety of trace fossils that&#13;
provide  a  unique  insight  into  the  activities  of  early  invaders  of  the  terrestrial  environment,  and&#13;
may record one of the earliest known freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. The traces reveal that&#13;
this  nascent  terrestrial  fauna  was  dominated  by  arthropods.  In  outcrop  the  sandstones  are  more&#13;
than  1  km  thick  and  comprise  predominantly  mixed  fluvial  and  eolian  deposits.  The  age  of  the&#13;
Tumblagooda  Sandstone  has  been  the  subject  of  much  debate.  Initial  analysis  of  the  trace-fossil&#13;
assemblage suggested a Late Silurian age. Preliminary work on conodont faunas in sediments of&#13;
the conformably overlying Dirk Hartog Group also indicated a Silurian age. However, arguments&#13;
have  been  made  for  an  older,  Ordovician  age  based  on  paleomagnetic  and  pedostratigraphic&#13;
studies. In this review it is argued that deposition is linked to the known ages of regional uplift of&#13;
the  hinterland,  and  thus  inferred  to  be  Early  to  mid-Silurian.  A  previous  study  recognised  two&#13;
distinct trace-fossil assemblages. One, comprising a mixture of burrows and arthropod trackways,&#13;
represents  a  freshwater/terrestrial  ecosystem  that  inhabited  sands  interpreted  as  having  been&#13;
deposited in broad, low sinuosity, braided fluvial channels, between mixed eolian and water-lain&#13;
sandsheets,  small  eolian  dunes  and  flooded  interdune,  and  deflation  hollows.  The  major&#13;
bioturbator was Heimdallia. Other burrows include Tumblagoodichnus, Beaconites and Diplocraterion.&#13;
A  variety  of  arthropod  trackways,  predominantly  Diplichnites,  formed  on  water-lain  sands  and&#13;
foreset beds of eolian dunes. Other tracks include  Siskemia and possible examples of Paleohelcura&#13;
and Protichnites. Other arthropod traces include Rusophycus and  Cruziana. Likely arthropod track&#13;
makers  include  myriapods,  eurypterids,  euthycarcinoids  and  xiphosurids.  A  single  trackway  is&#13;
interpreted as having been made by a tetrapod and as such pushes back the record of this group&#13;
from the mid-Devonian to the Early–mid-Silurian. This trace fossil assemblage can be assigned to&#13;
the  Scoyenia  ichnofacies.  A  second  trace  fossil  assemblage,  assignable  to  the  Skolithos  ichnofacies&#13;
occurs  higher  in  the  section,  in  strata  traditionally  interpreted  as  having  been  deposited  in  a&#13;
marginal  fluvial-marine  environment.  The  ichnofacies  is  dominated  by  burrows,  especially&#13;
Skolithos, but also Diplocraterion, Daedalus and Lunatubichnus. Rare locomotory traces are assignable&#13;
to Diplichnites and Aulichnites. Preservation of the arthropod trackways in the Scoyenia ichnofacies&#13;
was facilitated by the nature of the fluvial/eolian environment. Many of the tracks show indication&#13;
of  having  been  created  subaerially  on  wet  sand  surfaces,  and  preserved  by  a  covering  of  fine,&#13;
eolian sand. The presence of extensive dwelling burrows and terrestrial trackways in the Scoyenia&#13;
ichnofacies  represents  arguably  the  earliest  known  freshwater/terrestrial  ecosystem.  Moreover,  it&#13;
supports the view that one of the major steps in evolution, the colonisation of land by animals, may&#13;
have been from rivers, rather than directly from the sea.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3065/1/McNamara%202014%20Tumblagooda.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Society of Western Australia</dc:publisher><dc:source>0035-922X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Early Paleozoic colonisation of the land – evidence from the Tumblagooda Sandstone, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia.</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, K. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:project funder_id="http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000735" funder_name="University of Cambridge">3065</rioxxterms:project><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3062
Date: 2015-08-30

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3062</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T02:31:37Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-03-25">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We use cross-correlation of continuous 18 months (2009 February to 2010 August) ambient noise data recorded over 35 broad-band seismographs in the Archean Dharwar Craton and the adjoining granulite terrain to generate Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps in the period 5–28 s. This is supplemented with longer period data (40–70 s) from earthquake source. Combined group velocity measurement was inverted jointly with the teleseismic receiver functions obtained at 50 stations (includes 15 stations operated during 1998–2002) to produce shear velocity image of the crust. The velocity image reveals thinner crust (34–38 km) in the late Archean (∼2.7 Ga) Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), while all other terrains (mid-Archean and Proterozoic) have crustal thickness from 40 to over 50 km. The mid-Archean (3.36 Ga) greenstone belt of the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) has the thickest crust (∼50 km). The average crustal Vs beneath the EDC is ∼3.70–3.78 km s−1 as compared to 3.80–3.95 km s−1 beneath the WDC. We observe significant lateral variation in the thickness of lower crust (Vs ∼ 3.8–4.2 km s−1): ∼10–15 km in the EDC compared to ∼20–30 km in the WDC. The lowermost part of the crust (Vs ≥ 4.0 km s−1) is thin (&lt;5 km) beneath the EDC in contrast to more thickness (10–27 km) beneath the WDC. Our analysis suggests intermediate composition for the crust beneath the EDC similar to those for other cratons. In contrast, the mid-Archean exposed WDC crust has more mafic composition and exceptional thickness—a scenario at variance with the global observations. We interpret this thick mafic crust to represent undeformed geological segment of 3.36 Ga. The EDC with a nearly flat Moho, felsic to intermediate composition of crust and thin basal layer may represent a reworked terrain during the late-Archean.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3062/1/Geophys.%20J.%20Int.-2014-Borah-748-67.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Oxford University Press</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/</dc:relation><dc:source>0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Seismic imaging of crust beneath the Dharwar Craton, India, from ambient noise and teleseismic receiver function modelling</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Borah, Kajaljyoti</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rai, S. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Prakasam, K. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gupta, Sandeep</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Priestley, Keith</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gaur, V. K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu075</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3060
Date: 2017-06-09

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3060</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-06-09T16:18:03Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We perform experiments to study the mixing of passive scalar by a buoyancy-induced turbulent flow in a long narrow vertical tank. The turbulent flow is associated with the downward mixing of a small flux of dense aqueous saline solution into a relatively large upward flux of fresh water. In steady state, the mixing region is of finite extent, and the intensity of the buoyancy-driven mixing is described by a spatially varying turbulent diffusion coefficient κv(z) which decreases linearly with distance z from the top of the tank. We release a pulse of passive scalar into either the fresh water at the base of the tank, or the saline solution at the top of the tank, and we measure the subsequent mixing of the passive scalar by the flow using image analysis. In both cases, the mixing of the passive scalar (the dye) is well-described by an advection–diffusion equation, using the same turbulent diffusion coefficient κv(z) associated with the buoyancy-driven mixing of the dynamic scalar. Using this advection–diffusion equation with spatially varying turbulent diffusion coefficient κv(z), we calculate the residence time distribution (RTD) of a unit mass of passive scalar released as a pulse at the bottom of the tank. The variance in this RTD is equivalent to that produced by a uniform eddy diffusion coefficient with value κe=0.88⟨κv⟩, where ⟨κv⟩ is the vertically averaged eddy diffusivity. The structure of the RTD is also qualitatively different from that produced by a flow with uniform eddy diffusion coefficient. The RTD using κv has a larger peak value and smaller values at early times, associated with the reduced diffusivity at the bottom of the tank, and manifested mathematically by a skewness γ1≈1.60 and an excess kurtosis γ2≈4.19 compared to the skewness and excess kurtosis of γ1≈1.46, γ2≈3.50 of the RTD produced by a constant eddy diffusion coefficient with the same variance.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3060/1/S0022112014000251a.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Cambridge University Press</dc:publisher><dc:source>0022-1120, ESSN: 1469-7645</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-99</dc:subject><dc:title>Spatially varying mixing of a passive scalar in a buoyancy-driven turbulent flow</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>van Sommeren, Daan D. J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Caulfield, C. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Woods, Andrew W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2014-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.25</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3056
Date: 2015-05-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3056</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-31T00:00:02Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Marine biomineralising organisms provide a fundamental link between biology and global geochemical cycles, and retain an unparalleled record of past ocean conditions in the trace element and isotope chemistry of their shells. These ‘palaeoproxy’ tracers provide our main means of understanding past climate. This thesis considers aspects of biomineral formation, architecture and preservation, in the context of their use in as a source of palaeoproxies.</dc:description><dc:format>image/png</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3056/3/OB%20image.png</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-03</dc:subject><dc:title>The Biomineralogy of Marine Calcifying Organisms and Palaeoproxies</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Branson, Oscar</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Thesis</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3016
Date: 2017-02-17

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PropertyError
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3016</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:20:26Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2013-10">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We present coupled sulfur and oxygen isotope data from sulfur nodules and surrounding gypsum, as well as iron and manganese concentration data, from the Lisan Formation near the Dead Sea (Israel). The sulfur isotope composition in the nodules ranges between -9 and -11‰, 27 to 29‰ lighter than the surrounding gypsum, while the oxygen isotope composition of the gypsum is constant around 24‰. The constant sulfur isotope composition of the nodule is consistent with formation in an ‘open system’. Iron concentrations in the gypsum increase toward the nodule, while manganese concentrations decrease, suggesting a redox boundary at the nodule-gypsum interface during aqueous phase diagenesis. We propose that sulfur nodules in the Lisan Formation are generated through bacterial sulfate reduction, which terminates at elemental sulfur. We speculate that the sulfate-saturated pore fluids, coupled with the low availability of an electron donor, terminates the trithionate pathway before the final two-electron reduction, producing thionites, which then disproportionate to form abundant elemental sulfur.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3016/1/journal.pone.0075883.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>PLoS ONE</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Fire and Brimstone: The Microbially Mediated Formation of Elemental Sulfur Nodules from an Isotope and Major Element Study in the Paleo-Dead Sea</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bishop, Tom</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Turchyn, Alexandra V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sivan, Orit</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2013-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075883</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3014
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3014</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:15:04Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-04">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We use multiple stable isotope measurements in two highly stratified estuaries located along the Mediterranean coast of Israel (the Yarqon and the Qishon) to explore the consumption of sulfate through the anaerobic oxidation of methane (sulfate-driven AOM). At both sites, pore fluid sulfate is rapidly consumed within the upper 15–20 cm. Although the pore fluid sulfate and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration profiles change over a similar range with respect to depth, the sulfur and oxygen isotopes in the pore fluid sulfate and the carbon isotopes in the pore fluid DIC are fundamentally different. This pore fluid isotope geochemistry indicates that the microbial mechanism of sulfate reduction differs between the studied sites. We suggest that in the Yarqon estuary, sulfate is consumed entirely through AOM, whereas in the Qishon, both AOM and bacterial sulfate reduction through organic matter oxidation coexist. These results have implications for understanding the microbial mechanisms behind sulfate-driven AOM. Our data compilation from marine and marginal marine environments supports the conclusion that the intracellular pathways of sulfate reduction varies among environments with sulfate-driven AOM. The data can be used to elucidate new pathways in the cycling of methane and sulfate, and the findings are applicable to the broader marine environment.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3014/3/1-s2.0-S0272771414000468-main.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Published by Elsevier B.V.</dc:publisher><dc:source>0272-7714, ESSN: 1096-0015</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Sulfur and oxygen isotope tracing of sulfate driven anaerobic methane oxidation in estuarine sediments</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Antler, Gilad</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Turchyn, Alexandra V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Herut, Barak</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Davies, Alicia</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rennie, Victoria C. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sivan, Orit</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2014.03.001</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3005
Date: 2017-02-17

RIOXX

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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3005</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:13:51Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3031</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-06-15">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We present 28 multiple sulfur isotope measurements of seawater sulfate (δ34SSO4δ34SSO4 and Δ33SSO4Δ33SSO4) from the modern ocean over a range of water depths and sites along the eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean. The average measured δ34SSO4δ34SSO4 is 21.24‰ (±0.88‰,2σ±0.88‰,2σ) with a calculated Δ33SSO4Δ33SSO4 of +0.050‰+0.050‰ (±0.014‰,2σ±0.014‰,2σ). With these values, we use a box-model to place constraints on the gross fraction of pyrite burial in modern sediments. This model presents an improvement on previous estimates of the global pyrite burial flux because it does not rely on the assumed value of δ34Spyriteδ34Spyrite, which is poorly constrained, but instead uses new information about the relationship between δ34Sδ34S and δ33Sδ33S in global marine sulfate. Our calculations indicate that the pyrite burial flux from the modern ocean is between 10% and 45% of the total sulfur lost from the oceans, with a more probable range between 20% and 35%.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3005/1/1-s2.0-S0012821X1400209X-main.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0012821X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:title>Multiple sulfur isotope constraints on the sulfur cycle in the modern ocean</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tostevin, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Turchyn, A. V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bishop, J. K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Eldridge, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Farquhar, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Johnston, D. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2014-06-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.057</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3001
Date: 2015-08-30

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ali:license_ref'2014-01' in the 'start_date' attribute is not in valid ISO8601 ('yyyy-mm-dd') format in ali:license_ref

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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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ali:license_ref'2014-01' in the 'start_date' attribute is not in valid ISO8601 ('yyyy-mm-dd') format in ali:license_ref
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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:3001</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T02:35:39Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-01">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>The northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which includes the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi terranes as well as the Kunlun Shan and the Qaidam Basin, continues to deform in response to the ongoing India–Eurasia collision. To test competing hypotheses concerning the mechanisms for this deformation, we assembled a high-quality data set of approximately 14 000 P- and 4000 S-wave arrival times from earthquakes at teleseismic distances from the International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya, Phase IV broad-band seismometer deployments. We analyse these arrival times to determine tomographic images of P- and S-wave velocities in the upper mantle beneath this part of the plateau. To account for the effects of major heterogeneity in crustal and uppermost mantle wave velocities in Tibet, we use recent surface wave models to construct a starting model for our teleseismic body wave inversion. We compare the results from our model with those from simpler starting models, and find that while the reduction in residuals and results for deep structure are similar between models, the results for shallow structure are different. Checkerboard tests indicate that features of ∼125 km length scale are reliably imaged throughout the study region. Using synthetic tests, we show that the best recovery is below ∼300 km, and that broad variations in shallow structure can also be recovered. We also find that significant smearing can occur, especially at the edges of the model. We observe a shallow dipping seismically fast structure at depths of ∼140–240 km, which dies out gradually between 33°N and 35°N. Based on the lateral continuity of this structure (from the surface waves) we interpret it as Indian lithosphere. Alternatively, the entire area could be thickened by pure shear, or the northern part could be an underthrust Lhasa Terrane lithospheric slab with only the southern part from India. We see a deep fast wave velocity anomaly (below 300 km), that is consistent with receiver function observations of a thickened transition zone and could be a fragment of oceanic lithosphere. In NE Tibet, it appears to be disconnected from faster wave velocities above (i.e. it is not downwelling or subducting here). Our models corroborate results of previous work which imaged a relatively slow wave velocity region below the Kunlun Shan and northern Songpan-Ganzi Terrane, which is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis of southward-directed continental subduction at the northern margin. Wave velocities in the shallow mantle beneath the Qaidam Basin are faster than normal, and more so in the east than the west. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/3001/1/Geophys.%20J.%20Int.-2014-Nunn-1724-41.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/</dc:relation><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Imaging the lithosphere beneath NE Tibet: teleseismic P and S body wave tomography incorporating surface wave starting models</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Nunn, Ceri</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roecker, Steven W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tilmann, Frederik J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Priestley, Keith</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Heyburn, Ross</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sandvol, Eric A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ni, James F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chen, Yongshun John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Zhao, Wenjin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Team, the INDEPTH</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt476</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2994
Date: 2015-04-09

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2994</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-04-09T09:43:52Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>As vegetation evolved during the Palaeozoic Era, terrestrial landscapes were substantially transformed, especially during the ∼120 million year interval from the Devonian through the Carboniferous. Early Palaeozoic river systems were of sheet-braided style – broad, shallow, sandbed rivers with non-cohesive and readily eroded banks. Under the influence of evolving roots and trees that stabilised banks and added large woody debris to channels, a range of new fluvial planform and architectural styles came to prominence, including channelled- and island-braided systems, meandering and anabranching systems, and stable muddy floodplains. River systems co-evolved with plants and animals, generating new ecospace that we infer would have promoted biological evolution. By the end of the Carboniferous, most landforms characteristic of modern fluvial systems were in existence.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2994/1/NSD%201-s2.0-S001678781300120X-main.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Proceedings of the Geologists' Association</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:title>Palaeozoic co-evolution of rivers and vegetation: a synthesis of current knowledge</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gibling, M. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Davies, N. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Falcon-Lang, H. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bashforth, A. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>DiMichele, W. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rygel, M. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ielpi, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1016/j.pgeola.2013.12.003</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2992
Date: 2017-02-17

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2992</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:15:57Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-01">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We have assembled a catalogue of well-constrained focal mechanisms for earthquakes that occurred on continental dip-slip faults that have experienced only small displacements during their current phase of activity. Nodal planes for both reverse- and normal-faulting events are seen to vary between ∼30° and ∼60°, and are concentrated towards the centre of this range. The observed distributions suggest the reactivation of structures with a low coefficient of friction (less than ∼0.3, and possibly as low as ≤0.1). We propose that this low coefficient of friction corresponds to the presence of weak materials in pre-existing fault zones. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2992/1/Geophys.%20J.%20Int.-2014-Middleton-671-80.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Constraining fault friction by re-examining earthquake nodal plane dips</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Middleton, Timothy A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Copley, Alex</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt427</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2984
Date: 2017-06-09

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2984</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-06-09T16:26:01Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Experiments explore the reduction in permeability of a porous bead pack when a suspension of thermally responsive polymer is injected and the temperature then increased above the thermal activation temperature. The change in permeability is greater with higher polymer concentration, provided that the ionic concentration of the solution is sufficient for floc formation. The time for activation of the blocking effect is within tens of seconds to minutes of when the polymer solution is heated. This is consistent with the timescale for diffusion-limited aggregation, although the detailed value depends on the geometry and polymer concentration. Dynamical experiments demonstrate that once the porous media is blocked, adding additional polymer has no effect. The mechanism for permeability reduction may be modeled in the context of a pore-network model, and we build a simple model to illustrate the permeability reduction as a function of the fraction of pores links which are blocked.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2984/1/aic14352.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>AIChE Journal</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-99</dc:subject><dc:title>Control of the permeability of a porous media using a thermally sensitive polymer</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tran-Viet, Alexis</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Routh, Alexander F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Woods, Andrew W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1002/aic.14352</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2982
Date: 2017-02-17

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2982</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:07:57Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>[1] Despite its importance, the spatial and temporal pattern of dynamic topography generated by mantle convective circulation is poorly known. We present accurate estimates of dynamic topography from oceanic basins and continental margins surrounding Australia. Our starting point is measurement of residual depth anomalies on the oldest oceanic floor adjacent to the continental shelf. These anomalies were determined from a combined dataset of ~200 seismic reflection and wide-angle images of well-sedimented oceanic crust. They have amplitudes of between −1 km and +0.5 km, and their spatial variation is broadly consistent with long-wavelength free-air gravity and shallow seismic tomographic anomalies. Along the Northwest Shelf, a regional depth anomaly of −300 to −700 m intersects the adjacent continental shelf. The temporal evolution of this anomaly was determined by analyzing the stratigraphic architecture of an extensive carbonate platform, which fringes the shelf and records a dramatic switch from progradation to aggradation during Neogene times. Three-dimensional seismic mapping calibrated by boreholes was used to calculate water-loaded subsidence histories at rollover points of clinoforms along the shelf. At 9 ± 3 Ma, the rate of subsidence increases from 5 to up 75 m Myr−1, generating a subsidence anomaly of −300 to −700 m. The amplitude of this anomaly varies along the shelf and cannot be generated by glacio-eustatic sea-level variation. Instead, we propose that a regional subsidence episode, which affects both the proximal shelf and the distal oceanic basin, was generated by convective drawdown. By combining our results with other published estimates of uplift and subsidence, a map of Australia, which shows the spatial and temporal pattern of dynamic topography is presented. Most, but not all, of Australia's epeirogeny can be attributed to rapid northward motion of the Australian plate over a pre-existing pattern of convective circulation.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2982/1/ggge20035.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>15252027</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Spatial and temporal patterns of Cenozoic dynamic topography around Australia</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Czarnota,  K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoggard, M. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, N. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Winterbourne, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GC004392</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2972
Date: 2017-02-17

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2972</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:11:06Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Along mid-ocean ridges the extending crust is segmented1 on length scales of 10–1,000 km. Where rift segments are offset from one another, motion between segments is accommodated by transform faults that are oriented orthogonally to the main rift axis. Where segments overlap, non-transform offsets with a variety of geometries2 accommodate shear motions. Here we use micro-seismic data to analyse the geometries of faults at two overlapping rift segments exposed on land in north Iceland. Between the rift segments, we identify a series of faults that are aligned sub-parallel to the orientation of the main rift. These faults slip through left-lateral strike-slip motion. Yet, movement between the overlapping rift segments is through right-lateral motion. Together, these motions induce a clockwise rotation of the faults and intervening crustal blocks in a motion that is consistent with a bookshelf-faulting mechanism, named after its resemblance to a tilting row of books on a shelf3. The faults probably reactivated existing crustal weaknesses, such as dyke intrusions, that were originally oriented parallel to the main rift and have since rotated about 15° clockwise. Reactivation of pre-existing, rift-parallel weaknesses contrasts with typical mid-ocean ridge transform faults and is an important illustration of a non-transform offset accommodating shear motion between overlapping rift segments.</dc:description><dc:format>image/jpeg</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2972/7/ngeo2012-f1.jpg</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Nature Publishing Group</dc:publisher><dc:source>1752-0894</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Motion in the north Iceland volcanic rift zone accommodated by bookshelf faulting</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Green, Robert G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, Robert S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Greenfield, Tim</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1038/ngeo2012</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2966
Date: 2016-06-22

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-08">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We present relatively relocated earthquake hypocentres for &gt;1000 microearthquakes (ML &lt; 3) that occurred during the 2 weeks immediately prior to the 2010 March 20 fissure eruption at Fimmvörðuháls on the flank of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. Our hypocentre locations lie predominantly in horizontally separated clusters spread over an area of 10 km2 and approximately 4 km below sea level (5 km below the surface). Seismic activity in the final 4 d preceding the eruption extended to shallower levels &lt;2 km below sea level and propagated to the surface at the Fimmvörðuháls eruption site on the day the eruption started. We demonstrate using synthetic data that the observed apparent ∼1 km vertical elongation of seismic clusters is predominantly an artefact caused by only small errors (0.01–0.02 s) in arrival time data. Where the signal-to-noise ratio was sufficiently good to make subsample arrival time picks by cross-correlation of both P- and S-wave arrivals, the mean depth of 103 events in an individual cluster were constrained to 3.84 ± 0.06 km. Epicentral locations are significantly less vulnerable to arrival time errors than are depths for the seismic monitoring network we used. Within clusters of typically 100 recorded earthquakes, most of the arrivals exhibit similar waveforms and identical patterns of P-wave first-motion polarities across the entire monitoring network. The clusters of similar events comprise repetitive sources in the same location with the same orientations of failure, probably on the same rupture plane. The epicentral clustering and similarity of source mechanisms suggest that much of the seismicity was generated at approximately static constrictions to magma flow in an inflating sill complex. These constrictions may act as a form of valve in the country rock, which ruptures when the melt pressure exceeds a critical level, then reseals after a pulse of melt has passed through. This would generate recurring similar source mechanisms on the same weak fault plane as the connection between segments of the sill system is repeatedly refractured in the same location. We infer that the magmatic intrusion causing most of the seismicity was likely to be a laterally inflating complex of sills at about 4 km depth, with seismogenic pinch-points occurring between aseismic compartments of the sills, or between adjacent magma lobes as they inflated. During the final 4 d preceding the eruption onset between 22:30 and 23:30 UTC on 2010 March 20, the seismicity suggests that melt progressed upwards to a depth of ∼2 km. This seismicity was probably caused by fracturing of the country rock at the margins of the propagating dyke. Subsequently, on the morning of the eruption a dyke propagated eastward from the region of precursory seismic activity to the Fimmvörðuháls eruption site.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2966/6/Geophys.%20J.%20Int.-2014-Tarasewicz-906-21.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Seismogenic magma intrusion before the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tarasewicz, J. P. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brandsdóttir, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Schoonman, C. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2014-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu169</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2957
Date: 2016-08-25

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2957</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-08-25T12:11:47Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a satellite-based ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer with unprecedented sensitivity to atmospheric sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations. Since late 2004, OMI has provided a high-quality SO2 dataset with near-continuous daily global coverage. In this review, we discuss the principal applications of this dataset to volcano monitoring: (1) the detection and tracking of large eruption clouds, primarily for aviation hazard mitigation; and (2) the use of OMI data for long-term monitoring of volcanic degassing. This latter application is relatively novel, and despite showing some promise, requires further study into a number of key uncertainties. We discuss these uncertainties, and illustrate their potential impact on volcano monitoring with OMI through four new case studies. We also discuss potential future avenues of research using OMI data, with a particular emphasis on the need for greater integration between various monitoring strategies, instruments and datasets.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2957/1/Ozone%20measurement%20for%20SO2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>G</dc:publisher><dc:source>Geological Society, London, Special Publications</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Volcano monitoring applications of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McCormick, Brendan T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, Marie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mather, Tamsin A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Campion, Robin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hayer, Catherine S. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thomas, Helen E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Carn, Simon A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1144/SP380.11 </rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2907
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2907</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:18:55Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Salinity increase in the subtropical gyre system may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic Ocean for a rapid return to stronger overturning circulation and high-latitude warming following meltwater events during the Last Glacial period. Here we investigate the Gulf Stream – subtropical gyre system properties over Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) cycles 14 to 12, including Heinrich ice-rafting event 5. During the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum a positive gradient in surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera δ18O (Globigerinoides ruber) can be observed between the Gulf Stream and subtropical gyre, due to decreasing temperature, increasing salinity, and a change from summer to year-round occurrence of G. ruber. We assess whether this gradient was a common feature during stadial-interstadial climate oscillations of Marine Isotope Stage 3, by comparing existing G. ruber δ18O from ODP Site 1060 (subtropical gyre location) and new data from ODP Site 1056 (Gulf Stream location) between 54 and 46 ka. Our results suggest that this gradient was largely absent during the period studied. During the major warm DO interstadials 14 and 12 we infer a more zonal and wider Gulf Stream, influencing both ODP Sites 1056 and 1060. A Gulf Stream presence during these major interstadials is also suggested by the large vertical δ18O gradient between shallow dwelling planktonic foraminifera species, especially G. ruber, and the deep dwelling species Globorotalia inflata at site 1056, which we associate with strong summer stratification and Gulf Stream presence. A major reduction in this vertical δ18O gradient from 51 ka until the end of Heinrich event 5 at 48.5 ka suggests site 1056 was situated within the subtropical gyre in this mainly cold period, from which we infer a migration of the Gulf Stream to a position nearer to the continental shelf, indicative of a narrower Gulf Stream with possibly reduced transport.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2907/1/Gulf%20stream.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0277-3791</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Gulf Stream – subtropical gyre properties across two Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hoogakker, B. A. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Downy, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Andersson, M. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chapman, M. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Elderfield, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McCave, I. N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lenton, T.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Grützner, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.09.020</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2896
Date: 2015-08-30

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2896</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T02:37:14Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>High frequency precursors to P′P′ almost invariably observe a narrow 660 km discontinuity, whereas PP precursor studies at long periods struggle to detect a reflection from the ‘660’ despite its apparent sharpness to P′P′. To investigate these contradictory observations we compare PP and P′P′ precursors in the same region. Using short period P′P′ precursors we observe a sharp 660 km discontinuity, which appears to vary in depth substantially. The apparent topography on the ‘660’ is too large to originate solely from thermal variations, regardless of its cause, therefore indicating chemical variations at the base of the mantle transition zone. Long period P′P′ precursors show no ‘660’ as they are sensitive to a larger area and thus average out the apparent topography, in agreement with long period PP precursors. Instead, we see some evidence in both long period data types for a reflection from 720 km depth, which is likely to correspond to a phase change in the garnet system. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2896/2/Geophys.%20J.%20Int.-2013-Day-834-8.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/</dc:relation><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Reconciling PP and P′P′ precursor observations of a complex 660 km seismic discontinuity </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Day, Elizabeth A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Deuss, Arwen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt122</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2894
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2894</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:19:52Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3036</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Abstract We present a study aimed at quantifying the potential for generating sulfur-rich gas emissions from the devolatilization of sediments accompanying sill emplacement during flood basalt eruptions. The potential contribution of sulfur-rich gases from sediments might augment substantially the magma-derived sulfur gases and hence impact regional and global climate. We demonstrate, from a detailed outcrop-scale study, that sulfur and total organic carbon have been devolatilized from shales immediately surrounding a 3-m thick dolerite sill on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Localized partial melting occurred within a few centimetres of the contact in the shale, generating melt-filled cracks. Pyrite decomposed on heating within 80 cm of the contact, generating sulfur-rich gases (a mixture of H2S and SO2) and pyrrhotite. The pyrrhotite shows 32S enrichment, due to loss of 34S-enriched SO2. Further decomposition and oxidation of pyrrhotite resulted in hematite and/or magnetite within a few cm of the contact. Iron sulfates were produced during retrogressive cooling and oxidation within 20 cm of the contact. Decarbonation of the sediments due to heating is also observed, particularly along the upper contact of the sill, where increasing δ13C is consistent with loss of methane gas. The geochemical and mineralogical features observed in the shales are consistent with a short-lived intrusion, emplaced in &amp;lt;5 h. The dolerite magma contains pervasive pyrite and localized sulfur concentrations greater than the sulfur concentration at sulfide liquid saturation, consistent with addition of sulfur (perhaps from sediments) at a late stage. Our study provides evidence for desulfurization, as well as decarbonation, of shales adjacent to an igneous intrusion. The liberated fluids, rich in sulfur and carbon, are likely to be focused along regions of low pore fluid pressure along the margins of the sill. The sulfur gases liberated from the sediments would have augmented the sulfur dioxide (and hydrogen sulfide) yield of the eruption substantially, had they reached the surface. This enhancement of the magmatic sulfur budget has important implications for the climate impact of large flood basalt eruptions that erupt through thick, volatile-rich sedimentary sequences.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2894/1/Yallup%20et%20al.%20-%202013%20-%20Sulfur%20degassing%20due%20to%20contact%20metamorphism%20durin.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0016-7037</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Sulfur degassing due to contact metamorphism during flood basalt eruptions</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Yallup, Christine</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, Marie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Turchyn, Alexandra V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2013-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2013.06.025</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2858
Date: 2016-06-22

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2858</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:12:02Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>[1] We use P wave and S wave arrivals from microseismic earthquakes to construct 3-D tomographic Vp and Vs images of the magma storage region beneath Askja's central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland. A distinctive ellipsoidal low-velocity anomaly, with both Vp and Vsvelocities 8-12% below the background, is imaged at 6-11 km depth beneath the caldera. The presence of a shallow magma chamber is corroborated by geodetic and gravity studies. The small Vp/Vs anomaly suggests a lack of pervasive melt. We interpret this anomaly as a region of multiple sills, some frozen but hot, others containing partial melt. A second, smaller low-velocity anomaly beneath the main magma storage region may represent a magma migration pathway. This interpretation is supported by the close proximity to the anomaly of clusters of deep, magmatically induced earthquakes. However, the location and shape of this deep anomaly are poorly constrained by the current data set.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2858/1/MM%20RSW%20TG%20grl50899.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>0094–8276</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Tomographic image of melt storage beneath Askja volcano, Iceland using local microseismicity</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mitchell, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roecker, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Greenfield, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1002/grl.50899</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2857
Date: 2016-06-22

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      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:12:22Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2013-09-12">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Earthquakes are commonly located by linearized inversion of discrete arrival time picks made from signals recorded at a network of seismic stations. If mis-picks are made, these will contribute to the location, therefore causing potential bias. For data recorded by a dense seismic array, direct imaging methods can be applied instead. We describe the ‘coalescence microseismic mapping’ method, which is a bridge between the two approaches and will operate with seismic data recorded continuously on a sparse array. By continuously mapping scalar signals derived from the envelope of seismic arrivals we derive robust estimates of the spatio-temporal coordinates of the origins of seismic events. Noisy data are migrated away from the correct origin, so do not contribute to errors in location. The method is rooted in a Bayesian formulation of event location traveltime inversion, allows imaging of source locations and has the capacity to handle errors in modelled traveltimes. It has the advantage of working with any 3-D velocity model, which therefore may include anisotropy. It also automatically incorporates both P- and S-wave data. A multiresolution grid search leads to an efficient implementation, with a search over a larger domain including joint inversion for location and velocity structure possible where warranted by the data quality. We discuss the theory and implementation of this method and illustrate it with real data from microseismic events in Iceland caused by melt intrusion in the crust. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2857/1/Geophys.%20J.%20Int.-2013-Drew-gji_ggt331.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Oxford Journals, Oxford University Press</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/</dc:relation><dc:source>1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Coalescence Microseismic Mapping&#13;
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Drew, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tilmann, F. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tarasewicz, J. P. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2013-09-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt331</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2832
Date: 2017-02-17

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2832</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:13:00Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:license_ref start_date="2014-07">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We present sulfur and oxygen isotope data from 41 samples of dissolved riverine sulfate from along 65 km of the Marsyandi River in the Northern Himalayas. Coupled sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of riverine sulfate ( δ 34 S SO 4 and δ 18 O SO 4 respectively) yield unique constraints on the source of sulfur to the river system. The headwaters of the Marsyandi River have light δ 34 S SO 4 and δ 18 O SO 4 , which requires that the source of sulfate to the river is through the anoxic weathering of pyrite (likely via Fe3+). The δ 34 S SO 4 and δ 18 O SO 4 of sulfate in tributaries to the Marsyandi increase downstream, which could result either from inputs from evaporites or bacterial sulfate reduction with subsequent sulfide precipitation in warmer and wetter catchments; either of these processes could result in heavy δ 34 S SO 4 and δ 18 O SO 4 of the residual river sulfate. Elemental ratios such as Sr/Ca and Ca/SO4 suggest, as previous studies have also concluded, that evaporite weathering is not important in the Marsyandi River. We conclude that the isotope data is most consistent with the onset of bacterial sulfate reduction and secondary sulfide precipitation in the soils in the warmer and wetter downstream catchments. Our results have implications for understanding the source of sulfate to the ocean as well as the redox and acidity budget within rapidly eroding catchments.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2832/1/Turchyn_et_al._-_Isotope_evidence_for_secondary_sulfide_precipitati.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0012-821X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:title>Isotope evidence for secondary sulfide precipitation along the Marsyandi River, Nepal, Himalayas</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Turchyn, Alexandra V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tipper, Edward T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Galy, Albert</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lo, Jun-Kai</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bickle, Mike J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2014-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.04.033</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2792
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2792</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:06:55Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Cation ordering in the magnesioferrite-qandilite (MgFe2O4-Mg2TiO4) solid solution has been investigated using an interatomic potential model combined with Monte Carlo simulations. The dominant chemical interaction controlling the thermodynamic mixing behavior of the solid solution is a positive nearest-neighbor pairwise interaction between tetrahedrally coordinated Fe3+ and octahedrally coordinated Ti4+ (JTFeOTi). The predicted cation distribution evolves gradually from the Néel-Chevalier model to the Akimoto model as a function of increasing JTFeOTi, with JTFeOTi = 1000 ± 100 K providing an adequate description of both the temperature and composition dependence of the cation distribution and the presence of a miscibility gap. Although Mg is a good analog of Fe2+ in end-member spinels, a comparison of model predictions for MgFe2O4-Mg2TiO4 with observed cation ordering behavior in titanomagnetite (Fe3O4-Fe2TiO4) demonstrates that the analog breaks down for Fe3O4-rich compositions, where a value of JTFeOTi closer to zero is needed to explain the observed cation distribution. It is proposed that screening of Ti4+ by mobile charge carriers on the octahedral sublattice is responsible for the dramatic reduction in JTFeOTi. If confirmed, this conclusion will have significant implications for attempts to create a realistic thermodynamic model of titanomagnetite.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2792/1/Harrison_et_al._-_2013_-_A_computational_model_of_cation_ordering_in_the_ma.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Mineralogical Society of America</dc:publisher><dc:source>0003-004X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-03</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>A computational model of cation ordering in the magnesioferrite-qandilite (MgFe2O4-Mg2TiO4) solid solution and its potential application to titanomagnetite (Fe3O4-Fe2TiO4)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Harrison, Richard J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Palin, Erika J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Perks, Natasha</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.2138/am.2013.4318</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2782
Date: 2017-02-09

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2782</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-09T14:03:45Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A long-standing hypothesis links the increased prominence of meandering rivers in the &#13;
middle Paleozoic to the colonization of terrestrial environments by vegetation. This hypoth-&#13;
esis is tested using a data set of Cambrian to Devonian fl uvial literature and fi eld examina-&#13;
tion of key stratigraphic units. According to some researchers, Cambrian to mid-Silurian &#13;
river systems were braided in planform, with a sharp increase in the abundance of mean-&#13;
dering  rivers  during  the  Silurian–Devonian. Although  meandering  systems  were  largely &#13;
identifi ed  on  the  basis  of  thick  mudstones  and  organized  channel  deposits,  the  data  set &#13;
record of lateral accretion sets appears to be a robust proxy for the abundance of meander-&#13;
ing river point bars. Lateral accretion is fi rst recorded from Pridolian–Lochkovian strata, &#13;
but is noted in nearly 40% of fl uvial case studies by the Famennian. This trend matches the &#13;
known record of rooted vegetation, suggesting that vegetation progressively stabilized river &#13;
banks and promoted single-thread channels. However, the presence of Precambrian and &#13;
extraterrestrial meandering systems indicates that vegetation is not essential for meander-&#13;
ing, and the lack of evidence for Cambrian to Silurian (Ludlow) point bars is surprising. If &#13;
originally present, they may largely have been destroyed by extreme fl oods, chute cut-offs in &#13;
coarse-grained meandering systems, and eolian activity.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2782/1/Davies_and_Gibling_-_2010_-_Paleozoic_vegetation_and_the_Siluro-Devonian_rise.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Geological Society of America</dc:publisher><dc:source>0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-09</dc:subject><dc:title>Paleozoic vegetation and the Siluro-Devonian rise of fluvial lateral accretion sets</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Davies, Neil S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gibling, Martin R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G30443.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2761
Date: 2017-02-17

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2761</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:07:23Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A number of recent studies have used the compositional relationship between magmatic crystals and their carrier liquids to understand processes within volcanic plumbing systems. Here, an extensive compilation of electron microprobe data for Icelandic olivine and glass compositions is used to examine the distribution of the forsterite content of olivine macrocrysts within single lava flows, and the relationship of these olivines to their carrier basaltic liquids. A dataset of 7836 olivine and 233 glass point analyses was examined and 11 eruptions were identified where glass data and over 60 crystal core compositions were available. In common with many basaltic suites, single olivine crystals typically have uniform core compositions with narrow normally zoned rims. Accordingly, in 10 of the 11 Icelandic eruptions over 90% of the olivines are too forsteritic to be in equilibrium with their carrier basaltic liquids. The sampling density of the dataset permitted statistical investigation of the distribution of olivine compositions that contain information that can be used to provide new constraints on magmatic processes. The results of both kernel density estimates and Gaussian mixture modelling indicate that each of the 11 eruptions contained at least one robust peak in olivine compositions. Out of these 11 eruptions, eight show unimodal distributions of macrocryst olivine forsterite content, two are bimodal and one is polymodal. An important feature of the relationship between the carrier glass compositions and the distribution of olivine forsterite contents is that, for 10 of the 11 flows, a strong peak in the olivine compositional distribution occurs at forsterite contents that are 2–3 mol % higher than those expected for olivines in equilibrium with the carrier liquid. This offset peak is not predicted for olivines generated by simple equilibrium or fractional crystallization models. Instead, the distribution of olivine compositions and its relationship with the carrier liquids can be accounted for using a three-stage model. In the first stage, fractional crystallization and crystal settling generate a mush pile on the floor of a magma chamber. Compositional stratification is present in this mush, with the olivines at its base being more forsteritic than those at its top, reflecting the evolution of liquid compositions during fractional crystallization. The olivines in the uppermost part of the mush are close to equilibrium with basaltic liquid in the interior of the chamber. In the second stage local diffusion acts to homogenize single crystals in the mush, creating the uniform cores observed upon eruption. Concurrently the chemical gradient across the full thickness of the mush pile is altered by diffusion through the interstitial melt phase, reducing the variance of olivine core compositions in the mush. This process never reaches completion in the Icelandic flows but does generate a single peak in olivine compositions close to the mean forsterite content of the olivines in the crystal pile. Finally, the mush is disaggregated into the carrier liquid of the chamber interior shortly before eruption, creating the diffusional rim overprints. Quantitative models of this process indicate that the observed offset peak in olivine compositions can be generated after 42–8000 years of diffusion in a mush pile, depending on the mush thickness. Key features of the compositional distribution of olivines in basalts can therefore be accounted for using a simple model of mush generation and disaggregation.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2761/1/Thomson_and_Maclennan_-_2013_-_The_Distribution_of_Olivine_Compositions_in_Icelan.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Oxford Journals, Oxford University Press</dc:publisher><dc:source>0022-3530, ESSN: 1460-2415</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>The Distribution of Olivine Compositions in Icelandic Basalts and Picrites</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thomson, Andrew</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Maclennan, John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egs083</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2756
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2756</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:06:14Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Here we report the first occurrence of ultra-depleted pyrope garnets with rare earth element (REE) patterns similar to those of hypothetical garnets proposed to have formed in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle prior to those of metasomatic origin. These unique ultra-depleted garnets have not previously been identified in global suites of mantle xenoliths or diamond inclusions. They occur in certain harzburgite members of the xenolith suite from the Lashaine tuff cone, northern Tanzania. The Lashaine ultra-depleted garnets are characterized by low concentrations of CaO (&lt;0·35 wt %), Cr2O3 (2·5 wt %), incompatible trace elements (e.g. Ba, Sr, Ti, Zr and Y), and have chondrite-normalized REE patterns with steep positive middle-to-heavy REE slopes and flat-to-positive, light-to-middle REE slopes [i.e. they are ‘tick’ (√)-shaped]. The ultra-depleted garnets have high Mg# (92·5) and coexist in chemical and textural equilibrium with highly refractory olivine (Fo95·4) and orthopyroxene (Mg# = 96·4), which are all more magnesian than encountered in most global mantle harzburgites and diamond inclusions. The ultra-depleted garnets occur in interconnecting networks around grains of orthopyroxene, which give the rocks a banded appearance. We propose that the ultra-depleted garnets formed by isochemical exsolution from orthopyroxene following a change in geothermal gradient (decrease in temperature and increase in pressure) associated with Archean lithospheric thickening. Metasomatism of refractory mantle is recorded in the Lashaine xenoliths by an almost continuous variation from ultra-depleted to sub-calcic (harzburgitic) to calcic (lherzolitic) garnet compositions. Overall this systematic trend correlates with increasing depth and is accompanied by a change in chondrite-normalized REE patterns, from ‘√’-shaped to sinusoidal to normal (i.e. light REE depleted). We attribute these compositional variations in garnet, together with a general decrease in Mg# in all mineral phases with depth, to a gradual change from low-temperature high-density fluid metasomatism to high-temperature silicate melt-related enrichment. Pressure and temperature estimates suggest that this metasomatism is concentrated at the base of the Tanzanian lithospheric mantle (i.e. between 125 and 160 km depth), which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Harzburgites containing ultra-depleted garnets were entrained from shallower depths (∼125 km) in the lithosphere than most Lashaine lherzolites and we suggest that long-term survival of this refractory mantle reflects its location above the level reached by ascending metasomatic agents. We propose that preservation of widespread highly refractory, low-density and high-viscosity lithospheric mantle at shallow depths beneath the Tanzanian Craton may have ensured its long-term stability and resistance to delamination. The presence of refractory mantle beneath both the core and eastern margin of the Tanzanian Craton may account for the steep gradient in lithospheric thickness relative to other regions of thick stable Archean lithosphere where thinning beneath cratonic margins is more gradual.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2756/1/J._Petrology-2013-GIBSON-petrology_egt020.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Oxford Journals, Oxford University Press</dc:publisher><dc:source>Print ISSN 0022-3530 - Online ISSN 1460-2415</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Highly-refractory lithospheric mantle beneath the Tanzanian Craton: evidence from Lashaine pre-metasomatic garnet-bearing peridotites</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gibson, S. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McMahon, S. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Day, J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dawson, J. B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1093/petrology/egt020</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2755
Date: 2016-06-22

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2755</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:12:39Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2013-09">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We suggest that carbon dioxide exsolved from a mid-crustal basaltic dyke intrusion in Iceland migrated upwards and triggered shallow seismicity by allowing failure on pre-existing fractures under the relatively low elastic stresses (100–200 kPa; 1–2 bar) generated by the dyke inflation. Intense swarms of microseismicity accompanied magmatic intrusion into a dyke at depths of 13–19 km in the crust of Iceland's Northern Volcanic Rift Zone during 2007–2008. Contemporaneously, a series of small normal earthquakes, probably triggered by elastic stresses imposed by the dyke intrusion, occurred in the uppermost 4 km of crust: fault plane solutions from these are consistent with failure along the extensional fabric and surface fissure directions mapped in the area, suggesting that the faults failed along existing rift zone fabric even though the mid-crustal dyke is highly oblique to it. Several months after the melt froze in the mid-crust and seismicity associated with the intrusion had ceased, an upsurge in shallow microseismicity began in the updip projection of the dyke near the brittle–ductile transition at 6–7 km depth below sea level. This seismicity is caused by failure on right-lateral strike-slip faults, with fault planes orientated 23 ± 3°, which are identical with the 24 ± 2° orientation in this area of surface fractures and fissures caused by plate spreading and extension of the volcanic rift zone. However, these earthquakes have T-axes approximately aligned with the opening direction of the dyke, and the right-lateral sense of failure is opposite that of regional strike-slip faults. We suggest that the fractures occurred along pre-existing weaknesses generated by the pervasive fabric of the rift zone, but that the dyke opening in the mid-crust beneath it caused right-lateral failure. The seismicity commenced after a temporal delay of several months and has persisted for over 3 yr. We propose that fluids exsolved from the magma in the dyke, primarily carbon dioxide, percolated updip and to shallower depths predominantly along pre-existing fractures. Increased pore pressure from the volatiles reduced the effective normal compressive stress on faults, increasing the likelihood of failure and allowing the modest stress changes generated by the intrusion to cause failure. Propagation of volatiles through the crust would also account for the observed time delay between the intrusion at depth and the shallow earthquake clusters. A further short-lived cluster of earthquakes at 2–4 km depth beneath the surface exhibits left-lateral strike-slip faulting with epicentres well orientated along a lineation which is identical with other subparallel strike-slip faults in the area that transfer motion between two adjacent spreading segments. These shallow earthquakes lie beyond lobes of significant positive Coulomb stress change caused by the intrusion, implying minimal modifications to the stress field in their vicinity; hence, they continue to respond to the regional stress field rather than the local stress field generated by the dyke intrusion.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2755/1/Geophys._J._Int.-2013-Martens-gji_ggt184.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.oxfordjournals.org/access_purchase/self-archiving_policyp.html</dc:relation><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Triggering of microearthquakes in Iceland by volatiles released from a dyke intrusion</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Martens, H. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2013-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt184</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2739
Date: 2017-02-17

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2739</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:08:58Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Abstract: The thalloid carbonaceous fossil Nematothallus Lang, 1937, has been widely interpreted as an early Palaeozoic land-plant, despite the absence of a convincing modern analogue. Exceptionally well-preserved nematophyte cuticle from the Late Silurian Burgsvik Sandstone Formation, Gotland provides additional insight into the organism’s anatomy, phylogenetic affiliations and ecology. Because this material exhibits additional characters not present in the type material we assign it to Nematothallopsis gotlandii gen. et sp. nov. The organism was constituted of a close-packed layer of palisade-like filaments covered by a cuticle that bears a characteristic pseudocellular pattern on its inner surface. Apertures in this cuticle are often encircled by a ring of multicellular filaments, which are sometimes associated with spheroidal, spore-like entities. In the light of the conspicuous similarity of the palisade layers to the pseudoparenchymatous tissue of coralline red algae, and of the filament-fringed apertures to their reproductive conceptacles, we reconstruct the Nematothallopsis organism as an extinct rhodophyte and re-evaluate the putative terrestrial habit of cuticular nematophytes in general.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2739/1/pala1203.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>ISSN: 0031-0239, ESSN: 1475-4983</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>A new view on Nematothallus: coralline red algae from the Silurian of Gotland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Smith, Martin R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Butterfield, Nicholas J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01203.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2738
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2738</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:10:18Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The profound evolutionary success of mammals has been linked to behavioral and life-history traits, many of which have been tied to brain size. However, studies of the evolution of this key trait have yet to explore the full potential of the fossil record, being limited by the difficulty of obtaining endocranial data from fossils. Using measurements of endocranial volume, length, height, and width of the braincase in 503 adult specimens from 199 extant species, representing 99 of 133 extant mammalian families, we expand upon a simple method of using multiple regression to develop a formula for estimating brain size from external skull measurements. We also examined non-mammalian synapsids to assess the phylogenetic limits of our model's application. Model-predicted volume correlates strongly with measured volume (R2 = 0.993) and prediction error is between 16% and 19%. Error decreases if models developed for well-sampled subclades such as primates or rodents are used, demonstrating that some differential evolution of the relationship between brain size and skull size has occurred. However, reanalysis using phylogenetically independent contrasts demonstrates weak phylogenetic dependency, indicating that our model is appropriate for estimating the endocranial volume of species of unknown phylogenetic affinity. Thus, the model represents a generally applicable, fast and cost-efficient way to dramatically expand the taxonomic and temporal scope of mammalian brain size data sets. Even endocranial volumes of taxa with highly derived crania, such as cetaceans and monotremes, can be estimated confidently. However, the model works best for generalized placental crania. Fundamental differences in cranial architecture suggest that the model cannot provide accurate estimates of endocranial volume in non-mammalian synapsids more basal than Morganucodon (ca. 200 Ma). Therefore, use of the model for taxa phylogenetically distant from the mammalian crown group is not warranted, but it might be used to establish relative brain sizes between closely related subgroups.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2738/1/F1.medium.gif</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>ISSN: 0094-8373</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Multiple regression modeling for estimating endocranial volume in extinct Mammalia</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Soul, Laura C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Benson, Roger B. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Weisbecker, Vera</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1666/​0094-8373-39.1.149</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2712
Date: 2015-08-30

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2712</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T01:13:40Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Analysis &#13;
of &#13;
relative &#13;
changes &#13;
in &#13;
plate &#13;
position &#13;
during &#13;
ontogeny &#13;
was &#13;
made &#13;
on &#13;
a &#13;
number &#13;
of &#13;
Cenozoic &#13;
spatangoid &#13;
echinoids: &#13;
species &#13;
of &#13;
Breynia, &#13;
Lovenia, &#13;
Protenaster &#13;
and &#13;
Echinocardium. &#13;
Contrary &#13;
to &#13;
the &#13;
generally &#13;
held &#13;
view &#13;
that &#13;
adjacent &#13;
ambulacral &#13;
and &#13;
interambulacral &#13;
columns &#13;
in &#13;
echinoids &#13;
always &#13;
remain &#13;
in &#13;
a &#13;
fixed &#13;
relative &#13;
position &#13;
during &#13;
ontogeny, &#13;
many &#13;
spatangoids &#13;
show &#13;
great &#13;
fluidity &#13;
in &#13;
plate &#13;
growth, &#13;
with &#13;
adjacent &#13;
columns &#13;
'sliding &#13;
past' &#13;
one &#13;
another &#13;
during &#13;
ontogeny. &#13;
Furthermore, &#13;
in &#13;
many &#13;
genera &#13;
plates &#13;
from &#13;
one &#13;
column &#13;
may &#13;
undergo &#13;
strong &#13;
lateral &#13;
growth &#13;
and &#13;
bisect &#13;
pairs &#13;
of &#13;
plates &#13;
in &#13;
adjacent &#13;
rows. &#13;
This &#13;
phenomenon &#13;
of &#13;
relative &#13;
plate &#13;
movement, &#13;
both &#13;
meridional &#13;
and &#13;
equatorial, &#13;
is &#13;
herein &#13;
termed &#13;
'plate &#13;
translocation'. &#13;
It &#13;
is &#13;
considered &#13;
to &#13;
occur &#13;
by &#13;
localized &#13;
resorption &#13;
and &#13;
redeposition &#13;
in &#13;
a &#13;
narrow &#13;
zone &#13;
along &#13;
adjacent &#13;
plate &#13;
boundaries. &#13;
Plate &#13;
translocation &#13;
has &#13;
been &#13;
of &#13;
considerable &#13;
phylogenetic &#13;
significance &#13;
to &#13;
spatangoids &#13;
and, &#13;
combined &#13;
with &#13;
an &#13;
increase &#13;
in &#13;
differential &#13;
allometries &#13;
between &#13;
plates, &#13;
has &#13;
been &#13;
one &#13;
of &#13;
the &#13;
most &#13;
important &#13;
factors &#13;
in &#13;
the &#13;
evolution &#13;
of &#13;
the &#13;
Spatangoida. &#13;
Furthermore, &#13;
the &#13;
initiation &#13;
of &#13;
plate &#13;
translocation &#13;
in &#13;
the &#13;
apical &#13;
system &#13;
in &#13;
certain &#13;
Jurassic &#13;
echinoids &#13;
may &#13;
have &#13;
been &#13;
the &#13;
trigger &#13;
for &#13;
the &#13;
migration &#13;
of &#13;
the &#13;
periproct &#13;
out &#13;
of &#13;
the &#13;
apical &#13;
system, &#13;
and &#13;
a &#13;
major &#13;
factor &#13;
in &#13;
the &#13;
evolution &#13;
of &#13;
irregular &#13;
echinoids. &#13;
Heterochrony &#13;
in &#13;
plate &#13;
growth &#13;
has &#13;
been &#13;
critical &#13;
in &#13;
controlling &#13;
the &#13;
course &#13;
of &#13;
evolution &#13;
in &#13;
many &#13;
lineages &#13;
of &#13;
spatangoid echinoids</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2712/1/2400733.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Paleontological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>ISSN: 0094-8373</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Plate translocation in spatangoid echinoids: its morphological, functional and phylogenetic significance</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, K. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2708
Date: 2015-08-17

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2708</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-17T12:11:41Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Taylor &amp; Francis</dc:publisher><dc:source>0311-5518</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>First Mesozoic record of the cidaroid echinoid Goniocidaris</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, K. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2707
Date: 2015-08-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2707</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-17T12:10:55Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>ISSN: 0031-0239, ESSN: 1475-4983</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Taxonomy and evolution of the Cainozoic spatangoid echinoid Protenaster</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, K. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2705
Date: 2015-05-29

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2705</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-05-29T14:48:24Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3034</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A  model is proposed, based on examples that have been interpreted  as phylogenetic trends, &#13;
to explain how directional morphological evolution at the species level can arise by heterochrony. The &#13;
examples illustrated are of Tertiary to Recent rhynchonellide  brachiopods, Cambrian olenellid trilobites, &#13;
living spatangoid echinoids, Tertiary to Recent schizasterid echinoids, Cenomanian ammonites and Si- &#13;
lurian monograptids. Morphological discontinuities  between species along morphological gradients (which &#13;
can be recognised both spatially and/or temporally), and temporal morphological stasis within species, &#13;
are both consistent with the punctuated equilibria model of macroevolution. It is argued that morpho- &#13;
logical discontinuities have arisen by selection of morphological novelties produced by heterochronic &#13;
processes. These novelties are preadaptations which allow ecological and, consequently, genetic isolation &#13;
from ancestral species. Establishment of a heterochronic morphological gradient is only possible given &#13;
a suitable environmental gradient. The terms "paedomorphocline" and "peramorphocline"  are proposed &#13;
for these heterochronic morphological gradients. Paedomorphoclines  and peramorphoclines  each comprise &#13;
a number of species occupying a series of adaptive peaks, which have evolved sequentially through time &#13;
by selection along an environmental gradient.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2705/1/2400449.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Paleontological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0094-8373</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Heterochrony and phylogenetic trends</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, K. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2700
Date: 2015-08-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2700</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-17T12:21:07Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A comprehensive taxonomic revision of heteromorph ammonites from the Miria Formation and the uppermost horizon, a nodule bed, of the Korojon Calcarenite is presented, with major rationalisation of earlier nomenclature and new data on the faunal sequence. Eubaculites is present throughout the succession as three biostratigraphically discrete species and Nostoceras, represented by two species, is restricted to the nodule bed. Remaining elements of the heteromorph fauna are known only from the upper part of the Miria Formation, associated with a diverse assemblage of planispiral ammonites and other molluscs. Preservation of ammonites has been strongly influenced by taphonomic factors such that the biostratigraphic pattern now apparent is largely unrelated to life assemblages. Ammonites from the upper Miria Formation are of late Maastrichtian age whereas those from the nodule bed are ascribed to the early Maastrichtian.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Taylor &amp; Francis</dc:publisher><dc:source>0311-5518</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Maastrichtian heteromorph ammonites from the carnarvon basin, western-australia</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Henderson, R. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kennedy, W. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, K. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03115519208619037</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2699
Date: 2015-08-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2699</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-17T12:19:01Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Holocene stromatolites are described from Lake Walyungup, a coastal hyposaline lake in south-western Australia. At summer low water, this groundwater-fed depression comprises two permanent shallow water bodies and an ephemeral southern pool, set within an areally extensive littoral zone of variably cemented carbonate crust. Up to 5 m of organic-rich carbonate mud has been deposited within each of these basins in less than 7000 years. Stromatolites rim the water bodies with individual columns up to 2 m tall. Stromatolite-capped tepee structures in subparallel alignment are widespread in the littoral crust, suggesting a linkage between stromatolite growth and zones of groundwater discharge. Lake Walyungup stromatolites, regardless of external morphology and setting, are coarsely laminated and have aragonitic mesoclot microfabrics. These microfabrics are similar to those from lithified portions of active thrombolitic microbialites from nearby Lake Clifton.&#13;
&#13;
Hydromagnesite is a minor to subdominant phase (up to 47 wt%) of the carbonate mineral assemblage in Lake Walyungup. It occurs mainly in the littoral zone as a diagenetic replacement of precursor aragonite, particularly within the mesoclot fabric of stromatolites, but also in sediments (strandline and dune sand, crusts) derived mainly from erosion of stromatolites. In contrast with nonreplaced and impermeable inorganic aragonitic cements, stromatolite mesoclots are microper- meable. Micropermeability is inferred to facilitate hydromagnesite diagenesis. Dolomite is also present in minor amounts as a pore fill in stromatolites, and as a subdominant to dominant (up to 100 wt%) phase in thin, mudcracked micrite layers within the crust package. The layered dolomite may be precipitated directly from the lake water.&#13;
&#13;
Major element abundance of the lake water is: Na+ &gt; Mg2+ » K+ &gt; Ca2+ for cations, and Cl− » SO42− ≈ HCO3− &gt; CO32− for anions. Compared to other nearby coastal lakes, Lake Walyungup has a high pH (&gt; 9·0), and an extremely high molar Mg/Ca ratio of &gt; 90. Groundwater in the area has a Mg/Ca ratio generally less than 1. The unusual Mg/Ca ratio in Lake Walyungup is partially a result of in-lake processes with additional minor contribution of Mg2+ sourced from basal marine sand because no Mg-rich bedrock source has been found in the region.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>International Association of Sedimentologists</dc:publisher><dc:source>0037-0746, ESSN: 1365-3091</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Hydromagnesite replacement of biomineralized aragonite in a new location of Holocene stromatolites, Lake Walyungup, Western Australia</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Coshell, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rosen, M. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, K. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3091.1998.00187.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2698
Date: 2015-08-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2698</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-17T12:15:39Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Following a brilliant daylight fireball at 10:10 a.m. (local time) on 30 September 1984, a single stone weighing 488.1 grams was recovered from Binningup beach (33°09′23″S, 115°40′35″E), Western Australia. Data from 23 reported sightings of the fireball indicate an angle of trajectory 20–40° from the horizontal, a flight-path bearing N210°E and an end-point (ca. 32°39′S, 115°54.5′E) at a height of ∼20–30 km.&#13;
&#13;
A recrystallized chondritic texture and the presence of olivine and low-Ca orthopyroxene with compositions of Fa18.4 (PMD 1.1)and Fs16.1 (PMD 1.1), respectively, show that Binningup is a typical member of the H-group of ordinary chondrites. Uniform mineral compositions and the presence of generally microcrystalline plagioclase feldspar indicate that the meteorite belongs to petrologic type 5. Pervasive fracturing of silicates suggests mild pre-terrestrial shock loading.&#13;
&#13;
Measurements (dpm kg−1) of cosmogenic radionuclides including 22Na (61 ± 5), 26Al (49 ± 3) and 54Mn (66 ± 10) indicate a normal history of irradiation.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>The Meteoritical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0026-1114 Online ISSN: 1945-5100</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>The Binningup H5 chondrite: a new fall from Western Australia</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bevan, A. W. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McNamara, K. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barton, J. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1945-5100.1988.tb00893.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2669
Date: 2016-08-25

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2669</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-08-25T12:12:07Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D756E707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D746865736973</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This thesis considers the application of a satellite-based ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer,&#13;
the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), to the study of volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO 2 )&#13;
emissions. The monitoring of volcanic SO 2 emissions is a central component of volcanol-&#13;
ogy, since SO 2 is a key proxy for volcanic activity. Satellite remote sensing of volcanic&#13;
emissions has previously focussed on the large gas releases which accompany major ex-&#13;
plosive eruptions. OMI’s unprecedented sensitivity to atmospheric SO 2 provides a unique&#13;
opportunity to focus instead on the continuous and persistent gas emissions typical of&#13;
many volcanoes, which over time constitute the major proportion of global volcanic gas&#13;
budgets and which have the potential to provide critical information in the build up to&#13;
eruptions.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2669/1/Brendan_T._McCormick_thesis.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Measuring volcanic sulphur dioxide degassing with the satellite-based Ozone Monitoring Instrument</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McCormick, Brendan T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Thesis</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2668
Date: 2015-08-30

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2668</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T02:39:15Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We investigate the source processes and tectonic significance of two earthquakes that occurred on 2010 December 20 (Mw 6.5) and 2011 January 27 (Mw 6.2) within a desert region south of the town of Rigan, SE Iran. The two earthquakes, which we refer to as the South Rigan events, occurred close to one another at the northern margin of the Shahsavaran mountains: a mainly volcanic chain in which the potential for active faulting has not previously been considered in detail. Surface displacements mapped using SAR interferometry, multiple-event relocation analysis of epicentres, body-waveform modelling and field measurements of surface rupture together reveal that the 2010 December 20 earthquake involved an average of ∼1.3 m right-lateral slip on a vertical fault trending ∼210° whereas the 2011 January 27 resulted from ∼0.6 m of slip on a conjugate left-lateral fault striking ∼310°, parallel to the trend of the Shahsavaran mountains and confined within a zone of increased Coulomb stress from the earlier main shock. The main slip for the 2010 and 2011 main shocks failed to reach the surface though minor cracks and en-echelon fissures were mapped following both events. Some of the surface cracks may have been enhanced during a period of minor afterslip in the days following the 2010 main shock. Using the insights gained from our investigation of the two South Rigan earthquakes we perform a regional reconnaissance of the active faulting using SPOT5 (2.5 m) satellite imagery. We show that distributed ∼N–S right-lateral faulting is widely distributed north of the Shahsavaran mountains. We also show evidence for left-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the Shahsavaran mountains, with a component of extension in the east and shortening in the west, which is likely to accommodate regional N–S right-lateral shearing by clockwise rotation about a vertical axis. The distributed strike-slip faulting is closely associated with the distribution of towns and villages and constitutes a continuing hazard to local populations.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2668/1/2013_rigan_gji.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>The 2010–2011 South Rigan (Baluchestan) earthquake sequence and its implications for distributed deformation and earthquake hazard in southeast Iran</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Walker, R. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bergman, E. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Elliott, J. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fielding, E. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ghods, A.-R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ghoraishi, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jackson, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nazari, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nemati, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oveisi, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Talebian, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Walters, R. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1093/gji/ggs109</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2666
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2666</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:19:28Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, has been ongoing since 1995. The volcano is erupting a crystal-rich hornblende-plagioclase andesite with ubiquitous mafic inclusions, indicating mixing with mafic magma. This mafic magma is thought to be the driving force of the eruption, supplying heat and volatiles to the andesite resident in the magma chamber. As well as producing macroscopic mafic inclusions, the magma mixing process involves incorporation of phenocrysts from the andesite into the mafic magma. These inherited phenocrysts show clear disequilibrium textures (e.g. sieved plagioclase rims and thermal breakdown rims on hornblende). Approximately 25 % of all phenocrysts in the andesite show these textures, indicating very extensive mass transfer between the two magma types. Fragments of mafic inclusions down to sub-mm scale are found in the andesite, together with mafic crystal clusters, which are commonly found adhered to the rims of phenocrysts with disequilibrium features. Mineral chemistry also points to the transfer of microlites or microphenocrysts, initially formed in the mafic inclusions, into the andesite. This combined evidence suggests that some of the mafic inclusions disaggregate during mingling and/or ascent, possibly due to shearing, and raises the question: What proportion of the andesite ‘groundmass’ actually originated in the mafic inclusions, and thus, what is the true amount of mafic magma in the magmatic system? We present a new method for quantifying the relative proportions of groundmass plagioclase derived from mafic and andesitic magma, based on analysis of back-scattered electron images of the groundmass. Preliminary results indicate that approximately 16 % of all groundmass plagioclase belongs genetically to the mafic inclusions. Together with the crystal clusters, disequilibrium phenocryst textures and mm-scale inclusions, there is a ‘cryptic’ mafic component in the andesite of approximately 6 % by volume. This is significant compared with the proportion of macroscopic mafic inclusions (typically ~ 1–5 %). The new method has the potential to allow tracking of the mafic fraction through time and thus to yield further insights into magma hybridisation processes.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2666/1/Humphreys_et_al._-_2013_-_A_new_method_to_quantify_the_real_supply_of_mafic.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>A new method to quantify the real supply of mafic components to a hybrid andesite</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Humphreys, M. C. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Plail, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barclay, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Parkes, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Christopher, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1007/s00410-012-0805-x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2607
Date: 2015-03-10

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2607</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-03-10T17:34:53Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The relationships of the sponge classes are controversial, particularly between the calcareous and siliceous sponges. Specimens of the putative calcarean Eiffelia globosa Walcott from the Burgess Shale show the presence of diagnostic hexactinellid spicules integrated into the skeletal mesh. The arrangement of these spicules in Eiffelia is shown to be precisely equivalent to that of early protospongioid hexactinellids, and sponge growth occurred through an identical pattern to produce identical skeletal body morphology. The difference in spicule composition of the classes is interpreted through the observation of taphonomic features of Eiffelia that suggest the presence of at least two mineralogically distinct layers within the spicules. These results support molecular analyses that identify the calcarean-silicisponge transition as the earliest major sponge branch and suggest that the heteractinids were paraphyletic with respect to the Hexactinellida.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2607/1/1554.full.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1554-1559</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Reconstructing early sponge relationships by using the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia globosa, Walcott</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Botting, Joseph P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Butterfield, Nicholas J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1073/pnas.0405867102</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2586
Date: 2016-06-22

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2586</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:13:34Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Detailed observations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions in Iceland show seismic activity propagating vertically through the entire crust during a ten-week period of volcanic unrest comprising multiple eruption episodes. Systematic changes in magma chemistry suggest a complex magmatic plumbing system, tapping several accumulation zones at different depths containing magma of differing ages and compositions. During the eruption, a systematic downward propagation of seismicity through the crust and into the upper mantle to ~30 km depth occurred in a series of steps, each of which preceded an explosive surge in eruption rate. Here we show that the sequence of seismicity and eruptive activity may be explained by the downward propagation of a decompression wave that triggers magma release from progressively deeper sills in the crust. Comparing observations of the downward-propagating seismicity with the decompression of a series of model elastic sills suggests that each sill was 1-10 km3 in size.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2586/1/2012GL053518-pip.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>0094–8276</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Magma mobilization by downward-propagating decompression of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plumbing system</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tarasewicz, J. P. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Woods, A. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brandsdóttir, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gudmundsson, M. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053518</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2559
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2559</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:09:32Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Micromagnetic simulations have been used to explore the interaction between ferrimagnetic domain walls (DWs) and ferroelastic twin walls (TWs) below the Verwey transition in magnetite (Fe3O4). Simulations were performed using a thin-foil geometry in order to replicate the domain patterns observed experimentally using transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic microstructure is shown to be highly sensitive to the physical dimensions and crystallographic orientation of the foil, the spatial distribution and crystallographic classification of the TWs and the temperature/field history of the sample. A method to calculate the phase shift of a beam of electrons passing through the micromagnetic simulations is applied. The resulting phase maps provide a robust interpretation of experimental images obtained using Fresnel-mode Lorentz microscopy and off-axis electron holography. The interaction between ferrimagnetic and ferroelastic DWs during field cycling provides an explanation for the low-temperature ‘field-memory effect’ in magnetite.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0141-1594</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-03</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Ferrimagnetic/ferroelastic domain interactions in magnetite below the Verwey transition: Part II. Micromagnetic and image simulations</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bryson, James  F. J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kasama, Takeshi</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Harrison, Richard J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411594.2012.695372</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2555
Date: 2015-08-27

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      <datestamp>2015-08-27T17:07:46Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2555/1/2012-07-03_0.JPG</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Department of Earth Sciences</dc:publisher><dc:subject>sub-99</dc:subject><dc:title>Iceland 1965 Two Land Rovers</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bennett, J</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>other</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>2012-07-03_0.JPG</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2546
Date: 2017-02-17

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2546</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:12:10Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This paper explores the origins and evolution of ice-rich interior mounds found within craters of the north polar region of Mars. We present a systematic study of impact craters above 65°N, and identify 18 craters that have interior mounds. At least 11 of these mounds are composed of water ice and geometric similarities suggest that dune-covered mounds may also have a water ice core. The mounds are found in the deeper craters in the north polar area and we suggest that these form a specific microclimate favorable for mound initiation and growth. It is likely that at least seven of the mounds have evolved as individual outliers, rather than conterminous with the main polar cap. Our observations suggest that the mounds are built up by atmospheric deposition, similar to that of the north polar layered deposits. Using a combination of remote sensing techniques enabling topographic, spectral, radar and image data analyses, we have documented the morphology, composition and stratigraphy of selected mounds. We advance and test four hypotheses for formation of these mounds: artesian outpouring from a deep aquifer, hydrothermal activation of ground ice, remnants of a more extensive polar cap, and atmospheric deposition on ice caps in meteorologically isolated locations. We propose that during periods when the perihelion was located in northern summer (most recently 10–25&amp;#xa0;ka before present) the microclimate in these craters retarded the sublimation of CO2 and water ice in northern spring, thus creating a cold trap for volatiles released as the seasonal cap retreated. This created a thick enough deposit of water ice to withstand sublimation over the summer and initiate a positive feedback leading to mound-building. Mounds without complete dune-cover may be in dynamic equilibrium with the ambient climate and show evidence of both present-day and past periods of erosion and aggradation. We conclude that the water ice mounds formed in deep impact craters in Mars’ north polar region may contain sensitive records of past polar climate that may enhance our understanding of the CO2–H2O system in the polar regions.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2546/1/Conway_et_al._-_2012_-_Climate-driven_deposition_of_water_ice_and_the_for.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0019-1035</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Climate-driven deposition of water ice and the formation of mounds in craters in Mars’ north polar region</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Conway, Susan J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hovius, Niels</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barnie, Talfan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Besserer, Jonathan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Le Mouélic, Stéphane</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Orosei, Roberto</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Read, Natalie Anne</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.04.021</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2533
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2533</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:11:47Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>It is generally agreed that a region encompassing the Colorado Plateau has been uplifted by sub-crustal processes. Admittance calculations, tomographic studies and receiver function analyses suggest that dynamic support is generated by some combination of convective upwelling and lithospheric thickness changes. Notwithstanding advances in our understanding of present-day setting, uplift rate histories are poorly constrained and debated: an improved history will aid discrimination between proposed models. Here, we show that a regional uplift rate history can be obtained by inverting longitudinal river profiles. We assume that the shape of a river profile is controlled by uplift rate and moderated by erosion. In our model, uplift rate is allowed to vary smoothly as a function of space and time, upstream drainage area is invariant with time. Simultaneous inversion of river profiles from the Colorado, Rio Grande, Columbia and Mississippi catchments shows that three phases of regional uplift occurred. The first phase occurred between 80 and 50 Myrs, when {similar, tilde operator }1 km of uplift was generated at a rate of {similar, tilde operator }0.03 mm/yr. A second phase occurred between 35 and 15 Myrs, when {similar, tilde operator }1.5 km of uplift was generated at a faster rate of {similar, tilde operator }0.08 mm/yr. A final phase started {similar, tilde operator }5 Myrs ago. Distinct phases of Late Cretaceous and Oligocene uplift are corroborated by thermochronometric data, and by stratigraphic evidence of periodic clastic efflux delivered into the Gulf of Mexico. An episodic uplift history is consistent with the staged removal of thick lithospheric mantle beneath a large region, which is currently centered on Yellowstone.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2533/1/2012TC003107-pip.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Tectonics</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>An Uplift History of the Colorado Plateau and its Surroundings from Inverse Modeling of Longitudinal River Profiles</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Roberts, G. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, N. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Martin-Brandis, G. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Crosby, A. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012TC003107</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2459
Date: 2016-08-25

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2459</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-08-25T12:16:25Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We report the first satellite-based survey of volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) degassing in Papua New Guinea, using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data. OMI is sensitive to low-level passive degassing. These observations are useful for volcano monitoring, hazard assessment (particularly aviation hazard) and assessment of arc geochemical budgets and are of immense value in remote regions with little ground-based instrumentation, such as Papua New Guinea. We identify Bagana, Manam, Rabaul, Ulawun and Langila as the active sources of volcanic SO2 in Papua New Guinea, with Bagana being the largest source. We present an OMI SO2 time series for 2005–2008 and a total detected regional output of ∼1.8 × 109 kg SO2. About 40% of emissions were released by major eruption events at Manam (January 2005), Bagana (June 2006) and Rabaul (October 2006). Over the past century however, we estimate that major explosive eruptions contribute &lt;5% of the arc-scale SO2 emission budget. Ground-based DOAS measurements of SO2 degassing at five of Papua New Guinea's volcanoes are compared with our OMI observations. The total OMI SO2 output is only ∼20% of the total extrapolated from DOAS, a discrepancy which we demonstrate is consistent with other volcanic arcs. Therefore, the true total regional SO2 output may be considerably higher than that detected by OMI. Uncertainties in the OMI SO2 data include the effects of in-plume chemical processing and dilution of SO2 prior to the satellite overpass, OMI's reduced sensitivity to low levels of SO2 in the planetary boundary layer and interference by meteorological clouds.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2459/1/2011GC003945.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>1525-2027</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>First synoptic analysis of volcanic degassing in Papua New Guinea</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>McCormick, Brendan T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, Marie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mather, Tamsin A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Carn, Simon A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 201210.1029/2011GC003945</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2406
Date: 2016-06-22

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2406</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:15:23Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2012">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Microseismicity from a dike intruding the mid-crust of&#13;
Iceland occurs episodically on fractures orientated parallel&#13;
to the dike plane. We interpret it as caused by fragments of&#13;
chilled magma being broken and pushed along the conduit&#13;
by melt flow. Laboratory experiments on basalt samples&#13;
under shear strains of 104 show that the shear strength&#13;
of a sample cooled through the glass transition initially increases to a maximum at 0.7 homologous temperature,&#13;
but subsequently decreases until failure at 0.58 homologous&#13;
temperature. We interpret the failure as due to the connection&#13;
of microcracks. Episodicity in microseismicity on&#13;
timescales of hours to days can arise from a cycle in which&#13;
magma in 0.1–0.5 meter thick dikes first cools and becomes&#13;
stronger, but then weakens along the dike margins with continued&#13;
cooling against the country rock. Continued pressure&#13;
of magma from below may then cause failure along dikeparallel&#13;
fractures.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2406/1/White_Redfern_Chien_2012GL051392.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>Geophysical Research Letters</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Episodicity of seismicity accompanying melt intrusion into the crust</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Redfern, S. A. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chien, S-Y</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051392</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2365
Date: 2017-02-17

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2365</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T13:12:54Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We present the results of the first systematic study of melt compositions at Pantelleria, based on both melt inclusions and matrix glasses in pantellerites from 10 eruptions during the last eruptive cycle (&lt;45 kyr). We present major and trace element compositions, as well as data on the volatiles sulphur (S), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and lithium (Li) Rare earth element (REE) compositions were inverted using the program INVMEL to establish the melt fraction vs depth relationship in the Pantellerian mantle source region. Inversion indicates that melts are generated by ∼1·7% melting of a light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched mantle source. The source lies principally within the spinel–garnet transition zone, which, on the basis of trace element ratios, shows some affinity to the source of North African magmatism. Major and trace element data indicate a gap in melt compositions at intermediate compositions, consistent with previously published whole-rock data. This gap rules out the possibility of explaining chemical variability in the Pantelleria lavas merely by changes in the crystal content of the magmas. Principal component analysis of major element glass compositions shows that the liquid line of descent for mafic melt compositions is controlled by clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite and olivine crystallization. Alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene, ilmenite and olivine or aenigmatite crystallization controls the liquid line of descent for the silicic melt compositions, with aenigmatite broadly replacing olivine in the most evolved magmas. Trace element modelling indicates that 96% fractional crystallization is required to generate pantellerites from alkali basalts at Pantelleria (through trachytes, generated after 76% fractional crystallization). We have measured pantellerite volatile concentrations in melt inclusions and in matrix glasses from a variety of eruptions. Melt inclusions, on average, contain 350 ppm S, 3500 ppm F and 9000 ppm Cl. We have measured up to 4·9 wt % H2O and 150 ppm CO2 in melt inclusions. Li–H2O systematics and Cl abundances in melt inclusions are consistent with partitioning of Li and Cl into a subcritical hydrosaline fluid at low pressures. The volatiles H2O and CO2 are used to estimate melt equilibration pressures, which reach a maximum of 1·5 kbar. Temperatures of 800°C are calculated for the most evolved pantellerites, using published feldspar–melt geothermometers, and up to 870°C for the least evolved samples. Low melt viscosities are calculated for the range of pantellerite compositions observed and may account for rapid differentiation by crystal settling. Stable density stratification of the magma chamber is reflected in the eruption of generally progressively more fractionated compositions after the Green Tuff eruption during the last eruptive cycle. Some anomalies in this trend may be explained by variation in the relative rates of eruption vs fractionation. The density stratification is expected to be enhanced and further stabilized by the efficient migration of a fluid phase to the roof of the magma chamber. The sulphur data are used in combination with published experimental partitioning data for peralkaline rhyolites to estimate the sulphur yield to the atmosphere for a large pantelleritic eruption similar to the Green Tuff. This is expected to be markedly higher than for a similar-sized metaluminous rhyolitic or dacitic eruption, mainly owing to the higher bulk sulphur content, lower fluid–melt partition coefficients, and rapid differentiation and vapour phase segregation in the magma chamber.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2365/1/637.full.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>OUP</dc:publisher><dc:source>Journal of Petrology</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-06</dc:subject><dc:title>Melting, Differentiation and Degassing at the Pantelleria Volcano, Italy</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Neave, David A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fabbro, Gareth</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Herd, Richard A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Petrone, Chiara M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, Marie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1093/petrology/egr074</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2321
Date: 2016-03-29

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2321</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-29T10:12:29Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2012-01">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>The combination of the Sunda megathrust and the (strike-slip) Sumatran Fault (SF) represents a type example of slip-partitioning. However, superimposed on the SF are geometrical irregularities that disrupt the local strain field. The largest such feature is in central Sumatra where the SF splits into two fault strands up to 35 km apart. A dense local network was installed along a 350 km section around this bifurcation, registering 1016 crustal events between April 2008 and February 2009. 528 of these events, with magnitudes between 1.1 and 6.0, were located using the double-difference relative location method. These relative hypocentre locations reveal several new features about the crustal structure of the SF. Northwest and southeast of the bifurcation, where the SF has only one fault strand, seismicity is strongly focused below the surface trace, indicating a vertical fault that is seismogenic to ~15 km depth. By contrast intense seismicity is observed within the bifurcation, displaying streaks in plan and cross-section that indicate a complex system of faults bisecting the bifurcation. In combination with analysis of topography and focal mechanisms, we propose that the bifurcation is a strike-slip duplex system with complex faulting between the two main fault branches.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2321/7/Weller_2012_SF.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>0094–8276</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>The structure of the Sumatran Fault revealed by local seismicity</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Weller, Owen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lange, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tilmann, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Natawidjaja, Danny Hilman</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rietbrock, Andreas</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Collings, Rachel Elizabeth</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gregory, Laura</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050440</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2249
Date: 2016-06-22

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2249</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:10:25Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The depth of seismicity preceding the 2010 Fimmvörðuháls and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions in South&#13;
Iceland has implications for the interpretation of the magma plumbing system that was active prior to those&#13;
eruptions.  Significant discrepancies exist in the hypocentral depths reported by different studies of the same&#13;
earthquakes beneath Eyjafjallajökull in early-mid March 2010.  Reported depths range from 3 km to 12 km.&#13;
We use both real earthquake data and synthetic tests to show that the dominant factor controlling the best-fit&#13;
hypocentral depths beneath the Eyjafjallajökull glacier is the network configuration.  Hypocentral depths of&#13;
6–12 km are obtained when only data from permanent seismometer stations operated by the Icelandic Meteo-&#13;
rological Office are used, the closest of which is located 13 km from the epicentral zone. Inclusion of data from&#13;
six temporary seismometer stations deployed around Eyjafjallajökull, all within 4–15 km of the epicentral zone,&#13;
constrains earthquake depths to be shallower than ∼6 km.  A lack of proximal stations on top of the glacier&#13;
limits resolution of earthquake sources that are shallower than ∼4 km, even when data from the six temporary&#13;
stations are included.  The choice of two plausible distinct velocity models has only a second-order effect on&#13;
inferred hypocentral depths. We suggest that the true depth of seismicity is ∼2–6 km, which coincides with the&#13;
depth of inflating magmatic intrusions inferred from surface deformation at that time.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2249/1/211_Tarasewicz_Jokull_2011.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0449-0576</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Location accuracy of earthquake hypocentres beneath Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, prior to the 2010 eruptions.</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tarasewicz, J. P. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brandsdóttir, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Þorbjarnardóttir, B</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2248
Date: 2016-06-22

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2248</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:14:24Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2012-02">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We have mapped microearthquakes caused by magma migration preceding and during the flank and summit eruptions in March–May 2010 of Eyjafjallajökull stratovolcano in Iceland using a Coalescence Microseismic Mapping technique. Spatial and temporal clustering of &gt;5,000 microearthquakes under the eastern flank of the volcano illuminates several northeast–southwest striking sub-vertical dikes at 2–6 km b.s.l., emplaced before the Fimmvörðuháls flank eruption in March. This intense precursory seismicity had a lateral extent of ∼6 km east-west and ∼3 km north-south. A sequence of 386 microearthquakes during the summit eruption, refined by double-difference relative relocation, defines a sub-linear trend inclined ∼5–10° from vertical extending from the upper mantle at ∼30 km depth to the summit crater. This sequence includes two major clusters at ∼19 km and ∼24 km b.s.l., each containing &gt;100 earthquakes. All microearthquakes display characteristics of brittle fracture, with several subsets of events exhibiting closely similar waveforms within clusters. This suggests similar, repetitive source processes. The deeper clusters may be caused by fracturing solidified magma plugs that form constrictions in an otherwise aseismic melt conduit. Or they may occur at exit points from melt pockets, in which case they indicate positions of magma storage at depth. The seismicity deeper than 10 km only starts three weeks after the onset of the summit eruption, after which the largest clusters occur at progressively greater depths. This temporal pattern may result from pressure release at shallow levels in the magmatic plumbing system progressively feeding down to mobilize deeper melt pockets.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2248/1/2011JB008751.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0148-0227</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Using microearthquakes to track repeated magma intrusions beneath the Eyjafjallajökull stratovolcano, Iceland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tarasewicz, J. P. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brandsdóttir, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hensch, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Þorbjarnardóttir, B</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008751</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2168
Date: 2016-07-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2168</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-07-28T15:35:44Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The temporal and spatial controls of stream water chemistry in a small, granitic, glacial catchment were investigated in conjunction with high-resolution hydrological and meteorological measurements. Significant systematic seasonal and diurnal variations were observed in the stream water chemistry, which were not caused by the mixing of water draining different lithologies. A hydrological model (ALPINE3D, Lehning et al., 2006) was used to calculate the relative contributions of the principal water sources, snow melt and ice melt, throughout the period of this study. Pronounced seasonal minima in [delta]18O and 87Sr/86Sr were attributed to spring snow melt. Clear changes in X/Si ratios (X = Ca, Mg, K, Na, Sr) between summer and winter were observed. These changes are interpreted to reflect seasonal changes in the average residence time of water in the sub-glacial drainage network with short residence times in summer, when the discharge was greatest, leading to high X/Si ratios, and long residence times in winter, when the discharge was lowest, resulting in low X/Si ratios. This study shows that the time dependent stoichiometry of cation to Si ratios in glacial stream water (and likely all catchments) strongly depends on the hydrological state of the catchment at the time of sampling. Annual fluxes based on spot samples varied by a factor of six depending on the time of year in which the sample was collected, highlighting the importance of long-term catchment monitoring. An improved understanding of the spatial and temporal controls acting on stream water chemistry will allow silicate weathering processes to be more precisely quantified.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2168/1/Tipper_sdarticle.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>0009-2541</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:title>Hydrological control of stream water chemistry in a glacial catchment (Damma Glacier, Switzerland)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hindshaw, Ruth S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tipper, Edward T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Reynolds, Ben C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lemarchand, Emmanuel</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wiederhold, Jan G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Magnusson, Jan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bernasconi, Stefano M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kretzschmar, Ruben</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bourdon, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.04.012</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2120
Date: 2016-07-08

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      <datestamp>2016-07-08T11:21:36Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This paper examines the relationship between seismogenic thickness, lithosphere structure and rheology in central and northeastern Asia. We accurately determine earthquake depth distributions which reveal important rheological variations in the lower crust. These variations exert a fundamental control on the active tectonics and the morphological evolution of the continents. We consider 323 earthquakes across the Tibetan Plateau, the Tien Shan and their forelands as well as the Baikal Rift, NE Siberia and the Laptev Sea and present the source parameters of 94 of these here for the first time. These parameters have been determined through body wave inversion, the identification of depth phases or the modelling of regional waveforms. Lower crustal earthquakes are found to be restricted to the forelands in areas undergoing shortening, and to locations where rifting coincides with abrupt changes in lithosphere thickness, such as the NE Baikal Rift and W Laptev Sea. The lower crust in these areas is seismogenic at temperatures that may be as high as 600°C, suggesting that it is anhydrous, and is likely to have great long-term strength. Lower crustal earthquakes are therefore a useful proxy indicating strong lithosphere in places that are too small in areal extent for this to be confirmed independently by estimating effective elastic thickness from gravity–topography relations. The variation in crustal rheology indicated by the distribution of lower-crustal earthquakes has many implications ranging from the support of mountain belts and the formation of steep mountain fronts, to the localization and orientation of rifting. In combination, these processes can also be responsible for the separation of the front of the thin-skinned mountain belts from their hinterlands when continents separate.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2120/1/Sloan_j.1365-246X.2010.04882.x.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Geophysical Journal International</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Earthquake depth distributions in central Asia, and their relations with lithosphere thickness, shortening and extension</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sloan, R. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jackson, J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McKenzie, D. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Priestley, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04882.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2119
Date: 2016-07-14

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2119</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-07-14T15:30:22Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:license_ref start_date="2011-01-06">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/</ali:license_ref><dc:description>We use teleseismic waveform inversion, along with depth phase analysis, to constrain the centroid depths and source parameters of large African earthquakes. The majority of seismic activity is concentrated along the East African Rift System, with additional active regions along stretches of the continental margins in north and east Africa, and in the Congo Basin. We examine variations in the seismogenic thickness across Africa, based on a total of 227 well-determined earthquake depths, 112 of which are new to this study. Seismogenic thickness varies in correspondence with lithospheric thickness, as determined from surface wave tomography, with regions of thick lithosphere being associated with seismogenic thicknesses of up to 40 km. In regions of thin lithosphere, the seismogenic thickness is typically limited to ≤20 km. Larger seismogenic thicknesses also correlate with regions that have dominant tectonothermal ages of ≥1500 Ma, where the East African Rift passes around the Archean cratons of Africa, through the older Proterozoic mobile belts. These correlations are likely to be related to the production, affected by method and age of basement formation, and preservation, affected by lithospheric thickness, of a strong, anhydrous lower crust. The Congo Basin contains the only compressional earthquakes in the continental interior. Simple modelling of the forces induced by convective support of the African plate, based on long-wavelength free-air gravity anomalies, indicates that epeirogenic effects are sufficient to account for the localization and occurrence of both extensional and compressional deformation in Africa. Seismicity along the margins of Africa reflects a mixture between oceanic and continental seismogenic characteristics, with earthquakes in places extending to 40 km depth.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2119/1/Craig_j.1365-246X.2011.04950.x.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>Geophysical Journal International</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Earthquake distribution patterns in Africa: their relationship to variations in lithospheric and geological structure, and their rheological implications</dc:title><dcterms:dateAccepted>2011-01-06</dcterms:dateAccepted><rioxxterms:author>Craig, T. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jackson, J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Priestley, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McKenzie, D. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2011-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.04950.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2008
Date: 2017-02-17

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:2008</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-17T12:11:33Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Subduction zones play a fundamental role in the geochemical cycle of carbon, and related arc volcanism is believed to exert primary control on atmospheric CO2 concentrations over geological time. Arc volcanism may have been particularly important in the most recent Greenhouse of the late Cretaceous, where it has been hypothesized that the subduction of the carbonate-rich Tethys contributed to overall higher volcanic CO2 outgassing rates and thus a warmer climate. To test this hypothesis, the decarbonation efficiencies of modern subduction zones were calculated through a geochemical database that compared subaerial arc CO2 fluxes with the subducting crust and sediment geochemistry. The modern data are used to postulate a CO2 recycling and degassing scenario for arc volcanism related to the closure of the Tethys. Our analysis indicates that the thermal structure of subduction zones controls the extent and depth of slab decarbonation, while the sediment geochemistry (e.g. the amount of carbonate sediment) may be of secondary importance. The calculated decarbonation efficiency of modern arcs ranges from 18 to 70%. Our calculations support recent models predicting carbon recycling through infiltration-driven decarbonation, and limited by water availability at sub-arc depths. This analysis allows us to make inferences about the potential volcanic CO2 flux from subduction of the Tethys during the Cretaceous, suggesting between an 8 and 222% increase over modern CO2 outgassing. We suggest that the primary reason for the increase in CO2 outgassing in the Cretaceous is contamination of arc magmas by platform carbonates in the overlying crust and increased decarbonation efficiency.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2008/1/Johnston_et_al._-_Decarbonation_efficiency_in_subduction_zones_Impl.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0012-821X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Decarbonation efficiency in subduction zones: Implications for warm Cretaceous climates</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Johnston, Fraser K. B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Turchyn, Alexandra V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Edmonds, Marie</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.049</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1981
Date: 2016-06-22

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1981</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:06:36Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Factors such as network geometry, network size and phase-picking accuracy have significant&#13;
effects on the precision of seismic hypocentre locations. In turn, the precision of the hypocentral locations&#13;
dictates the degree to which morphological details within seismic swarms may be resolved. The Icelandic&#13;
national seismic network (SIL) is designed to monitor seismic activity across large expanses of Iceland in realtime&#13;
using automated earthquake detection and location software. Here we examine the performance of the&#13;
SIL network relative to a much denser, local network of seismometers deployed around the Askja volcano in&#13;
the Northern Volcanic Zone. A subset of earthquakes from the 2007–2008 dyke intrusion beneath Mt. Upptyppingar&#13;
is used to compare single- and multi-event hypocentral locations. Specifically, we highlight 288, high&#13;
signal-to-noise ratio events that occurred during an intensive sequence of earthquakes from 6–24 July 2007,&#13;
when the temporary Askja network was active. A careful refinement of phase onsets recorded by our wellconfigured,&#13;
dense network of receivers reveals hypocentres clustered tightly on a planar structure, interpreted&#13;
as a dyke dipping at 49. The root-mean-square (RMS) misfit to the plane (114 m) is only slightly greater than&#13;
the uncertainties in relative locations of the earthquakes themselves, and constitutes a three-fold reduction in&#13;
RMS misfit over SIL relative locations. The improved precision, facilitated predominantly by a more favourable&#13;
network size and configuration, permits a more detailed analysis of the intrusion.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1981/1/207_Martens_etal_Jokull_2010.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0449-0576</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Dense seismic network provides new insight into the 2007 Upptyppingar dyke intrusion</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Martens, H. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Key, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Drew, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Soosalu, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jakobsdottir, S. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1980
Date: 2016-06-22

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1980</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:16:43Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3032</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><ali:license_ref start_date="2011-03">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ali:license_ref><dc:description>Lower crustal earthquakes (12–25 km depth) have been detected since August 2005 in the&#13;
Askja volcanic system along the north Iceland rift, in the normally ductile part of the crust. The&#13;
earthquakes occur in three clusters, which have stable dimensions and locations through time and&#13;
are interpreted as positions of repeated melt supply from the mantle to the lower crust. Seismic&#13;
velocity Vp/Vs ratios are consistent with the presence of partial melt in the lower crust at Askja.&#13;
The spatial separation of the clusters shows that there are multiple positions of melt injection&#13;
within this one magmatic segment and all three positions are currently active. This pattern of melt&#13;
supply is more like that observed on fast spreading ridges than slow spreading ridges and is&#13;
probably a consequence of the increased melt production beneath Iceland compared to the rest of&#13;
the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. However, the relative number of earthquakes in each cluster shows that&#13;
two thirds of the melt is supplied to the central volcano Askja (i.e. segment center). During the&#13;
last major rifting episode shallow lateral melt migration occurred from the magma chamber&#13;
beneath the volcano. Therefore on long time scales melt supply is probably greater at the segment&#13;
center, with melt redistribution in the upper crust, even though there are multiple points of lower&#13;
crustal injection along the segment.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1980/2/208_Key_et_al_GRL2011.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>0094–8276</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Multiple melt injection along a spreading segment at Askja, Iceland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Key, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Soosalu, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jakobsdottir, S. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010GL046264</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1979
Date: 2016-06-22

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1979</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:15:47Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D7375622D3032</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D61727469636C65</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We have captured a remarkable sequence of microearthquakes showing progressive melt intrusion of a dyke moving upward from a sill at 18 km depth in the mid-crust of the northern volcanic rift zone in Iceland. Two-thirds of the earth's crust is created at mid-ocean rifts. Two-thirds of that crust is formed by intrusion and freezing before it erupts of molten rock generated within the underlying mantle. Here we show seismicity accompanying melt intrusion from 17.5 to 13.5 km depth along a dyke dipping at 50° in the mid-crust of the Icelandic rift zone. Although the crust at these depths is normally aseismic, high strain rates as melt intrudes generate microearthquakes up to magnitude 2.2. Moment tensor solutions show dominantly double-couple failure, with fault mechanisms sometimes flipping between normal and reverse faulting within minutes in the same location, but breaking along fault planes with the same orientations. We suggest several possible reasons for the flipping fault mechanisms: the breakage of solidified plugs of basalt within the dyke itself as more melt intrudes; intrusion along sub-parallel fractures or dykelet fingers into the local stress field created near the tip of a propagating dyke; or movement on small jogs or offsets between adjacent en echelon dykes. Although the faulting is caused ultimately by melt movement, there is no resolvable volumetric component in the moment tensor solutions. The inferred fault planes from microearthquakes align precisely with the overall plane of the dyke delineated by hypocentres. Melt injection occurs in bursts propagating at 2–3 m/min along channels c. 0.2 m thick, producing swarms of microearthquakes lasting several hours. Intervening quiescent periods last tens to hundreds of hours.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1979/1/209_White_etal_EPSL_2011.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0012-821X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Dynamics of dyke intrusion in the mid-crust of Iceland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Drew, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Martens, H. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Key, A. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Soosalu, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jakobsdottir, S. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.038</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1971
Date: 2015-10-20

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1971</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-10-20T14:28:18Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Extensive subsurface sampling of the Huqf Supergroup in the Sultanate of Oman has yielded microfossil assemblages of Cryogenian, Ediacaran and Early Cambrian age. Microfossils have been recovered from most stratigraphic units in the Huqf, including Marinoan-equivalent horizons of the Ghadir Manqil Formation (Cryogenian Abu Mahara Group), the Masirah Bay, Shuram and Buah formations of the Ediacaran Nafun Group, and the A3 (latest Ediacaran) and A6 (Early Cambrian) cycles of the Ara Group. Despite the extensive recovery of leiosphaerid acritarchs from the Shuram Formation, there is no indication of the large acanthomorphs typical of other early–middle Ediacaran assemblages. This absence suggests a relatively young (post-extinction) depositional age for the Shuram; however, the signal is complicated by local deep-water conditions and the facies-specific distribution of Proterozoic microfossils. A shallower-water sequence of undivided Nafun Group sediments preserves sphaeromorphic acritarchs in association with filamentous microfossils, fragmentary vendotaenids and possible vaucheriacean algae.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1971/1/Report-1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Geological Society of London</dc:publisher><dc:source>978-1-86239-346-2</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Palynology of the Huqf Supergroup, Oman</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Butterfield, N. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Grotzinger, J. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Geological Society</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bhatt, G. M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Craig, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Thusu, B.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Cozzi, A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1144/SP366.10</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1532
Date: 2015-12-09

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1532</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-12-09T17:51:03Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Miocene–Pliocene sediments in the northern part of Sakhalin, in the Russian Far East, contain substantial hydrocarbon reservoirs and are the target of further exploration. These sandstones are well sorted and have been interpreted as the deltaic deposits of the paleo–&#13;
Amur River, sourced from the Russian mainland. Despite their economic importance, no facies interpretation of the sediments from the onshore sections, nor the paleogeographic evolution of the delta through the Neogene, have previously been published. From outcrop we have identified nine facies associations recording deposition in delta-top, beach, delta-front, transitional, and offshore&#13;
marine settings. The distribution of these facies associations through time indicates that the paleo–Amur delta prograded east across Sakhalin in two major episodes: first in the Early–Middle Miocene and later in the Late Miocene–Pliocene. These delta-top to delta-front&#13;
sandstone deposition events are separated by a more mud-rich episode. To the east, limited terrigenous supply resulted in accum&#13;
ulation&#13;
of biosiliceous sediments. Paleogeographic reconstructions show that the distribution of sand and biosiliceous marine sediment &#13;
was&#13;
probably controlled by a combination of tectonic configuration and persistent patterns of longshore currents</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1532/1/Davies%20SEPM%20special%20pub%20no.%2083%202005.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists</dc:publisher><dc:source>River Deltas - concepts, models and examples</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Facies analysis of the Neogene delta of the Amur river, Sakhalin, Russian Far East: controls on sand distribution</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Davies, C. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Poynter, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Macdonald, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Flecker, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Voronova, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Galverson, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kovtunovich, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fot'yanova, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Blanc, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Giosan, L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Bhattacharya, J. P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1182
Date: 2017-02-06

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1182</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-02-06T11:01:00Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Evolutionary biology rejoices in the diversity of life, but this comes at a cost: other than working in the common framework of neo-Darwinian evolution, specialists in, for example, diatoms and mammals have little to say to each other. Accordingly, their research tends to track the particularities and peculiarities of a given group and seldom enquires whether there are any wider or deeper sets of explanations. Here, I present evidence in support of the heterodox idea that evolution might look to a general theory that does more than serve as a tautology (‘evolution explains evolution’). Specifically, I argue that far from its myriad of products being fortuitous and accidental, evolution is remarkably predictable. Thus, I urge a move away from the continuing obsession with Darwinian mechanisms, which are entirely uncontroversial. Rather, I emphasize why we should seek explanations for ubiquitous evolutionary convergence, as well as the emergence of complex integrated systems. At present, evolutionary theory seems to be akin to nineteenth-century physics, blissfully unaware of the imminent arrival of quantum mechanics and general relativity. Physics had its Newton, biology its Darwin: evolutionary biology now awaits its Einstein.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1182/1/133.full.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0080-4622</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-04</dc:subject><dc:title>Evolution : like any other science is is predictable</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Conway Morris, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0154</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1163
Date: 2015-03-06

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1163</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-03-06T16:29:55Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>How we got it up the building</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1163/1/Cambridge_scanner.mp4</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:subject>sub-99</dc:subject><dc:title>Flying XRF Scanner</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodell, D. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>other</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1127
Date: 2015-09-22

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1127</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-09-22T10:59:42Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We use InSAR and body-wave seismology to determine independent source&#13;
parameters for the 6th April 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake and con¯rm&#13;
that the earthquake ruptured a SW-dipping normal fault with »0.6{0.8 m&#13;
slip. The causative Paganica fault had been neglected relative to other nearby&#13;
range-frontal faults, partly because it has a subdued geomorphological ex-&#13;
pression in comparison with these faults. The L'Aquila earthquake occurred&#13;
in an area with a marked seismic de¯cit relative to geodetically determined&#13;
strain accumulation. We use our source model to calculate stress changes on&#13;
nearby faults produced by the L'Aquila earthquake and we ¯nd that several&#13;
of these faults have been brought closer to failure.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1127/1/Jackson_Geophys_Res_Let_L%27Aquila_2009.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AGU</dc:publisher><dc:source>0094–8276</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>The 2009 L' Aquila Earthquake (Central Italy): a source mechanism and implications for seismic hazard</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Walters, R. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Elliott, J. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>D'Agostino, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>England, P. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hunstad, I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jackson, J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Parsons, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Phillips, R. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roberts, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009GL039337</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1086
Date: 2017-07-26

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:1086</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-07-26T09:59:48Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We present a series of laboratory experiments in which a steady stream of air is supplied through a small hole in the wall of a vertical pipe of rectangular cross-section down which there is a steady flux of water. For a range of liquid flow rates, the air forms a steady standing bubble whose nose is attached to the point of air supply. The steady bubble sheds a flux of much smaller air bubbles at its base, located downstream of the air injection point. The minimum liquid speed for which steady standing bubbles develop occurs at a particular Froude number of the liquid flow, Frd = U/ = 0.38, where U is the upstream speed, g the acceleration due to gravity and d the width of the cell. These trapped bubbles are distinct from the freely rising Taylor bubble, in that the Froude number at the nose is variable. Also, on a length scale greater than that influenced by surface tension, we find that the bubble nose asymptotes to a cusp-like shape, with an angle that decreases with Frd. We show that numerical solutions of the potential flow equations replicate the bubble shape and angle of the cusp, which appear independent of the gas flux. We also find that there is a minimum gas flux for which these standing bubbles develop. As the gas flux decreases below this threshold, the standing bubbles become unstable and, instead, a much shorter oscillating bubble develops. This produces a wake which has similarities with that formed downstream of a cylinder in a confined channel, but which also carries bubbles downstream. We also find that with sufficiently small gas flux, no bubble develops. For liquid flow rates smaller than the critical value, Frd &lt; 0.38, we find that the bubbles become unstable and detach from the injection point and rise up the tube.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/1086/1/Woods_Ioio_J.FluidMech_616_2008.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Cambridge University Press</dc:publisher><dc:source>0022-1120, ESSN: 1469-7645</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-99</dc:subject><dc:title>Experiments on standing bubbles in a vertical pipe</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Ioio, G. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Woods, A. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112008003819</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:775
Date: 2015-08-20

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:775</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-20T15:15:17Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Elastic theory is used to propose an atomic scale structure for the screw dislocation core at the growth spiral seen on the {111} surface of the HKUST-1 metal-organic framework material. Diffusion across the dislocation core is predicted to be hindered whilst along the core, two possible structures are considered with contrasting effects upon the local chemical structure and transport properties.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/775/1/Walker_CrystEngComm_10_2008.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Society of Chemistry</dc:publisher><dc:source>1466-8033</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-03</dc:subject><dc:title>Comment upon the screw dislocation structure on HKUST-1 {111} surfaces</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Walker, A. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Slater, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1039/b802158a</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:736
Date: 2016-07-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:736</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-07-31T21:37:18Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The standard addition method is evaluated to verify the accuracy and precision of Mg and Ca isotope data&#13;
with complex matrices, using the standard-sample bracketing technique and analysis by MC-ICP-MS. The&#13;
44Ca/42Ca ratio of seawater (expressed as δ44&#13;
42Ca relative to SRM915a) was determined as 0.93±0.03‰&#13;
(95% confidence), in agreement with estimates obtained by the double spike method. Using standard&#13;
addition, the seawater 26Mg/24Mg ratio (expressed as δ26Mg relative to the DSM3 standard) was determined&#13;
as −0.80±0.06‰ (95% confidence) in agreement with previous estimates. Four terrestrial silicate rocks&#13;
(MORB, flood basalt, glacial flour, and granodiorite) and olivine mineral separates from an island basalt are&#13;
shown to exhibit no scatter within the error of the method, averaging a δ26Mg of −0.20±0.05‰ (95%&#13;
confidence). Although a number of silicate rock data for Mg isotope ratios have already been reported, this is&#13;
the first detailed effort to validate the accuracy of such data and test for residual analytical artifact after&#13;
chemical purification of samples. Data regressions were evaluated statistically using the mean square&#13;
weighted deviate (MSWD), demonstrating that the uncertainty on individual data points are generally over&#13;
estimated. The external two standard deviation uncertainty on individual data points is estimated by Monte&#13;
Carlo simulation as b0.075‰ (about a factor of two improvement on early publications of Mg isotope data).&#13;
The consistency of the standard addition estimates of δ26Mg in silicate rocks imply that if any residual matrix&#13;
effects are present, then they must be less than the spread of the data (0.11‰) given the diverse range of&#13;
matrices in each of the samples. The δ26Mg values of the silicate rocks suggest that Mg isotope ratios in&#13;
silicate material may only have a very restricted range. The δ26Mg values of silicate material in the present&#13;
study falls between the average values reported by Teng et al. [Teng, F.Z., Wadhwa, M., Helz, R.T., 2007.&#13;
Investigation of magnesium isotope fractionation during basalt differentiation: implications for a chondritic&#13;
composition of the terrestrial mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261, 84–92. doi:10.1016/j.&#13;
epsl.2007.06.004] and Wiechert and Halliday [Wiechert, U., Halliday, A.N., 2006. Non-chondritic magnesium&#13;
and the origins of the inner terrestrial planets. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256, 360–371. doi:10.1016/&#13;
j.epsl.2007.01.007] and given the spread of published δ26Mg values for chondritic material, a chondritic&#13;
composition for terrestrial Mg cannot be ruled out.We suggest that some of the small discrepancies between&#13;
our data and analysis of the same samples in earlier studies, may have arisen because the chemical&#13;
purification of Mg prior to analysis can easily induce analytical artifact. This method could be expanded to the&#13;
isotope ratios of other elements, which also rely on correcting for mass bias using the standard-sample&#13;
bracketing method, where similar analytical discrepancies may also exist.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/736/1/Galy_Chemical_Geology_257_1_2_2008.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Chemical Geology</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Accuracy of stable Mg and Ca isotope data obtained by MC-ICP-MS using the standard addition method</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tipper, E. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Louvat, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Capmas, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Galy, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gaillardet, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.08.016</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:734
Date: 2016-07-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:734</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-07-31T21:39:33Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>In rivers draining the Himalaya-Tibetan-Plateau region, the 26Mg/24Mg ratio has a range of 2‰ and the 44Ca/42Ca ratio has a range of 0.6‰. The average δ26Mgδ26Mg values of tributaries from each of the main lithotectonic units (Tethyan Sedimentary Series (TSS), High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHCS) and Lesser Himalayan Series (LHS)) are within 2 standard deviation analytical uncertainty (0.14‰). The consistency of average riverine δ26Mgδ26Mg values is in contrast to the main rock types (limestone, dolostone and silicate) which range in their average δ26Mgδ26Mg values by more than 2‰. Tributaries draining the dolostones of the LHS differ in their View the MathML sourceδ4442Ca values compared to tributaries from the TSS and HHCS. The chemistry of these river waters is strongly influenced by dolostone (solute Mg/Ca close to unity) and both δ26Mgδ26Mg (−1.31‰) and View the MathML sourceδ4442Ca (0.64‰) values are within analytical uncertainty of the LHS dolostone. These are the most elevated View the MathML sourceδ4442Ca values in rivers and rock reported so far demonstrating that both riverine and bedrock View the MathML sourceδ4442Ca values may show greater variability than previously thought.&#13;
&#13;
Although rivers draining TSS limestone have the lowest View the MathML sourceδ26Mgandδ4442Ca values at −1.41 and 0.42‰, respectively, both are offset to higher values compared to bedrock TSS limestone. The average δ26Mgδ26Mg value of rivers draining mainly silicate rock of the HHCS is −1.25‰, lower by 0.63‰ than the average silicate rock. These differences are consistent with a fractionation of δ26Mgδ26Mg values during silicate weathering. Given that the proportion of Mg exported from the Himalaya as solute Mg is small, the difference in 26Mg/24Mg ratios between silicate rock and solute Mg reflects the 26Mg/24Mg isotopic fractionation factor (View the MathML sourceαsilicate–dissolvedMg) between silicate and dissolved Mg during incongruent silicate weathering. The value of View the MathML sourceαsilicate–dissolvedMg of 0.99937 implies that in the TSS, solute Mg is primarily derived from silicate weathering, whereas the source of Ca is overwhelmingly derived from carbonate weathering. The average View the MathML sourceδ4442Ca value in HHCS rivers is within uncertainty of silicate rock at 0.39‰. The widespread hot springs of the High Himalaya have an average δ26Mgδ26Mg value of −0.46‰ and an average View the MathML sourceδ4442Ca value of 0.5‰, distinct from riverine values for δ26δ26Mg but similar to riverine View the MathML sourceδ4442Ca values. Although rivers draining each major rock type have View the MathML sourceδ4442Ca and δ26Mgδ26Mg values in part inherited from bedrock, there is no correlation with proxies for carbonate or silicate lithology such as Na/Ca ratios, suggesting that Ca and Mg are in part recycled. However, in spite of the vast contrast in vegetation density between the arid Tibetan Plateau and the tropical Lesser Himalaya, the isotopic fractionation factor for Ca and Mg between solute and rocks are not systematically different suggesting that vegetation may only recycle a small amount of Ca and Mg in these catchments.&#13;
&#13;
The discrepancy between solute and solid Ca and Mg isotope ratios in these rivers from diverse weathering environments highlight our lack of understanding concerning the origin and subsequent path of Ca and Mg, bound as minerals in rock, and released as cations in rivers. The fractionation of Ca and Mg isotope ratios may prove useful for tracing mechanisms of chemical alteration. Ca isotope ratios of solute riverine Ca show a greater variability than previously acknowledged. The variability of Ca isotope ratios in modern rivers will need to be better quantified and accounted for in future models of global Ca cycling, if past variations in oceanic Ca isotope ratios are to be of use in constraining the past carbon cycle.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/734/1/TipperGalyBickle_GeoChim_72_2008.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>0016-7037</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-01</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Calcium and magnesium isotope systematics in rivers draining the Himalaya-Tibetan-Plateau region: Lithological or fractionation control</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Tipper, E. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Galy, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bickle, M. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2008-02-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2007.11.029</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:724
Date: 2015-08-30

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:724</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-08-30T02:32:57Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We used seismic body waves, radar interferometry and field investigation to examine the source processes of the destructive earthquake of 2005 February 22 near Zarand, in south–central Iran. The earthquake ruptured an intramountain reverse fault, striking E–W and dipping north at ∼60° to a depth of about 10 km. It produced a series of coseismic scarps with up to 1 m vertical displacement over a total distance of ∼13 km, continuous for 7 km. The line of the coseismic ruptures followed a known geological fault of unknown, but probably pre-Late Cenozoic, age and involved bedding-plane slip where the scarps were continuous at the surface. However, any signs of earlier coseismic ruptures along this fault had been obliterated by the time of the 2005 earthquake, probably by land sliding and weathering, so that the fault could not reasonably have been identified as active beforehand. The 2005 fault is at an oblique angle to the range-bounding Kuh Banan strike-slip fault, and may represent a splay from that fault, related to its southern termination. Other intramountain reverse faulting earthquakes have occurred in Iran, but this is the first to have produced a clear, mapped surface rupture, and to have been studied with InSAR. Faults of this type represent a serious seismic hazard in Iran and are difficult to assess, because their geomorphological expression is much less clear than the range-bounding reverse faults, which are more common and have been better studied.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/724/1/COMET_GJI_2006.PDF</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Geophysical Journal International</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>The Dahuiyeh (Zarand) earthquake of 2005 February 22 in central Iran: reactivitation of an intra-mountain thrust</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Talebian, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Biggs, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bolourchi, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Copley, Alex</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ghassemi, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ghorashi, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hollingsworth, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jackson, J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nissen, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Oveisi, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Parsons, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Priestley, K. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Saiidi, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02839.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:579
Date: 2016-06-22

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:579</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-06-22T17:06:16Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>When a mantle plume with elevated temperature underlies an oceanic spreading centre it&#13;
affects the generation of oceanic crust by creating thicker crust. We map the variation in&#13;
crustal thickness and seismic velocity along three long-offset seismic profiles acquired over&#13;
oceanic crust generated shortly after continental breakup in the North Atlantic: a 212-kmlong&#13;
flowline from the Faroes rifted continental margin across crust of 51–42 Ma age, where&#13;
oceanic spreading developed close to the inferred centre of the Iceland mantle plume; a 256 km&#13;
flowline extending from the Hatton rifted continental margin across crust of 52–40 Ma age,&#13;
about 800 km south of the presumed centre of the mantle plume; and a 99 km strike line over&#13;
oceanic crust formed at 43 Ma in the Iceland Basin off the Hatton continental margin. The&#13;
crustal velocity structure along each profile is constrained by multichannel seismic reflection&#13;
data, which is used primarily to map the sediments, and by densely spaced ocean-bottom&#13;
seismometers, which recorded wide-angle reflections and refractions to offsets of more than&#13;
100 km. Over 56 000 crustal diving wave and Moho wide-angle reflection arrivals were used in&#13;
joint crustal refraction and reflection tomographic inversions. Quantitative error analysis shows&#13;
that the seismic velocity of the crust is mostly constrained to within 0.1 km s−1 and the depth&#13;
of the Moho to within ±250 m. We interpret the crustal thickness and velocity changes along&#13;
the profiles as caused primarily by changes in the mantle temperature at the time of crustal&#13;
formation. If all the oceanic crustal thickness variations are ascribed to mantle temperature&#13;
changes, we infer that as mature seafloor spreading developed following continental breakup,&#13;
the mantle cooled by ca. 75 ◦C over a 10 Myr period, although it still remained hotter than&#13;
the global average of normal oceanic crust. The crust formed close to Iceland is at all times&#13;
thicker than that formed further away, which we interpret as reflecting higher temperatures&#13;
close to the centre of the thermal anomaly created by the mantle plume. Currently at the&#13;
Reykjanes Ridge, south of Iceland, we interpret thicker than normal oceanic crust as being&#13;
caused by the presence of hotter mantle, modulated by thickness variations of 1.5–2.0 km&#13;
which are attributed to temporal variations in the mantle plume temperature of about 25 ◦C&#13;
on a 3–6 Myr timescale. A 1.5 km increase in thickness of oceanic crust generated between&#13;
48 and 45 Ma on the Faroes line is similar in magnitude and duration to those occurring on&#13;
the present day Reykjanes Ridge, which we suggest is due to a temperature pulse of ∼25 ◦C.&#13;
Gravity lineations in the northern North Atlantic suggest that the oceanic crust has exhibited&#13;
small thickness fluctuations of similar size throughout its history, interpreted as due to small&#13;
fluctuations in the temperature of the Iceland mantle plume.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/579/1/Parkin_White_Geophys_J_Int_173_%282008%29.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>Influence of the Iceland mantle plume on oceanic crust generation in the North Atlantic</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Parkin, C. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2008</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03689.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:415
Date: 2015-05-19

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      <datestamp>2015-05-19T10:43:16Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The paper aims to provide advice, suggestions and encouragement for small budget-restricted libraries contemplating the need for web site redesign where an underlying goal for improving users' information literacy is a key factor.&#13;
Design/methodology/approach - The initial planning is set within the context of a broader project examining user education in the library, with a set of desired outcomes, based on user surveys, resulting in the web site as one focus. Project planning techniques employed are described. Information architecture is used as a basis for research, planning, design and implementation of a redesigned web site. Accessibility and usability were predominant in the minds of the designers. The process of redesign is set firmly within a context of little or no actual funds available, and a small, subject-specific, active user-base. The case for providing a complementary information literacy programme is highlighted, given the nature of the initial project.&#13;
Findings - A redesigned accessible, user-driven web site in a small library is possible despite few resources.&#13;
Originality/value - This paper provides a focus for staff in small libraries that may lack funds and who need guidance and practical help in redesigning their web sites. It suggests a structure on which to base the process, and conclusions about the limitations and problems encountered from which others may learn.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Program</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-99</dc:subject><dc:title>Redesigning a web site in-house to improve information literacy: experiences of a small library</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Humbert, S. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tilley, E. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1108/00330330610707926</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:315
Date: 2017-02-10

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We present major- and trace-element analyses of mineral phases present in a suite of 16 garnet-peridotite xenoliths from the western terrane of the Kaapvaal craton. The xenoliths were entrained by a Group II Finsch kimberlite at 118 Ma, shortly prior to a major metasomatic event that caused widespread enrichment of the Kaapvaal lithospheric mantle. Compositionally homogeneous grains of olivine, orthopyroxene, garnet and clinopyroxene and coarse–equant textures indicate equilibrium relationships between mineral phases in the majority of xenoliths. Pressure and temperature estimates suggest that clinopyroxene-bearing garnet peridotites last equilibrated at 1130–1270°C and 45–59 kbar whereas clinopyroxene-free xenoliths record temperatures of 1000–1070°C and pressures of 34–42 kbar. The Finsch xenoliths plot on a conductive palaeogeotherm with a surface heat flux of ~46 mW m2. Combined Ca and Cr abundances of Finsch pyrope garnets suggest that both lherzolitic and harzburgitic parageneses are present. Samples bearing sub-calcic (harzburgitic) garnets are from the shallowest depths. The lherzolitic garnets are depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to the middle and heavy REE (MREE and HREE) and have ‘smooth’ chondrite-normalized patterns. In contrast, the sub-calcic garnets are characterized by sinusoidal chondrite-normalized REE patterns that peak at Nd and Lu and exhibit lows at La and Er. The sub-calcic garnets also have lower Zr, Hf, Ti and HREE, and higher LREE and Sr, than lherzolitic garnets. The variations in REE ratios correlate with temperature and pressure and also Cr/Ca ratio. The high Cr content of harzburgitic and some lherzolitic Finsch garnets may have a significant effect on the crystal framework. Substitution of the larger Cr3+ ion for the smaller Al3+ ion increases with decreasing temperature and pressure and distorts the crystal lattice; this permits a greater substitution of Ca by large cations, such as Sr and the LREE, but also limits the replacement of Al by Ti, Zr and Hf. Positive HREE slopes displayed by harzburgitic garnets on chondrite-normalized plots are believed to result from metasomatic enrichment by a melt that had already undergone significant garnet fractionation during ascent through the lithospheric mantle. The low-temperature Finsch peridotites are characterized by much lower orthopyroxene (&lt; 17%) and higher olivine (up to 96%) modal abundances than have been reported from xenolith suites elsewhere in the Kaapvaal craton. Significantly, they resemble residues generated in partial melting experiments. The Finsch harzburgites have very low Al2O3 (0·18 wt %) and CaO (0·38 wt %) and high MgO contents (49·75 wt %) and appear to be highly refractory. They also have high bulk-rock Mg/(Mg + Fe) and high modal olivine contents, and in this respect resemble some of those recently described from NW Canada and Greenland. We suggest that some of the Finsch low-temperature peridotites represent Kaapvaal lithospheric mantle that formed as a residue of adiabatic decompression melting between 4·5 and 1·5 GPa. The inferred mantle potential temperature of 1550°C would have been similar to that of ambient Archaean mantle. Importantly, it appears that the sub-Finsch lithospheric mantle has remained unmodified by the silica enrichment that has been so prevalent elsewhere in the craton. This may reflect the remoteness from the subduction zone that is believed to have been in existence at 2·9 Ga on the eastern margin of the craton.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/315/1/Gibson_Malarkey_Day_J_Pet_49_2008.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Oxford Journals, Oxford University Press</dc:publisher><dc:source>Print ISSN 0022-3530 - Online ISSN 1460-2415</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-05</dc:subject><dc:title>Melt depletion and enrichment beneath the western Kaapvaal craton: Evidence from Finsch peridotite xenoliths</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Gibson, S. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Malarkey, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Day, J. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egn048</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:226
Date: 2016-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk:226</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-01-28T17:02:59Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We reassess the applicability of the thermal plate cooling model to the subsidence of the North Pacific, Atlantic and North Indian Ocean Basins. We use a new numerical plate model in which the thermophysical parameters of the lithosphere vary with temperature according to the results of laboratory experiments, and the ridge temperature structure is consistent with the thickness of the oceanic crust. We first attempt to exclude thickened crust from our data set, and then to exclude swells and downwellings by masking regions of the data that remains that have significant gravity anomalies when there exists a clear regional correlation between intermediate-wavelength gravity and topography. We find that the average variation of depth with age is consistent with conventional half-space models until about 90 Myr. Thereafter, the departure from the half-space cooling curve is more rapid than predicted using simple conductive plate cooling models. The depth–age curves in the Pacific and Atlantic show ∼250 m of temporary shallowing between the ages of 90–130 Myr, a result consistent with the outcome of experiments on the initiation of small-scale boundary layer convection. The results do not change significantly if the estimated component of the gravity arising from plate cooling is subtracted prior to calculation of the correlation between gravity and topography. A 90-km-thick conductive plate is nevertheless a reasonable model for the average temperature structure of the oldest part of the Pacific ocean lithosphere. In the Pacific, the broad topographic undulations associated with the Line Island Swell, the Hawaiian Swell and surrounding basins have correlated gravity anomalies and an admittance of approximately 30 mGal km−1 and are likely to result from convective circulation in the upper mantle. In the Northeast Atlantic, the intermediate-wavelength admittance over the Cape Verde swell is similar; in the Northwest Atlantic over the Bermuda Swell it is slightly larger but not as well constrained.</dc:description><dc:identifier>http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/226/1/Crosby_McKenzie_GJI_166_2006.PDF</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Astronomical Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>ISSN: 0956-540X, ESSN: 1365-246X</dc:source><dc:subject>sub-02</dc:subject><dc:title>The relationship between depth, age and gravity in the oceans</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Crosby, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McKenzie, D. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sclater, J. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03015.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>

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