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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:384656
Date: 2016-04-15

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dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values

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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values
ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:384656</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-04-15T15:50:56Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Spatially explicit and temporally continuous estimates of photosynthesis will be of great importance for increasing our understanding of and ultimately closing the terrestrial carbon cycle. Current capabilities to model photosynthesis, however, are limited by accurate enough representations of the complexity of the underlying biochemical processes and the numerous environmental constraints imposed upon plant primary production. A potentially powerful alternative to model photosynthesis through these indirect observations is the use of multi-angular satellite data to infer light-use efficiency (?) directly from spectral reflectance properties in connection with canopy shadow fractions. Hall et al. (this issue) introduced a new approach for predicting gross ecosystem production that would allow the use of such observations in a data assimilation mode to obtain spatially explicit variations in ? from infrequent polar-orbiting satellite observations, while meteorological data are used to account for the more dynamic responses of ? to variations in environmental conditions caused by changes in weather and illumination. In this second part of the study we implement and validate the approach of Hall et al. (this issue) across an ecologically diverse array of eight flux-tower sites in North America using data acquired from the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (CHRIS) and eddy-flux observations. Our results show significantly enhanced estimates of ? and therefore cumulative gross ecosystem production (GEP) over the course of one year at all examined sites. We also demonstrate that ? is greatly heterogeneous even across small study areas. Data assimilation and direct inference of GEP from space using a new, proposed sensor could therefore be a significant step towards closing the terrestrial carbon cycle.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier Inc.</dc:publisher><dc:source>00344257</dc:source><dc:title>Data assimilation of photosynthetic light-use efficiency using multi-angular satellite data: II Model implementation and validation</dc:title><dcterms:dateAccepted>2012-02-05</dcterms:dateAccepted><rioxxterms:author>Hilker, Thomas</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hall, Forrest G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tucker, Compton J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coops, Nicholas C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Black, T. Andrew</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nichol, Caroline J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sellers, Piers J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barr, Alan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hollinger, David Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Munger, J.W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Hilker, Thomas</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hall, Forrest G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Tucker, Compton J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Coops, Nicholas C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Black, T. Andrew</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Nichol, Caroline J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Sellers, Piers J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Barr, Alan</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hollinger, David Y.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Munger, J.W.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2012-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.02.008</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:20
Date: 2016-04-04

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
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ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:20</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-04-04T09:46:09Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This paper challenges some of the assumptions underlying the metadata creation process in the context of two communities of practice, based around learning object repositories and open e-Print archives. The importance of quality assurance for metadata creation is discussed and evidence from the literature, from the practical experiences of repositories and archives, and from related research and practices within other communities is presented. Issues for debate and further investigation are identified, formulated as a series of key research questions. Although there is much work to be done in the area of quality assurance for metadata creation, this paper represents an important first step towards a fuller understanding of the subject.</dc:description><dc:format>application/msword</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/20/1/BartonCurrierHey_DC2003.doc</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>DCMI</dc:publisher><dc:source>0974530301</dc:source><dc:subject>Z665</dc:subject><dc:title>Building quality assurance into metadata creation: an analysis based on the learning objects and e-Prints communities of practice</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Barton, Jane</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Currier, Sarah</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hey, Jessie M.N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Barton, Jane</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Currier, Sarah</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hey, Jessie M.N.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:114
Date: 2017-01-19

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:114</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-19T15:22:32Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Estimates of the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the oceanic lithosphere based on gravity and bathymetric data from island loads are commonly significantly lower than those based on the wavelength of plate bending at subduction zones.  The anomalously low values for ocean islands have been attributed to the finite yield strength of the lithosphere, to erosion of the mechanical boundary layer by mantle plumes, to prexisting thermal stresses, and to overprinting of old volcanic loads by younger ones.  A fifth possible contribution to the discrepancy is an incorrect assumption about the density of volcanic loads.  We suggest that load densities have been systematically overestimated in studies of lithospheric flexure, potentially resulting in systematic underestimation of effective elastic thicknesses and overestimation of the effects of hotspot volcanism.  We illustrate the effect of underestimating  load density with synthetic examples and an example from the Marquesas Islands.  This effect, combined with the other effects listed above, in many cases may obviate the need to invoke hotspot reheating to explain low apparent elastic thicknesses.</dc:description><dc:format>application/msword</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/114/1/Island8.doc</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Geophysical Journal International</dc:source><dc:subject>QE</dc:subject><dc:title>Ocean Island Densities and Models of Lithospheric Flexure</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Minshull, Tim</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Charvis, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Minshull, Tim</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Charvis, P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0956-540x.2001.01422.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:120
Date: 2016-03-31

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
rioxxterms:version_of_record'http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2001)018<1558:UOTRTT>2.0.CO;2' is not a valid HTTP URI in rioxxterms:version_of_record
rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:120</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:45Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>One of the most successful applications of satellite-borne radar altimeter data over the oceans in recent years has been the extraction of information about long-wavelength baroclinic Rossby (or planetary) waves, which play a significant role in ocean circulation and climate dynamics. These waves cross ocean basins from east to west at speeds of few centimetres per second at mid-latitudes. The cross-basin propagation time may therefore be several months or even years and an accurate estimation of the speed of the waves is important. We review the methods for obtaining information on Rossby wave velocity from altimetry data, particularly the two-dimensional Radon transform. Unfortunately the use of longitude-time plots, although it allows the estimation of the zonal phase speeds, does not give any information on the speed vector when the propagation of the waves is not purely zonal (east-west). We show how the two-dimensional Radon Transform can be generalised to three dimensions, enabling not only the true propagation velocity component to be determined, but also the direction of the waves and thus any deviation from the pure-westward case. As examples of the application of this extended technique, we show maps of direction, speed and energy of Rossby waves in the North Atlantic Ocean.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/120/1/Challenor.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0739-0572</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Use of the 3D radon transform to examine the properties of oceanic Rossby waves</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Challenor, P.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cipollini, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cromwell, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Challenor, P.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Cipollini, P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Cromwell, D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2001)018&lt;1558:UOTRTT&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:130
Date: 2016-09-13

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:130</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-09-13T11:27:02Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>One of the most successful theories to date to explain why observed &#13;
planetary waves propagate westwards faster than linear flat-bottom &#13;
theory predicts has been to include the effect of background baroclinic &#13;
mean flow, which modifies the potential vorticity waveguide in which &#13;
the waves propagate. (Barotropic flows are almost everywhere too small  to explain the observed differences.) That theory accounted for most,  but not all, of the observed wave speeds. A later attempt to examine the effect of the sloping bottom on these waves (without the mean flow effect) did not find any overall speed-up. This paper combines these two effects, assuming long (geostrophic) waves and slowly varying mean flow and topography, and computes group velocities at each point in the global ocean. These velocities turn out to be largely independent of the orientation of the wavevector. A second speed-up of the waves is found (over that for mean flow only). Almost no eastward-oriented group velocities are found, so that features which appear to propagate in the same sense as a subtropical gyre would have to be coupled with the atmosphere or be density-compensated in some manner.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/130/1/r31.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Physical Oceanography</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Long extratropical planetary wave propagation in the presence of slowly varying mean flow and bottom topography. Part I: the local problem</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Killworth, P.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Blundell, J.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Killworth, P.D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Blundell, J.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2003)33&lt;784:LEPWPI&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:133
Date: 2016-03-31

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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PropertyError
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:133</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:46Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The composition of ultraplankton (UP) in near-surface samples collected underway every 1 to 6 h from a ship sailing from Durban to the Seychelles was determined by flow cytometry, using both autofluorescence pigments and fluorescence DNA staining. Prochlorococcus (Pro) (17 to 160 x 103 cells ml-1) numerically dominated the ultraphytoplankton (UPP), followed by Synechococcus (Syn) (4.5 to 57 x 103 cells ml-1) and eukaryotic algae (EA) (0.6 to 4.2 x 103 cells ml-1). The abundance of heterotrophic bacterioplankton (HB) was 0.4 to 1.3 x 106 cells ml-1. A strong correlation (r = 0.8 to 0.97) was observed between sea-viewing wide field of view sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite estimates of total chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration and chl a concentration, abundance and biomass of EA as well as abundance and biomass of HB. This shows the potential for deducing spatial distributions of these 2 groups for ecosystem modelling using satellite data. Although the correlation between satellite chl a estimates and Syn chl a concentration was strong (r = 0.83 to 0.88), the correlation with its abundance and biomass was poor (r &lt; 0.6) due to high variability (factor of 12) in cellular chl a content and to a lesser extent to diurnal cycles. The relationships were similar when either only daytime or all UP measurements were compared with the satellite data. No relationship was found between satellite data and Pro chl a concentration, abundance or biomass, even after correction for a pronounced diel cycle, suggesting that the SeaWiFS instrument might not detect Pro chl a. 
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/133/1/PcPlnkt%26Sat_rev.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0948-3055</dc:source><dc:subject>GE</dc:subject><dc:subject>QR</dc:subject><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Ultraplankton distribution in surface waters of the Mozambique Channel – flow cytometry and satellite imagery</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Zubkov, Mikhail V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Zubkov, Mikhail V.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:134
Date: 2016-03-31

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The flows around Madagascar feed into the Agulhas
Current, but there have been few hydrographic studies of the
flow within the Mozambique Channel. Some cruise and
altimetric data point to this being a region of high mesoscale
activity, with eddies migrating through the area. Here we show
how ocean colour data throw light on the behaviour of eddies in
the southern Mozambique Channel.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/134/1/Quartly_IG2003_Mad.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>A visible record of eddies in the southern
Mozambique Channel</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Srokosz, Meric A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Srokosz, Meric A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-07-21</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:135
Date: 2016-09-13

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:135</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-09-13T11:27:34Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>An Acoustic Rain Gauge (ARG) analyses the underwater sound levels across a wide frequency range, classifies the observed spectrum according to likely source and then determines the local wind speed or rain rate as appropriate. This&#13;
paper covers a trial on the Scotian Shelf off Canada, comparing the geophysical information derived from the acoustic signals with those obtained from other sources.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/135/1/Quartly_IG2003_ARG.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>IEEE Geoscience and Remote-Sensing Symposium</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Weathering the storm: developments in the acoustic sensing of wind and rain</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jones, Claire E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guymer, Trevor H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Birch, Keith G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Campbell, Jon M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Waddington, Ian N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Jones, Claire E.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Guymer, Trevor H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Birch, Keith G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Campbell, Jon M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Waddington, Ian N.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-07-21</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:136
Date: 2016-03-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:136</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:46Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>As the goals for altimetric measurements become ever
more precise, there is concern about the reliable detection and
discarding of rain contaminated data. A dual-frequency rain
detection technique developed for the Ku- and C-band TOPEX
altimeter, is adapted for the Ku- and S-band RA-2 altimeter on
Envisat. Of particular concern is the selection of a suitable
threshold to minimise the quantity of good data inadvertently
discarded.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/136/1/Quartly_IG2003_RA2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Rain-flagging of the Envisat altimeter</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Srokosz, Meric A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Srokosz, Meric A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-07-21</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:144
Date: 2016-09-13

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:144</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-09-13T11:28:18Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Satellites play a major role in the determination of the rainfall at sea. Researchers at Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) have been involved in two projects addressing this task. First they have been instrumental in developing techniques to retrieve rain rate information from the 10+ years of dual-frequency altimeter data. The TOPEX radar measures rainfall via the attenuation it causes, producing a climatology that is independent of those derived from passive microwave (PM) and infrared (IR) sensors. Because TOPEX is an active microwave sensor, it can have a much smaller footprint than PM sensors. Therefore it can be used to estimate the size of rain cells, showing that the ITCZ and mid-latitude storm tracks are characterized by larger rain systems than elsewhere. TOPEX’s simultaneous recording of wind and wave data reveal that, for mid-latitude systems, rain is most likely in association with developing seas.&#13;
&#13;
All satellite-based datasets require validation, and SOC's work on the development and testing of acoustic rain gauges is the second aspect of this paper. By listening at a range of frequencies, an underwater hydrophone may distinguish the spectra of wind, rain, shipping etc., and estimate the wind speed or rain rate according to the magnitude of the signals. All our campaigns have shown a good acoustic response to changes in wind speed. However the quantitative inversion for recent trials has given values that are too high, possibly because of significant acoustic reflection from the sea bottom. The changes in spectral slope often agree with other observations of rain, although validation experiments in coastal regions are hampered by the extraneous sources present. Acoustic rain gauges would eventually see service not only for routine satellite validation, but also for real-time monitoring of locations of interest.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/144/1/GPM_Paper.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>3rd Global Precipitation Meeting</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:subject>T1</dc:subject><dc:title>Measuring rainfall from above and below the sea surface</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guymer, Trevor H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Srokosz, Meric A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Birch, Keith G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jones, Claire E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, Graham D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Guymer, Trevor H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Srokosz, Meric A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Birch, Keith G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Jones, Claire E.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:164
Date: 2016-03-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:164</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:47Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We present results for masses of spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 double-charm baryons in quenched lattice QCD, from an exploratory study using a non-perturbatively improved clover action at ?=6.2. We have studied local operators and we observe, after appropriate projections, a good signal for the ground states. We also present results for single-charmed baryons and spin-splittings for both double- and single-charmed states.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1029-8479</dc:source><dc:subject>QC</dc:subject><dc:title>Spectroscopy of doubly-charmed baryons in lattice QCD</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Flynn, Jonathan M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mescia, Federico</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tariq, Abdullah Shams Bin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>UKQCD Collaboration</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Flynn, Jonathan M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Mescia, Federico</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Tariq, Abdullah Shams Bin</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2003/07/066</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:176
Date: 2016-03-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:176</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:47Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/176/1/1472-6785-3-1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>BMC Ecology</dc:source><dc:subject>QH301</dc:subject><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:subject>GE</dc:subject><dc:title>Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from the region of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, an area of commercial mining interest</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Lambshead, P.J.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Brown, C.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ferrero, T.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hawkins, L.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Smith, C.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mitchell, N.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Lambshead, P.J.D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Brown, C.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Ferrero, T.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hawkins, L.E.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Smith, C.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Mitchell, N.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-01-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:181
Date: 2016-09-13

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:181</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-09-13T11:30:07Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D756E707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Low molecular weight heparins hold several advantages over unfractionated heparin including convenience of administration. Enoxaparin is one such heparin licensed in the UK for use in unstable coronary artery disease (unstable stable angina and non-Q wave myocardial infarction). In these patients, two large randomised controlled trials and their meta-analysis showed small benefits for enoxaparin over unfractionated heparin at 30–43 days and potentially at one year.&#13;
&#13;
We found no relevant published full economic evaluations, only cost studies, one of which was conducted in the UK. The other studies, from the US, Canada and France, are difficult to interpret since their resource use and costs may not reflect UK practice.&#13;
&#13;
Methods&#13;
We aimed to compare the benefits and costs of short-term treatment (two to eight days) with enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin in unstable coronary artery disease. We used published data sources to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY), adopting a NHS perspective and using 1998 prices.&#13;
&#13;
Results&#13;
The base case was a 0.013 QALY gain and net cost saving of £317 per person treated with enoxaparin instead of unfractionated heparin. All but one sensitivity analysis showed net savings and QALY gains, the exception (the worst case) being a cost per QALY of £3,305. Best cases were a £495 saving and 0.013 QALY gain, or a £317 saving and 0.014 QALY gain per person.&#13;
&#13;
Conclusions&#13;
Enoxaparin appears cost saving compared with unfractionated heparin in patients with unstable coronary artery disease. However, cost implications depend on local revascularisation practice.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>BMC Cardiovascular Disorders</dc:source><dc:subject>R1</dc:subject><dc:title>Cost-utility of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in unstable coronary artery disease</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Nicholson, Tricia</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McGuire, Alistair</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Milne, Ruairidh</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Nicholson, Tricia</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>McGuire, Alistair</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Milne, Ruairidh</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-10-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:182
Date: 2016-09-13

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:184
Date: 2016-03-31

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:187
Date: 2016-09-13

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:187</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-09-13T11:31:28Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This systematic review examines the clinical and cost-effectiveness of patient education models for adults with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.&#13;
&#13;
Epidemiology and background&#13;
Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is characterised by a state of chronic hyperglycaemia (raised blood sugar). There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition involving a process of destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, leading to severe insulin deficiency. About one-fifth of patients with diabetes in England and Wales have Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency and is linked to being overweight or obese, and to physical inactivity. Type 2 diabetes primarily affects people aged over 40 years. The basic target in the treatment of diabetes is the normalisation of blood glucose levels. Poor control of diabetes can in the short term result in diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious and potentially fatal condition, and in the long term can increase the risk of complications such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. However, studies have shown that good diabetic control is associated with a reduced risk of these complications. Diabetic control is affected by both lifestyle factors such as diet, and by pharmacological treatments, and the management of diabetes is largely the responsibility of patients. A key component in empowering patients to manage their own diabetes is education.&#13;
&#13;
Education of patients with diabetes is considered a fundamental aspect of diabetes care and aims to empower patients by improving knowledge and skills. Structured educational programmes for diabetes self-management are often multifaceted interventions providing patients with information not only about diabetes but also management issues such as diet, exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose and medication use.&#13;
&#13;
Methods&#13;
A systematic review of the literature and an economic evaluation were undertaken.&#13;
&#13;
Data sources&#13;
Electronic databases were searched, including the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Science Citation Index, Web of Science Proceedings, DARE and HTA databases, PsychINFO, CINAHL, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and EconLit. References of all retrieved articles were checked for relevant studies, and experts were contacted for advice and peer review and to identify additional published and unpublished references. Sponsor submissions to the National Institute for Clinical Excellence were reviewed.&#13;
&#13;
Study selection&#13;
Studies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria:&#13;
&#13;
Interventions: educational interventions compared with usual care or another educational intervention.&#13;
&#13;
Participants: adults with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus.&#13;
&#13;
Outcomes: must report glycated haemoglobin, hypoglycaemic episodes, diabetic complications or quality of life. Other reported outcomes from included studies were discussed.&#13;
&#13;
Evaluation of outcomes &gt;12 months from inception of intervention.&#13;
&#13;
Design: randomised clinical trials (RCTs), and controlled clinical trial (CCTs) with a concurrent control were included.&#13;
&#13;
Reporting: studies were only included if they reported sufficient detail of the intervention to be reproducible (e.g. topics covered, who provided the education, how many sessions were available). &#13;
Studies in non-English language or available only as abstracts were excluded.&#13;
&#13;
Titles and abstracts were checked by two reviewers. Full texts of selected studies were assessed for inclusion by one reviewer and checked by a second. Differences in opinion were resolved through discussion.&#13;
&#13;
Data extraction and quality assessment&#13;
Data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken by one reviewer and checked by a second, with any disagreement resolved through discussion involving a third reviewer if necessary. The quality of included studies was assessed in accordance with Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Report 4.&#13;
&#13;
Data synthesis&#13;
Data on clinical effectiveness were synthesised through a narrative review with tabulation of results from included studies. Studies were too diverse to be combined in a meta-analysis. Cost-effectiveness analyses were reported in a narrative review.&#13;
&#13;
Number and quality of studies&#13;
Searches identified 24 studies comparing education with either a control group or with another educational intervention. These were 18 RCTs and six CCTs. Four studies included adults with Type 1 diabetes, 16 studies included adults with Type 2 diabetes and four studies included adults with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. The quality of reporting and methodology of the studies was generally poor by today’s standards with only two RCTs reporting adequate randomisation procedures and none demonstrating adequate allocation concealment.&#13;
&#13;
Economic evaluations&#13;
Literature searches identified only two studies reporting cost-effectiveness results: one cost-utility analysis and one cost-effectiveness analysis using intermediate outcomes only.&#13;
&#13;
Summary of benefits&#13;
Studies of education in Type 1 diabetes suggest that education programmes offered as a part of intensified treatment interventions can result in significant and long-lasting improvements in metabolic control and reductions in complications. These are studies in which education is part of a package of care also including treatment changes (for example diet and insulin) and therefore it is not possible to draw conclusions about potential effects of education per se in Type 1 diabetes.&#13;
&#13;
Diverse educational programmes in Type 2 diabetes did not yield consistent results. Although some trials reported significant improvements in metabolic control and/or quality of life or other psychological outcomes, many others did not report significant effects of educational interventions. No clear characterisation is possible as to what features of education may be beneficial in this patient group.&#13;
&#13;
Studies that included patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes also produced mixed results with only poorer quality studies reporting significant effects.&#13;
&#13;
Costs&#13;
Literature searches identified a small number of studies offering cost data in relation to patient education models. These were all studies undertaken outside the UK and they covered a variety of methodologies. We are not able to generalise from these studies as to the cost-effectiveness of patient education models. Patient education models will predominantly consist of direct costs for resource inputs to particular education packages, for example staff time (diabetes specialist nurse, dietitian and/or consultant) and education materials. The Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) intervention is estimated to cost approximately £545 per person attending.&#13;
&#13;
Costs per life year gained&#13;
Owing to the absence of accurate data on health outcomes, we are not able to provide cost-effectiveness summary statistics. The evidence base does indicate that improved glycaemic control is likely to have a positive impact on the incidence of long-term diabetic complications. Therefore, where the costs associated with patient education are assumed to be in the region of £500–600 per patient, the benefits over time would have to be very modest to offer an attractive cost-effectiveness profile for the intervention. The submission from the DAFNE study group predicts a scenario in which the DAFNE intervention results in cost savings and added health benefits over time, when compared with usual practice.&#13;
&#13;
Implications&#13;
The main implication for the NHS would be staff time, particularly of diabetes specialist nurses, but also dietitians. Provision of increased education may be hindered by a shortage of trained specialist nurses, which will take some years to resolve.&#13;
&#13;
Future research needs&#13;
The paucity of high-quality trials that have tested education per se in diabetes reveals a need for more research. Such research should focus on RCTs with clear designs based on explicit hypotheses and with a range of outcomes evaluated after long follow-up intervals. In order to draw conclusions about the effects of education alone, such trials should manipulate only education rather than confounding education with other factors.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/187/2/187-02.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Health Technology Assessment</dc:source><dc:subject>RA0421</dc:subject><dc:title>The clinical and cost-effectiveness of patient education models for diabetes: a systematic review and economic evaluation</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Loveman, E</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cave, C</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Green, C</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Royle, P</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dunn, N</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Waugh, N</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Loveman, E</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Cave, C</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Green, C</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Royle, P</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Dunn, N</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Waugh, N</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:192
Date: 2016-03-31

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:194
Date: 2016-09-13

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:198
Date: 2016-03-31

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:202
Date: 2016-03-31

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Rossby waves and eddies propagate. The period of the peak energy is reduced crossing the ridge from ~1
year to ~7-9 months, before rising again to the annual cycle on the other side. There is also evidence of
energy peaks at periods of ~2-4 years in the Gulf Stream region and east of the ridge.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/202/1/Cromwell.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Geophysical Research Letters</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Sea surface height observations of the 34N 'waveguide' in the North Atlantic. </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cromwell, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Cromwell, D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:204
Date: 2016-03-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:204</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:51Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>An analysis of ocean volume, heat and freshwater transports from a fully con-strained general circulation model is described. Output from a data synthesis, or state estimation, method is used by which the model was forced to a large-scale, time varying global ocean data set over six years. Time-mean fluxes estimated from this fully time-dependent circulation have converged with independent time-independent estimates from box inversions over most parts of the world ocean but especially in the southern hemisphere. However, heat transport estimates differ substantially in
the North Atlantic where our estimates result in only 1/2 previous heat transports. The estimated mean circulation around Australia involves a net volume flux of 14
Sv through the Indonesian Through flow and the Mozambique Channel. In addition we show that this flow regime exist on all time scales above one month rendering the variability in the South Pacific strongly coupled to the Indian Ocean. Moreover, the dynamically consistent variations in the model show temporal variability of oceanic heat fluxes, heat storage and atmospheric exchanges that are complex and with a strong dependence upon location, depth, and time-scale. Results presented demonstrate the great potential of an ocean /state estimation system to provide a dynamical description of the time-dependent observed heat transport and heat
content changes and their relation to air-sea interactions.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/204/1/ECCO_paper_2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0148-0227</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Volume, heat, and freshwater transports of the global ocean circulation 1993-2000, estimated from a general circulation model constrained by World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) data. </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Stammer, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wunsch, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Giering, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Eckert, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Heimbach, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Adcroft, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hill, C.N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marshall, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Stammer, D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Wunsch, C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Giering, R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Eckert, C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Heimbach, P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Adcroft, A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hill, C.N.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marshall, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JC001115</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:207
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:207</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:51Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Anemometers on Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) are usually located above the bridge in a region where the effects of air flow distortion,  created by the presence of the ship,  may be large.   Until now it was not known whether measurements from such anemometers would be biased high or low,  and the possible magnitude of any such bias was not known.   &#13;
&#13;
  Investigations into the airflow above merchant ships have been carried out experimentally using a low-speed wind tunnel and numerically using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code VECTIS.   The investigations examined the airflow over simple block models of VOS shapes.   The results of the investigations were compared to wind speed measurements made from the RRS Charles Darwin.   &#13;
&#13;
  Experimental and CFD techniques have been used to devise scaling rules that predict the effects of the flow distortion.   Both techniques have shown that the pattern of the flow distortion above the bridge scales with the ‘step height’,  H, of the model.   In the case of a tanker,  H is the ‘bridge to deck’ height,  i.e.  the height of the accommodation block above the deck,  for bow-on flows.   Close to the top of the bridge the flow is severely decelerated and may even reverse in direction.   Using the upwind edge of the bridge as the origin of the scaled co-ordinate system,  there is a definite line above the decelerated region along which the speed of the flow is equal to the undistorted wind speed.   Above this ‘line of equality’ the wind speed increases to a maximum and then decreases with increased height to a free stream wind speed.   Simple equations have been devised to predict the positions of the ‘line of equality’,  the maximum wind speed and the minimum wind speed within the decelerated region.   &#13;
&#13;
  Comparisons of the results with wind speed data obtained from field measurements made using a number of anemometers located on the RRS Charles Darwin agreed well and have predicted a maximum wind speed increase of approximately 15 ±5 %.   Comparisons with the field data have confirmed that CFD models can be used to predict the effects of airflow distortion above merchant ships. &#13;
&#13;
  The investigation has demonstrated the ability of the wind tunnel and CFD approaches employed to provide a better understanding of the airflow over merchant ships.  Both methods have contributed to improve the understanding of how the wind speed at anemometer sites on merchant ships is affected by the ships hull and superstructure.   &#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/207/1/Ben-Moat-PhD.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:subject>VM</dc:subject><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Quantifying the effects of airflow distortion on anemometer wind speed measurements from merchant ships</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Moat, B.I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Moat, B.I.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:type>Thesis</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:208
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:208</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:51Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This paper compares the observed ambient sound levels at two very different sites, relating both to independent estimates of wind speed and rain rate. The spectra for wind-only conditions at the two sites show great differences, especially at low wind speed. The spectra associated with rain were sufficiently different from the wind-only spectra (either in terms of spectral slope or the intensity at 14.5 kHz) to support the development of a generic rather than site-specific rain detection algorithm.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/208/1/AAwA_Quartly2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Acta Acustica united with Acustica</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Intercomparison of ambient acoustic spectra in inland and coastal waters

</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Shannon, K.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guymer, T.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Birch, K.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Campbell, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Shannon, K.M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Guymer, T.H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Birch, K.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Campbell, J.M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:210
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:210</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:52Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>It is estimated that the total number of submarine mud volcanoes is between 1000 and 100 000. Because many are associated with greenhouse gases, such as methane, it is argued that the global flux of these gases to the atmosphere from the world’s terrestrial and submarine mud volcanoes is highly significant. Clues to the processes forming submarine mud volcanoes can be found in variations to their height, shape, surface morphology, physical properties and internal structure. A model of isostatic compensation between the mud column and the sediment overlying the mud source is used to predict a depth to the mud reservoir beneath mud volcanoes. Once erupted, the general behaviour of an individual mud flow can be described and predicted using a viscous gravity-current model. The model shows that conical-shaped mud volcanoes comprise multiple, superimposed radial flows in which the thickness, eruption rate and speed of individual mud flows strongly depends on the viscosity, density and over-pressure of the erupted mud. Using these parameters, the model predicts the lowermost flows will be the oldest, thickest and have the greatest length of run-out while the uppermost flows will be the youngest, thinnest and shortest. This model is in contrast to more traditional models of stratiform mud volcano construction in which younger flows progressively bury older ones and travel furthest from the summit. Applying the model to the two mud volcanoes studied in the Gulf of Cadiz, quantitative estimates are derived for the depths to mud sources, exit and flow velocities, eruption duration and volume fluxes, flow thickness and conduit radii. For example, with an average kinematic viscosity of 1.5 m2 s?1 for the erupted mud, a density of 1.8×103 kg m?3 and a thickness for the youngest flows of about 0.5 m, the model predicts a lowermost flow thickness of 3.6 m, an average eruption duration of 7 h and a conduit radius of about 9 m. To construct a conical-shaped mud volcano of 260 m height, similar to those studied in the Gulf of Cadiz, is estimated to require a mud source at 4.6 km depth and a total of at least 100 individually erupted flows. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/210/1/MURTON_Mud_Volcano_Paper_14-6-01.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0025-3227</dc:source><dc:subject>QE</dc:subject><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Numerical modelling of mud volcanoes and their flows using constraints from the Gulf of Cadiz</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Murton, B.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Biggs, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Murton, B.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Biggs, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(02)00690-4</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:211
Date: 2016-03-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:211</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:53Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We show that there is a strong and consistent correlation between geochemical and geophysical estimates of the amount of melt generated in the mantle beneath oceanic ridges.  This correlation holds across all spreading rates and on scales down to the size of individual ridge segments.  There is an abrupt decrease in the amount of melt generated at full spreading rates below ~20 mm/a. Our observations are consistent with the conclusion that &lt;10% of the melt is frozen in the mantle before it reaches the crust and that serpentine probably represents only a small percentage of the material above the Moho.  The melt is well mixed on a ridge segment scale, probably in high level magma chambers, but the melts remain distinct between segments. The rare earth element concentrations of basalts from very slow-spreading ridges are higher than those from normal oceanic ridges, which is directly indicative of reduced mantle melting, and they show characteristic light rare earth element enrichment, interpreted as caused by a deep tail of small percentage wet melting. The decrease in melt production at rates below ~20 mm/a points to the importance of conductive cooling inhibiting melting of the upwelling mantle at very slow-spreading centres.</dc:description><dc:format>application/msword</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/211/1/ocean-r22.doc</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Petrology</dc:source><dc:subject>QE</dc:subject><dc:title>Melt  generation at very slow-spreading oceanic ridges: constraints from geochemical and geophysical data
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>White, R.S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Minshull, T.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bickle, M.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Robinson, C.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>White, R.S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Minshull, T.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Bickle, M.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Robinson, C.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:212
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:212</identifier>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>In Germany, children are sorted into differently prestigious school types according to their ability at the end of primary schooling, normally at age 10. This early decision about children’s future schooling cannot be easily corrected. However, secondary school attendance has a huge impact on future career options, so that equality in pupils’ distribution to differential school types is important. This paper examines the impact of social and economic background on children’s school type if ability is held constant. The analysis is based on national data taken from two surveys of learning achievement, the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA). These data reveal that a large share of pupils in less prestigious school types would fit perfectly well in better school types given their measured ability. Children from rural areas, pupils from lower socio-economic backgrounds and boys in general have a significantly lower probability of being selected to the most academic school track even when their ability is similar to that of their urban and better socially placed counterparts. &#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/212/1/212-01.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute</dc:publisher><dc:subject>HA</dc:subject><dc:title>Inequalities in Secondary School Attendance in Germany</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Schnepf, Sylke V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Schnepf, Sylke V.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:214
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>We discuss the three-dimensional oceanic state estimated for the period 1992
- 1997 as it results from bringing together large-scale ocean data sets with a gen-
eral circulation model. To bring the model into close agreement with ocean data,
its initial temperature and salinity conditions where changed as well as the time-
dependent surface fluxes of momentum, heat and freshwater. Resulting changes
of those control fields are largely consistent with accepted uncertainties in the hy-
drographic climatology and meteorological analyses. Our results show that the
assimilation procedure is able to correct for the traditional shortcomings of the 
flow field by changing the surface boundary conditions. Changes of the resulting 
flow field are predominantly on the gyre scale and affect many features which are often poorly simulated in traditional numerical simulations, such as the strengths of the Gulf Stream and its extension, the Azores Current and the anticyclonic circulation associated with the Labrador Sea.
A detailed test of the results and their consistency with prior error assumptions
shows that the constrained model has moved considerably closer to those observa-
tions which have been imposed as constraints, but also to independent data from
the World Ocean Circulation Experiment not used in the assimilation procedure. In
some regions where the comparisons remain indeterminate, not enough ocean observations are available. And in such situations, it is difficult to ascribe the residuals to either the model or the observations.
We conclude from this experiment that we can nd an acceptable solution to the
global time-dependent ocean state estimation problem. As the estimates improve
through the evolution of numerical models, computer power increases, and better
assimilation schemes, improved and routine estimates will become possible.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/214/1/Ecco_paper_1_rev.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0148-0227</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>The Global ocean circulation during 1992-1997, estimated from ocean observations and a general circulation model</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Stammer, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wunsch, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Giering, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Eckert, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Heimbach, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Adcroft, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hill, C.N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marshall, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Stammer, D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Wunsch, C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Giering, R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Eckert, C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Heimbach, P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Adcroft, A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hill, C.N.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marshall, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JC000888</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:217
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:217</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:54Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>66756C6C746578743D7075626C6963</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The application of satellite ocean colour data to the calibration of plankton
ecosystem models for large geographic domains, over which their ideal parameters cannot be assumed to be invariant, is investigated. A method is presented for seeking the number and geographic scope of parameter sets which allows the best fit to validation data to be achieved. These are independent data not used in the parameter estimation process. The goodness-of-fit of the optimally calibrated model to the validation data is an objective measure of merit for the model, together with its external forcing data. Importantly, this is a statistic which can be used for comparative evaluation of different models. The method makes use of observations from multiple locations, referred to as stations, distributed across the geographic domain. It relies on a technique for finding groups of stations which can be aggregated for parameter estimation purposes with minimal increase in the resulting misfit between model and observations.

The results of testing this split-domain calibration method for a simple zero dimensional model, using observations from 30 stations in the North Atlantic, are presented. The stations are divided into separate calibration and validation sets.
One year of ocean colour data from each station were used in conjunction with a
climatological estimate of the station’s annual nitrate maximum. The results
demonstrate the practical utility of the method and imply that an optimal fit of the model to the validation data would be given by two parameter sets. The corresponding division of the North Atlantic domain into two provinces allows a misfit-based cost to be achieved which is 25% lower than that for the single parameter set obtained using all of the calibration stations. In general, parameters are poorly constrained, contributing to a high degree of uncertainty in model output for unobserved variables. This suggests that limited progress towards a definitive model calibration can be made without including other types of observations.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/217/1/Hemmings_revised.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Marine Systems</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Split-domain calibration of an ecosystem model using satellite ocean colour data</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hemmings, J.C.P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Challenor, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fasham, M.J.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Hemmings, J.C.P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Challenor, P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Fasham, M.J.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2004.02.003</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:220
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:220</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:54Z</datestamp>
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      <setSpec>66756C6C746578743D7075626C6963</setSpec></header>
    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Both low mantle temperatures and conductive cooling have been suggested as the cause of the atypically thin oceanic crust and the incompatible element enrichment characteristic of very slow-spreading ridges. Here we present a model of melting under the Southwest Indian Ridge, which takes into account mantle temperature, conductive cooling, source composition and wet melting. The model parameters are constrained by oceanic crustal thickness, lava chemistry and isotopic composition and water content. The results suggest that conductive cooling to a depth of around 20 km, expected in areas with a full spreading rate of 15 mm/yr, is necessary to generate the Southwest Indian Ridge lava chemistry, but not that from faster spreading rate ridges at 23°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge or 45°N on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The mantle potential temperatures of ~1280°C, estimated for the Southwest Indian Ridge lavas are close to the global average of the upper mantle. Mantle water contents of 150-300 ppm can explain the observed melt water contents and allow sufficient melting at depth to explain the observed heavy rare earth element depletions in the melts. </dc:description><dc:format>application/zip</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/220/2/Robinson_figs_table_2001.zip</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Earth and Planetary Science Letters</dc:source><dc:subject>QE</dc:subject><dc:title>Low degree melting under the Southwest Indian Ridge: the roles of mantle temperature, conductive cooling and wet melting</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Robinson, C.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bickle, M.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Minshull, T.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>White, R.S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Nichols, A.R.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Robinson, C.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Bickle, M.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Minshull, T.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>White, R.S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Nichols, A.R.L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00329-6</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:223
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:223</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:55Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The paper reports on work in progress for a Department for Education and Skills (DfES) funded research project on “The Influence of the School in the Decision to Participate in Learning Post-16”.  The primary aim of the project is to identify the nature and influence of school-based factors in the choices of young people about their post-16 education, training and career pathways.  Twenty-four schools were selected to represent schools with rising attainment.  The sampling frame included schools both with and without sixth forms, in nine Metropolitan, Urban Unitary, and Shire County Local Education Authorities (LEAs)in Engaland.  A profile of schools whose ‘catchment’ areas represented different social and economic status was created using data on the number of pupils receiving free schools meals.  Schools with and schools without rising levels of participation post-16 were also included in the sample.  Pupils from Year 11 and Year 10 were interviewed in single sex focus groups providing a total of 48 pupils in each school.  Each pupil interviewed completed a questionnaire.  Year 11 pupils will also take part in follow up interviews planned for Autumn 2003 when they have left compulsory education. Semi-structured interviews were also carried out with head teachers, senior careers teachers and Year 11  tutors, LEA and local Connexions service representatives.  The study also analysed secondary data relating to each school to build a profile for the schools in terms of its social and economic context, ethos and organisation.  The secondary data included; inspection reports, DfeS and LEA published data for each school as well as school produced promotional material.  

The study identified the attitudes and preferences of the pupils, their teachers and advisors towards post-16 education and training.  The factors that influenced the pupils’, the teachers’ and advisors’ attitudes and preferences were identified and compared to those factors considered in previous research. The DfES commissioned the study to look specifically at the influence of the school rather than factors beyond the school, and aimed at contributing an understanding of the impact of schooling, thereby informing the policy development for widening participation post-16.  In addition to the investigation of school based factors that influence the choices young people make about post- 16 learning the study had two other aims:
To identify implications for the development of careers education and guidance and decision making awareness amongst pupils  in schools.
To enhance further the modelling of pupil decision-making in education and training markets, and in the labour markets. 

This paper considers some of the preliminary findings of the research, carried out in 2003.
</dc:description><dc:format>application/msword</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/223/1/NHF_BERA_PAPER_DfES_Project.doc</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Annual conference of the British Educational Research Association</dc:source><dc:subject>L1</dc:subject><dc:title>The influence of the school on the decision to participate in learning post 16</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Foskett, Nick</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dyke, Martin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Maringe, Felix</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Foskett, Nick</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Dyke, Martin</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Maringe, Felix</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:226
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:226</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:55Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The question of whether deep water formation might have occurred in subtropical latitudes in the early Cenozoic is examined through use of a global ocean model forced by mixed boundary conditions. Zonal mean surface temperatures and wind stresses are derived from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulation of the warm Paleocene/Eocene boundary interval (~55 Ma) and are held constant for a series of sensitivity tests. The control case for moisture flux (evaporation minus precipitation, E-P), also derived from the AGCM, is perturbed so that the subtropical evaporation increases and high latitude precipitation increases. A dramatic response is seen in the temperature and salinity structure of the model ocean, but the perturbation does not result in deep convection in subtropical latitudes. In all cases, bottom water is formed in the southern high latitudes and the global meridional overturning is characterized by a strongly asymmetric
circulation. No multiple equilibria have been found for any particular E-P configuration. In the most extreme case (5 x the control E-P), the model oscillates between meridional overturning circulation “on” and “off.” Shorter-lived thermohaline slowing and reinvigoration is observed as a transient response under less extreme E-P perturbations. Despite the high evaporation implied in the perturbation experiments, mean mixed layer salinities in the subtropics do not rise much above the control case due to efficient removal of salt (and heat) through deepened subduction beneath the subtropical gyres. The sensitivity of the results to the parameterization of continental runoff and the specified diapycnal mixing coefficient (Kv) are also examined. Distributing runoff purely zonally, rather than globally, has approximately the same effect as a 50% increase in the strength of the hydrologic cycle. Decreasing Kv to 0.3 cm2 s-1 from the standard value of 1.0 cm2
s-1 increases the sensitivity to an increased hydrologic cycle considerably, but in no case does low latitude deep water formation occur, indicating that subtropical bottom water formation is implausible in a model with some degree of realism. These experiments support changes in moisture flux as a mechanism for ocean warming (largely in the thermocline through intermediate water depths), but the process involved is deepened subtropical subduction and not subtropical deep
water formation.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/226/1/BM_JGR_revised.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Geophysical Research C (Oceans)</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Numerical evidence against reversed thermohaline circulation in the warm Paleocene/Eocene ocean</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bice, Karen L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marotzke, Jochem</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bice, Karen L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marotzke, Jochem</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:231
Date: 2016-03-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:231</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:55Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~55 Ma), marine and terrestrial carbon isotope values exhibit a negative shift of at least 2.5‰, indicative of massive destabilization of marine methane hydrates, releasing ~1100 gigatonnes of methane carbon. The cause of the hydrate destabilization is unknown but has been speculated to be warming due to a change from high-latitude to low-latitude deepwater formation. Here, we present results from a numerical ocean model indicating that a sudden switch of deepwater formation from southern to northern high latitudes caused mid-depth and deep-ocean warming of 3-5°C. The switch is caused by a slow increase in the intensity of the atmospheric hydrologic cycle, as expected under increasing temperatures and consistent with PETM sedimentary evidence. Deepened subduction prior to the thermohaline circulation switch causes warming of 1-4°C in limited areas at thermocline through upper intermediate depths, which could destabilize methane hydrates gradually and at progressively greater depths. The switch itself occurs abruptly, with up to 5°C warming resulting everywhere in the deep ocean.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/231/1/BICE_%26_MAROTZKE_paper_paleoce_figures.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0883-8305</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Could changing ocean circulation have destabilized methane hydrate at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary? </dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bice, K.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bice, K.L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001PA000678</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:243
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:243</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:56Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>RRS Charles Darwin Cruise 141, SCIPIO (Satellite Calibration and Interior Physics of the Indian Ocean) provided a multidisciplinary survey of the Mascarene Ridge system in the western Indian Ocean. The principal objectives were to (a) study the flow of water masses through the Ridge system, together with their decadal-timescale variability, (b) assess the energy fluxes and mixing arising from internal waves, (c) collect in situ data for the calibration of sea-surface temperature and ocean colour sensors on the ENVISAT satellite, (d) investigate the biogeochemical properties of the water masses, and (e) measure the heat fluxes and winds, and the airflow disturbance around the ship. &#13;
&#13;
The survey comprised three sections parallel with the Ridge near 64°, 60° and 57° E, joined by two other sections at 8° and 20°S. The sections comprised CTD, LADCP, and biogeochemistry (nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, biogenic gases, CFC tracers and light levels) stations to full ocean depth, at typical spacings of about 60-80 nm. &#13;
&#13;
At several of these the CTD and LADCP were cycled continuously for a semidiurnal tidal cycle to study the internal waves, and the smaller 12-bottle CTD frame was used throughout (usually with 6 bottles) in order to reduce mixing effects from the trailing wake.  Underway measurements were made with the shipboard ADCP, TSG, radiosondes, XBTs, and of surface meteorology, skin surface temperature, and zooplankton. &#13;
&#13;
The ship's EM12 swath bathymetry system was operated continuously, and used to study certain key areas in detail. In addition, MMP (a cycling CTD) and bottom-mounted ADCP moorings were successfully laid and recovered near 8°S, 60°E, and a first deployment of the ARGODOT turbulence probe was made near 20°S, 57.5°E.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/243/1/SOCCR041.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin Cruise 141, 01 Jun-11 Jul 2002. Satellite Calibration and Interior Physics of the Indian Ocean: SCIPIO</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>New, A.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>New, A.L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:244
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This report describes the seventh repeat hydrography section across Drake Passage, first established during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Thirty CTD/LADCP stations were carried out across the 753 km section from Burdwood Bank to Elephant Island, plus one test station, one station in Drake Passage to provide sound speed information for concurrent geophysical activities, and one station at the Rothera Time Series (RaTS) site, just off Biscoe Wharf at Rothera. Maximum station spacing on the&#13;
section was 33 km, with stations closer together on the continental shelves. Water samples were drawn for salinity analysis, for subsequent CTD conductivity  calibration. The LADCP was a new 2-instrument setup comprising upward– and downward–looking RD Instruments Workhorse ADCPs. The CTD was a SeaBird 911plus with dual temperature and conductivity sensors. Various underway measurements included navigation, vessel-mounted ADCP, sea surface temperature and salinity, water depth and meteorological parameters.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/244/1/soccr038.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS James Clark Ross Cruise 67, 19 Nov-17 Dec 2002. Drake Passage repeat  hydrography: WOCE Southern Repeat Section 1b – Burdwood Bank to Elephant Island</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bacon, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bacon, S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
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Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The FISHES 2001 cruise, RRS Discovery Cruise 253, was split into two legs. A large scale CTD survey of the Iceland Basin and Rockall Trough was carried out during the first and longer leg, 4 May – 21 May. The second leg, 1 June – 20 June, concentrated on repeated high resolution SeaSoar surveys of the Iceland Faeroes Front (IFF). A wide range of measurements were made alongside each scale of physical survey techniques used for the two legs of the cruise. These ranged from traditional biological sampling using net hauls to fast repetition fluorometric techniques for the underway determination of primary productivity parameters. Deck phytoplankton incubation experiments under controlled light environments involved both the usual measurements of N15 uptake and measurements of Si32 uptake. During the second leg of the cruise, a regional multi-disciplinary process model was used to forecast observations in near real-time.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/245/1/soccr037.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 253, 04 May-20 Jun 2001. Faeroes, Iceland, Scotland Hydrographic and Environmental Survey (FISHES)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:246
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This paper examines the implications for eddy parameterisations of expressing them in terms of the quasi-Stokes velocity. Another definition of low-passed time averaged mean density (the modified mean) must be used, which is the inversion of the mean depth of a given isopycnal. This definition naturally yields lighter (denser) fluid at the surface (floor) than the Eulerian mean, since fluid with these densities occasionally occurs at these locations. The difference between the two means is
second-order in perturbation amplitude, and so small, in the fluid interior (where formulae to connect the two exist). Near horizontal boundaries, the differences become first order, and so more severe. Existing formulae for quasi-Stokes velocities and streamfunction also break down here. It is shown that the low-passed time mean potential energy in a closed box is incorrectly computed from
modified mean density, the error term involving averaged quadratic variability.
The layer in which the largest differences occur between the two mean densities is the vertical excursion of a mean isopycnal across a deformation radius, at most about 20 m thick. Most climate models would have difficulty in resolving such a layer. We show here that extant parameterisations appear to reproduce the Eulerian, and not modified mean, density field and so do not yield a narrow
layer at surface and floor either. Both these features make the quasi-Stokes streamfunction appear to be non-zero right up to rigid boundaries. It is thus unclear whether more accurate results would be obtained by leaving the streamfunction non-zero on the boundary – which is smooth and resolvable – or by permitting a delta-function in the horizontal quasi-Stokes velocity by forcing the streamfunction to become zero exactly at the boundary (which it formally must be), but at the cost
of small and unresolvable features in the solution.

This paper then uses linear stability theory and diagnosed values from eddy-resolving models, to ask the question: if climate models cannot or do not resolve the difference between Eulerian and modified mean density, what are the relevant surface and floor quasi-Stokes streamfunction conditions, and what are their effects on the density fields? The linear Eady problem is used as a special case to investigate this, since terms can be explicitly computed. A variety of eddy parameterisations is employed for a channel problem, and the time-mean density is compared with that from an eddy-resolving calculation. Curiously, although most of the parameterisations employed are formally valid only in terms of the modified
density, they all reproduce only the Eulerian mean density successfully. This is despite the existence of (numerical) delta-functions near the surface. The parameterisations were only successful if the vertical component of the quasi-Stokes velocity was required to vanish at top and bottom. A simple  parameterisation of Eulerian density fluxes was, however, just as accurate and
avoids delta-function behaviour completely.
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/246/1/KILLWORTHboundaryconditions.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Physical Oceanography</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Boundary conditions on quasi-Stokes velocities in parameterisations
</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Killworth, P.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Killworth, P.D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:247
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:247</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:07:57Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>RRS Discovery Cruise 248 aimed to carry out a multidisciplinary study of the environment and ecology of deep-water coral ecosystems and associated seabed features in the northeast Atlantic. The study was primarily focused on the Darwin Mounds area, northern Rockall Trough (59° 49’N, 07° 22’W), but also examined a number of sites in the Porcupine Seabight area. The cruise was divided into two legs (Govan-Stornoway, 8 Jul-21 Jul 2000; Stornoway-Southampton, 22 Jul-10 Aug 2000). Leg 1 focused on the ecology of the Darwin Mounds area, with seabed photographic surveys (SOC SHRIMP system), coring (Box and Multiple cores) and trawling (Agassiz) forming the main activities. Leg 2 began with detailed geological investigations of the Darwin Mounds area, concentrating on piston coring and sidescan sonar surveys. Leg 2 concluded with combined ecological and geological studies of carbonate mound sites on the Porcupine Bank and in the Porcupine Seabight.&#13;
Observations in the Darwin Mounds area confirmed the common occurrence of deep-water corals on these Mounds. The mounds themselves do not appear to be carbonate formations but may be better characterised as sand volcanoes. Numerous xenophyophores were observed in association with the mounds; however, no live specimens were recovered in any of the samples collected. Sidescan sonar images and seabed photography both suggested that the Darwin Mounds area had been subject to considerable commercial trawling with resultant apparent damage to the deep-water coral ecosystems.&#13;
The various operations undertaken in the Porcupine Seabight area were also successful in imaging giant carbonate mounds and their associated coral communities with both sidescan sonar and seabed photography, and in recovering biological sample material from these areas. In common with the Darwin Mounds area, the observations made suggested that deep-water fishing impacts on coral ecosystems were also evident in this region.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/247/1/soccr036.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 248, 07 Jul-10 Aug 2000. A  multidisciplinary study of the environment and ecology of deep-water coral ecosystems and associated seabed facies and features (The Darwin Mounds, Porcupine Bank and Porcupine Seabight)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bett, B.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Billett, D.S.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Masson, D.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tyler, P.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bett, B.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Billett, D.S.M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Masson, D.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Tyler, P.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:249
Date: 2016-03-31

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predicting rapid changes in climate are discussed, with a specific focus on the role&#13;
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and modelling studies being carried out to meet these challenges, under the aegis of a new NERC Rapid Climate Change thematic programme (RAPID), are outlined.&#13;
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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:251
Date: 2016-03-31

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Date: 2016-03-31

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&#13;
Across the 644km section from Burdwood Bank to Elephant Island, thirty-one CTD/LADCP stations (including one test station) were made on the southbound journey with a maximum station spacing of 33km.  Water samples were drawn for salinity analysis and CTD conductivity calibration.  The underway measurements included: Vessel Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, measuring currents to depths of 300m beneath the ship, navigation, sea surface temperatures recorded by thermosalinograph, meteorology logged via the oceanlogger system and Simrad echo sounder determining water depths.  &#13;
&#13;
CTD station 32 was at the Rothera time series (RaTs) site just off Rothera Pier, carried out primarily for collected water samples for nutrient analysis back at SOC.On the northbound crossing of Drake Passage, to the west of the southbound section, an extra two full depth CTD/LADCP stations were made to test CTD DEEP03.  XBTs were deployed at two hourly intervals and underway data logged.  &#13;
&#13;
This report was compiled by Louise M. Duncan.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/252/1/soccr035.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS James Clark Ross  Cruise JR55, 21 Nov-14 Dec 2000. Drake Passage repeat hydrography: WOCE Southern Section 1b – Burdwood Bank to Elephant Island</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cunningham, S.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Cunningham, S.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:253
Date: 2016-03-31

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dominated by the downward mass transport of buoyant water versus the spread of denser water tied to the properties of deep convection, with mixing of minor importance. These results are in contrast to the widespread expectation that the observed enhanced abyssal mixing can maintain the MOC; rather, they suggest that enhanced boundary mixing in the thermocline needs to be identified in observations.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/253/1/SCOTT_%26_MARTOZKE_mixing_loc_JPO.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Physical Oceanography</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>The location of diapycnal mixing and the meridional overturning circulation</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Scott, Jeffery R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marotzke, Jochem</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Scott, Jeffery R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marotzke, Jochem</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:254
Date: 2016-03-31

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rainfall associated with weather systems approaching the UK from the Atlantic would be beneficial to weather forecasting, especially if assimilated into  atmospheric models. There is an additional, more subtle, effect involving the ocean itself. At sea, the balance between precipitation and evaporation provides a critical
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</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/254/1/Weather_Rain1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Weather</dc:source><dc:subject>QC</dc:subject><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title> Back to basics: measuring rainfall at sea. Part 1 - in situ sensors</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guymer, T.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Birch, K.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Guymer, T.H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Birch, K.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:255
Date: 2015-08-06

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Recent numerical experiments indicate that the rate of meridional overturning associated with North Atlantic Deep Water is controlled both by mixing and by windstress in the Southern Ocean, where the zonal periodicity of the domain alters the nature of the flow. We find a simple approximate expression for meridional overturning as a solution to Gnanadesikan's (1999) cubic scale relation. We compare the predicted overturning to coarse-resolution numerical experiments with an idealized Atlantic-Ocean/Southern Ocean geometry. The scaling accurately predicts the sensitivity to forcing for experiments with a level model employing isopycnal diffusion of temperature, salinity, and “layer thickness". A layer model produces similar results, increasing our confidence in the numerics of both models. Level model experiments with horizontal diffusivity have similar qualitative behavior but somewhat different sensitivity to forcing.&#13;
&#13;
We highlight the difference in meridional overturning induced by changes in windstress or vertical diffusivity. Wind-driven circulation anomalies outside the region of windstress perturbation include strongly cross-isopycnal flow near the surface and approximately along-isotherm flow in the thermocline. Overturning anomalies far from the windstress perturbations are not completely determined by windstress in the zonally-periodic Southern Ocean: windstress outside the periodic region strongly influences the transport of heat across the equator primarily by changing the temperature of the flow across the equator. Most of the total meridional heat transport across the basin can be decomposed into contributions due to the westerlies, easterlies, and vertical diffusivity; here we show how the westerlies contribution is related to the surface temperature profile.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/255/1/KLINGER_.MARTOZKE_JPO__S_2001.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1520-0485</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Sensitivity of basin-wide meridional overturning to diapycnal diffusion and remote wind forcing in an idealized Atlantic-Southern Ocean geometry</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Klinger, Barry A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Drijfhout, Sybren</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marotzke, Jochem</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Scott, Jeffery R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Klinger, Barry A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Drijfhout, Sybren</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marotzke, Jochem</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Scott, Jeffery R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033&lt;0249:SOBMOT&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:256
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) can be very quiet platforms from which to make observations of marine living resources. With few moving parts and very low propulsion power they should have a very low underwater radiated noise signature. The purpose of this paper is to describe measurements on Autosub to test this assumption. The measured noise level and spectrum are compared to the ICES proposal for the radiated noise of fisheries research vessels. Integrated over the band 100 Hz to 5000 Hz the AUV source level, at 124 dB relative to 1mPa at 1 m, was about 39 dB below of the ICES specification and about 30 dB quieter than the noise-reduced vessel "Scotia". Autosub is in fact exceedingly quiet. The difficulties of making measurements of the underwater radiated noise of a quiet submerged vehicle are discussed and suggestions are made for improvements in techniques.</dc:description><dc:format>application/msword</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/256/1/GRIFFITHS_AUV_Noise_final.doc</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>1054-3139</dc:source><dc:subject>VM</dc:subject><dc:title>On the radiated noise of the Autosub autonomous underwater vehicle</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Griffiths, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Enoch, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Millard, N.W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Griffiths, G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Enoch, P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Millard, N.W.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2001.1120</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:265
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We demonstrate for the first time the detectability of mid-latitude Rossby waves in global ocean colour data from the Japanese Ocean Colour and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and U.S. Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) radiometers. By producing longitude-time plots of the merged OCTS and SeaWiFS datasets we observe at some latitudes westward propagating signals. Their signature is much weaker than the annual phytoplankton cycle, but can be highlighted by filtering the plots. The main propagating speed is estimated with the Radon Transform and increases equatorward, as expected for Rossby waves. A comparison with both speeds derived from altimeter data and the zonal mean of the speed predicted by a recent theory of Rossby wave propagation shows a broad agreement. We conclude that Rossby waves are sometimes observable in the ocean colour field and thus have some effects on biology, and we suggest two simple hypotheses for the underlying interaction mechanism</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/265/1/Cipollini.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0094 8276</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Rossby waves detected in global ocean colour data</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cipollini, Paolo</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cromwell, David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Challenor, Peter G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Raffaglio, Stefano</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Cipollini, Paolo</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Cromwell, David</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Challenor, Peter G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Raffaglio, Stefano</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-01-15</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1999GL011231</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:266
Date: 2016-03-31

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motion in the perturbation deep cell is concentrated near the equator. The upward penetration of this cell is limited by the thermocline, analogous to the role of the stratosphere in limiting the upward penetration of convective plumes in the atmosphere. The magnitude of the advective response is inversely proportional to the deep stratification; with a weaker background meridional overturning circulation and a less stratified abyss, the overturning maximum of the perturbation deep cell is increased. This advective response also cools the low-latitude thermocline. The qualitative behavior is similar in both a single hemisphere and double hemisphere configuration.&#13;
The anomalous circulation driven by geothermal fluxes is more substantial than previously thought. We are able to understand the structure and strength of the response in the idealized geometry and further extend these ideas to explain the results of Adcroft et al. [2001], where the impact of geothermal heating was examined using a global configuration.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/266/1/geotherm_JGR_new.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Geothermal Heating and its Influence on the Meridional Overturning Circulation</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Scott, J.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Adcroft, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Scott, J.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Adcroft, A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000JC000532</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:267
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:267</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:02Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The rectified eddy heat transport is calculated from a global highresolution
ocean general circulation model. The eddy heat transport is found to be
strong in the western boundary currents, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and
the equatorial region. It is generally weak in the central gyres. It is also found to
be largely confined to the upper 1000 meters of the ocean model. The eddy heat
transport is separated into its rotational and divergent components. The rotational
component of the eddy heat transport is strong in the western boundary currents,
while the divergent component is strongest in the equatorial region and Antarctic
Circumpolar Current. In the equatorial region, the eddy heat transport is due to
tropical instability waves, while in the western boundary currents and the Antarctic
Circumpolar Current the large eddy heat transports arise from the meandering of
the currents. Stammer’s method for estimating the eddy heat transport from an
eddy diffusivity derived from mixing length arguments, using altimetry data and
the climatological temperature field, is tested and fails to reproduce the model’s
directly evaluated eddy heat transport in the equatorial regions and the western
boundary currents. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are explored. However,
in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current region, the model’s eddy heat transport is
shown to agree well with his estimate.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/267/1/JM_eddy.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Physical Oceanography</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>The Oceanic Eddy Heat Transport</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Jayne, S.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Jayne, S.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Marotzke, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:270
Date: 2016-03-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:270</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:02Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The behaviours of three high-resolution ocean circulation models of the North Atlantic, differing chiefly in their description of the vertical coordinate, are investigated in order to elucidate the routes and mechanisms by which saline water masses of southern origin provide inflows to the Nordic Seas. An existing hypothesis is that Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) is carried polewards in an eastern boundary undercurrent, and provides a deep source for these inflows. This study, however, provides an alternative view that the inflows are derived from shallow sources, and are comprised of water masses of western origin, carried by branches of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and also more saline Eastern North Atlantic Water (ENAW), transported northwards from the Bay of Biscay region via a ‘Shelf Edge Current’ (SEC) flowing around the continental margins. In two of the models, the MOW flows northwards, but reaches only as far as the Porcupine Bank&#13;
(53°N). In third model, the MOW also invades the Rockall Trough (extending to 60°N). However, none of the models allows the MOW to flow northwards into the Nordic Seas. Instead, they all support the hyporthesis of there being shallow pathways, and that the saline inflows to the Nordic Seas result from NAC-derived&#13;
and ENAW water masses, which meet and partially mix in the Rockall Trough. Volume and salinity transports into the southern Rockall Trough via the SEC are, in the various models, between 25 and 100% of those imported by the NAC, and are also a similarly significant proportion (20–75%) of the transports into the&#13;
Nordic Seas. Moreover, the highest salinities are carried northwards by the SEC (these being between 0.13 and 0.19 psu more saline at the southern entrance to the Trough than those in the NAC-derived waters). This reveals for the first time the importance of the SEC in carrying saline water masses through the Rockall&#13;
Trough and into the Nordic Seas. Furthermore, the high salinities found on density surfaces appropriate to the MOW in the Nordic Seas are shown to result from the wintertime mixing of the saline near-surface waters advected northwards by the SEC/NAC system. Throughout, we have attempted to demonstrate the&#13;
extent to which the models agree or disagree with interpretations derived from observations, so that the study also contributes to an ongoing community effort to assess the realism of our current generation of ocean models. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/270/1/NEW_esc.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>00796611</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>On the origin and pathway of the saline inflow to the Nordic Seas: insights from models</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>New, A.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barnard, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Herrmann, P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Molines, J.-M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>New, A.L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Barnard, S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Herrmann, P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Molines, J.-M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00007-6</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:271
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:271</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:03Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>A systematic intercomparison of three realistic eddy-permitting models of the North Atlantic circulation has been performed. The models use different concepts for the discretization of the vertical coordinate, namely geopotential levels, isopycnal layers, terrain-following (sigma) coordinates, respectively. Although these models were integrated under nearly identical conditions, the resulting large-scale model circulations show substantial differences. The results demonstrate that the large-scale thermohaline circulation is very sensitive to the model representation of certain localised processes, in particular to the amount and water
mass properties of the overflow across the Greenland-Scotland region, to the amount of mixing within a few hundred kilometers south of the sills, and to several other processes at small or sub-grid scales. The different behaviour of the three models can to a large extent be explained as a consequence of the different
model representation of these processes. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/271/1/NEW_overview.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0079-6611</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Circulation characteristics in three eddy-permitting models of the North Atlantic</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Willebrand, Jürgen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barnier, Bernard</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Böning, Claus</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Dieterich, Christian</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Killworth, Peter D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Le Provost, Christian</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Jia, Yanli</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Molines, Jean-Marc</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>New, Adrian L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Willebrand, Jürgen</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Barnier, Bernard</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Böning, Claus</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Dieterich, Christian</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Killworth, Peter D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Le Provost, Christian</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Jia, Yanli</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Molines, Jean-Marc</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>New, Adrian L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00003-9</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:272
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:272</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:03Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>An investigation is made of the circulation and structure of the water masses in the Rockall Trough in spring, combining the results of a recent synoptic survey (May 1998) with those from a high-resolution ocean circulation model. In the near-surface layer, saline ?ows are carried northwards by a ‘‘Shelf Edge Current’’ around the eastern slopes, possibly with some branching in the northern Trough. Fresher waters from the west in?ow between 52 and 538Nand partially mix with these saline ?ows in the southern Trough, so that waters of intermediate salinity are also swept northwards. In the southern approaches to the Trough, Labrador Sea Water (LSW) also ?ows strongly in from the west between 52 and 538N, and while much of this turns south, a proportion penetrates north to join a cyclonic gyre in the Trough extending to 56.58N. The northwestern limb of this gyre is fed by, and mixes with, more saline waters which result from over?ows across the Wyville–Thomson Ridge. Furthermore, salinity and CFC data suggest episodic in?ow of LSW into the central Trough. The circulation of the North East Atlantic Deep Water in the Trough follows a cyclonic pattern similar to, and lying below, that of the LSW. The Wyville–Thomson Ridge over?ows in the model extend to higher densities than in the survey, are topographically steered southwestward down the Feni Ridge system, and eventually join a deep cyclonic circulation in the North East Atlantic basin. Overall, the model and the observations are in good agreement, particularly in the central Rockall Trough, and this has allowed conclusions to be drawn which are significantly more robust than those which would result from either the survey or the model alone. In particular, we have been able to infer cyclonic circulation pathways for the intermediate and deeper waters in the Rockall Trough for (we believe) the first time. The study has also contributed to an ongoing community effort to assess the realism of, and improve, our current generation of ocean circulation models.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/272/1/NEW_rtproofs.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0278-4343</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Aspects of the circulation in the Rockall Trough</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>New, A.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Smythe-Wright, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>New, A.L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Smythe-Wright, D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00113-8</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:273
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:273</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:03Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The retroflections of the East Madagascar Current and Agulhas Current are complex rapidly-evolving systems, the latter controlling the passage of warm salty water from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) provides frequent observations of sea surface temperature through clouds,
allowing us to monitor the evolution of these systems. We develop a simple feature-tracking system that obviates the need for user intervention, and use its results to guide more focussed studies. In the period 1997-1999, we observe westward progradation of the Agulhas Retroflection (associated with ring shedding)
about eight times per year, agreeing with previous estimates from infra-red data, and many rings moving westward or north-westward. However, this behaviour is seen to change in the 2000-2001 time period, with the Agulhas Retroflection occurring further to the east. A few Natal pulses are seen, but cannot be linked
conclusively to the spawning of rings due to TMI's limited latitudinal coverage. The majority of features originating at the East Madagascar Retroflection appear to migrate southwestwards. A new observation from the data is that, although the first northward meander of the Agulhas Return Current is constrained by bathymetry, its position does vary intermittently, remaining fixed in a given location for up to six months at a time. Southward propagation of features is noted along two ridges: although eddies have been found before along the eastern slope of the Mozambique Ridge, the new results for the Madagascar Ridge indicate
an extra pathway for the eddies. Eddy-like features are also found leading from the Agulhas Return Current back toward the Agulhas Current. The narrow 'corridor' of these features suggests that it is controlled by the gyre recirculation in the southwest Indian Ocean.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/273/1/QUARTLY_%26_SROKOSZ_JPO_revision.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Physical Oceanography</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>SST Observations of the Agulhas and East Madagascar Retroflections by the TRMM Microwave Imager</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-09-25</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032&lt;1585:SOOTAA&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:275
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:04Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/275/1/Rain_pt2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Weather</dc:source><dc:subject>QC</dc:subject><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Back to basics: measuring rainfall at sea. Part 2 - space-borne sensors</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guymer, T.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Guymer, T.H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:278
Date: 2016-03-31

RIOXX

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:280
Date: 2016-03-31

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:283
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:06Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We present results of the optimization of near-real time on-board sampling strategy in the Iceland-Faroes oceanic frontal area, based on the outputs of a mesoscale 3D
operational data assimilation forecasting experiment. By minimizing a root mean square error cost function, we show that in this example an along-front sampling strategy, i.e. with transects parallel to the front, produces smaller errors
in temperature, salinity, nitrate, phytoplankton, and zooplankton fields, as a result of a combination of the direction of the sampling of the front and errors associated
with the asynopticy of observations (Doppler effect). This is contrary to the classic across-front sampling strategies that are used in most field experiments reported in the literature, i.e. where transects are perpendicular to the front. A control model shows that at these spatio-temporal scales, the along front sampling strategy is optimal when the frontal instability has sufficiently developed.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/283/1/Rixen_GRL.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0094-8276</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Along or across front survey strategy? An operational example at an unstable front.</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Rixen, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Alderson, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Cornell, V.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Crisp, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fielding, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Mustard, A.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pollard, R.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Popova, E.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Smeed, D.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Barth, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Beckers, J-M,</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Rixen, M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Alderson, S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Cornell, V.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Crisp, N.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Fielding, S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Mustard, A.T.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Pollard, R.T.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Popova, E.E.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Smeed, D.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Barth, A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Beckers, J-M,</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-01-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015341</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:284
Date: 2015-10-07

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:284</identifier>
      <datestamp>2015-10-07T13:43:38Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>It is usually discovered in the data collection phase of a survey that some units in the sample are ineligible even if the frame information has indicated otherwise. For example, in many business surveys a nonnegligible proportion of the sampled units will have ceased trading since the latest update of the frame. This information may be fed back to the frame and used in subsequent surveys, thereby making forthcoming samples more efficient by avoiding sampling nonnegligible units. We investigate what effect on survey estimation the process of feeding back information on ineligibility may have, and derive an expression for the bias that can occur as a result of feeding back. The focus is on estimation of the total using the common expansion estimator. We obtain an estimator that is nearly unbiased in the presence of feed back. This estimator relies on consistent estimates of the number of eligible and ineligible units in the population being available.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/284/1/284-01.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute</dc:publisher><dc:subject>HA</dc:subject><dc:title>Feeding back Information on Ineligibility from Sample Surveys to the Frame</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hedlin, Dan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wang, Suojin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Hedlin, Dan</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Wang, Suojin</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:285
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:285</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:06Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Asymptotic multivariate normal approximations to the joint distributions of edge exclusion test statistics for saturated graphical Gaussian models are derived. Non-signed and signed square-root versions of the likelihood ratio, Wald and score test statistics are considered. Non-central chi-squared approximations are also considered for the non-signed versions. These approximations are used to estimate the power of edge exclusion tests and an example is presented.&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/285/1/285-01.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute</dc:publisher><dc:subject>HA</dc:subject><dc:title>Power of edge exclusion tests in graphical gaussian models</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Salguiero, Fatima</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Smith, Peter</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McDonald, John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Salguiero, Fatima</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Smith, Peter</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>McDonald, John</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:286
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:07Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This report describes the eighth repeat hydrography section across Drake Passage, first established during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Thirty CTD/LADCP stations were carried out across the 753 km section from Elephant Island to Burdwood Bank, plus one test station and one station at the Rothera Time Series (RaTS) site, just off Biscoe Wharf at Rothera.  Maximum station spacing on the&#13;
section was 33 km, with stations closer together on the continental shelves.  Water samples were drawn for salinity analysis, for subsequent CTD conductivity calibration.  Samples were also drawn for analysis of oxygen isotope fraction ?18O, for later analysis back at Southampton Oceanography Centre.   The LADCP comprised a single downward-looking RD Instruments Workhorse ADCP.  The CTD was a SeaBird 911plus with dual conductivity and temperature sensors.  Various underway measurements included navigation, vessel-mounted ADCP, sea surface temperature and salinity, water depth and meteorological parameters.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/286/1/SOCCR043.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS James Clark Ross Cruise 81, 18 Dec 2002-02 Jan 2003. Drake Passage repeat hydrography: WOCE Southern Repeat Section 1b – Elephant Island to Burdwood Bank</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bacon, S</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bacon, S</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:287
Date: 2016-03-31

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&#13;
1. The Setubal Canyon, between 38° to 38° 20’N on the continental margin. Here it was&#13;
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&#13;
2. The Nazarre Canyon, between 39° 30’ and 40°N on the continental margin. The survey plan was similar to that for Setubal Canyon, but with two parallel swaths over the lower reaches of the canyon, where it broadens into a 10 km wide channel crossing the continental rise.&#13;
&#13;
3. The Prestige tanker wreck site, at 42°N, 12°W, on the west flank of Galicia Bank, off&#13;
northwest Spain. Here the aim was to investigate the stability of the slope where the&#13;
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&#13;
Although some time was lost to bad weather and equipment problems, excellent TOBI images were obtained over all three of the areas studied during Pelagia cruise 219. The cruise objectives were fully completed in areas 1 and 3, and about 60% of the expected area was surveyed in area 2, where almost three days were lost to bad weather.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/287/1/SOCCR046.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RV Pelagia Cruise 64PE219, 05 Nov – 24 Nov 2003. TOBI surveys of Setubal and Nazarre Canyons and of the MV Prestige wreck site, west of Iberia</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Masson, D.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Masson, D.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:288
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This was the third cruise using the new SOC giant piston corer.  The objectives were to complete the testing of the giant piston corer which was begun on cruise D219 in November/December 1995 and cruise D225 in February/March 1997, and to collect giant piston cores from the Gulf of Cadiz on sites selected from the TOBI survey carried out on cruise D244 in December 1999.  As on previous cruises we had problems with both the ships equipment (outboard sheave on coring gantry), and the giant piston corer.  The sheave problem necessitated 2.5 days in port plus transit time.  This combined with some weather downtime severely limited the amount of work which could be carried out.  Nevertheless, we resolved some coring issues, especially proving that elastic rebound of the kevlar is not a major problem.  We also managed to take a consistent series of good cores with a 15 metre barrel, and although all the 27 metre barrel cores bent, the bending took place above the sediment surface leaving a good quality core below.  The longest core recovered was 18.1 metres and 21 cores were obtained in all.  The cruise also involved testing the scatterometer.  This proved to be a failure due to multiple electronic problems and no data was recorded in any of its two deployments.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/288/1/SOCCR034.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 249, 19 Aug-10 Sep 2000. History of sedimentation in the Gulf of Cadiz: investigations with the SOC giant piston corer</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Weaver, P.P.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Weaver, P.P.E.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:289
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:289</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:07Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This report describes RRS James Clark Ross Cruise 44, called CATS-MIAOW (Circulation And Thermohaline Structure - Mixing, Ice And Ocean Weather).  It was funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council as part of its Arctic Ice and Climate Variability (ARCICE) Thematic Research Programme.  The cruise supported projects in hydrography, meteorology and geophysics.  The cruise divided into two parts, one hydrographic and one meteorological.  The hydrographic work comprised sections under ERS-2 satellite overpasses: two long sections with CTD and lowered ADCP, from Norway to Greenland and from Svalbard to Iceland; and a shorter section across northern Denmark Strait, which was repeated.  There was also a near-zonal section in Fram Strait.  Bottle samples were taken throughout for salinity, dissolved oxygen and SF6.&#13;
&#13;
The meteorological work took place in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) during a 10 day period in the middle of the cruise.  While in the MIZ atmospheric profiles were obtained using GPS radiosondes and a tethered balloon system.  The AUTOFLUX ship mounted surface fluxes system was also used to measure the surface fluxes of heat, momentum and moisture in addition to the usual mean meteorological variables.  A suite of short-wave and long-wave sensors were also employed to measure both up- and down-welling radiation.  The AUTOFLUX system operated throughout the cruise, providing surface flux and mean meteorological data in support of the hydrographic work.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/289/1/SOCCR033.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS James Clark Ross  Cruise 44, 23 Jul-31 Aug 1999. Circulation And Thermohaline Structure -  Mixing, Ice And Ocean Weather: CATS-MIAOW</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bacon, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Yelland, M.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bacon, S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Yelland, M.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:290
Date: 2016-03-31

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:290</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:08Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This report describes the work undertaken on the AutoFlux system by SOC staff on the RRS James Clark Ross during the UK to Falklands passage between 11 September and 17 October 2000.  This work coincided with the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) 11 cruise (JR52) which ended on 11 October 2000, and is described elsewhere (Woodward, 2000).  The SOC presence on the ship was sponsored by John King (BAS) as part of his Q3 (Antarctic Climate Processes) science program.&#13;
&#13;
The aim of the cruise was to test and develop the AutoFlux air-sea interaction system and its associated prototype instrumentation.  The system is intended to provide real-time air-sea fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat and CO2, in addition to the usual mean meteorological parameters.  The fluxes are calculated via the ‘inertial dissipation’ method (Yelland et al., 1998), using data from various fast-response instruments.  Most of the instruments used in the system have been well proved during SOC research cruises over the last 10 years or more, but the dedicated sonic temperature sensor and the infra-red H2O/CO2 sensor are prototype instruments developed by colleagues involved in the AutoFlux project (MAST project MAS3-CT97-0108).  Likewise, the logging and processing system is itself based on software systems which have been developed at SOC/IOS since the 1980s, but many aspects of the system are new and were tested and developed further during the cruise.  By the fourth week of the cruise the system was automatically producing hourly direct measurements of the air-sea fluxes and was sending summary messages of the data back to SOC via the ORBCOMM satellite communications system in near real time.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/290/1/SOCCR032.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS James Clark Ross  Cruise 52, 11 Sep-17 Oct 2000. AutoFlux trials cruise, UK to Falklands passage</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Yelland, M.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pascal, R.W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Yelland, M.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Pascal, R.W.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:291
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:291</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:09Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The objective of this cruise was to test a variety of oceanographic instruments under realistic field conditions. These instruments included:-  USBL acoustic navigation system; Inverted acoustic navigation system; SHRIMP deep-towed camera system using fibre optic tow cable; Scatterometer profilerChirp profiler; CLAM cable monitoring system; Autoflux meteorological measuring system; UV nitrate sensor; Fibre optic pressure and temperature sensor string; SUMOSS hyperspectral spectrometer system&#13;
&#13;
Most of these instruments require a water depth of several thousand metres for normal use and this dictated the choice of work area. The Porcupine Abyssal Plain is the nearest place to Southampton offering these conditions.&#13;
&#13;
All the instruments apart from SHRIMP and the scatterometer produced useful test results demonstrating the advantages of this type of cruise. Those instruments that were not successfully tested were handicapped by a lack of preparation that was aggravated by the cruise taking place earlier than initially requested.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/291/1/soccr031.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin  Cruise 121, 20 Apr-4 May 2000. Ocean Engineering Division instrument trials cruise over the Goban Spur, Pendragon Escarpment and Porcupine Abyssal Plain</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Campbell, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Campbell, J.M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:292
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:10Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>RRS Challenger Cruise 142 aimed to study 1) long-term change in abyssal benthic communities (4850m, Porcupine Abyssal Plain) and 2) coral communities on carbonate mounds (c. 800m, Porcupine Seabight).&#13;
&#13;
Sampling on the first leg was focussed at a central locality 48°50’N, 16°30’W) on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain.  This locality had been sampled on 9 separate cruises over a 9-year period (1989-1998).  A radical change in the composition of the benthic fauna had occurred in recent years and this cruise aimed to follow further long-term change in the benthic fauna and sediment biogeochemistry.  In addition, in order to set the results from this central locality in a basin-wide context, further sampling was undertaken across the Porcupine Abyssal Plain.&#13;
&#13;
Sampling on the second leg concentrated on the giant carbonate mounds discovered in recent years on the eastern and northern flanks of the Porcupine Seabight.  The mounds had well-developed coral communities.  Samples and video of the coral were collected.  Other seabed features also noted in sidescan sonar records on previous cruises were imaged as well.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/292/1/soccr030.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Challenger  Cruise 142, 19 Apr-19 May 1999.  Temporal and spatial variability of benthic communities on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain and in the Porcupine Seabight</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Billett, D.S.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Billett, D.S.M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:293
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:293</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:10Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>A modern hydrographic section was made across the Indian Ocean at a latitude of about 32°S during a 46-day voyage from Durban to Fremantle aboard RRS Charles Darwin in March-April 2002.  The principal goal of this work was to measure the flows of mass, heat, freshwater, inorganic and organic nutrients, and carbon dioxide across the southern boundary of the Indian Ocean in order to determine the meridional overturning circulation for the Indian Ocean, to define the heat, freshwater, nutrient&#13;
and carbon transports across 32°S, and to produce overall physical and  biogeochemical budgets for the Indian Ocean.  A second goal was to examine the climate variability in ocean circulation from comparisons of these new measurements with previous surveys in 1936, 1965, 1987 and 1995.  A total of 146 hydrographic stations were made along this transoceanic section.  At each station an instrument package consisting principally of a CTD, 3 Lowered ADCP's and 24 10-litre sampling bottles was lowered from the surface down to the ocean bottom to measure temperature, salinity, oxygen and eastward and northward current profiles throughout the water column.  On the way back to the surface, 24 water samples were collected at various depths and these samples were analysed on board ship for salinity and oxygen (to calibrate the continuous electronic profiles), for inorganic&#13;
nutrients, constituents of the carbon system, and chlorofluorocarbons.  Samples were also collected and stored for later, shore-based analyses of helium, tritium, and organic nutrients.  Throughout the cruise velocity data in the upper few hundred meters of the water column were provided by an ADCP mounted in the ship's hull, meteorological variables were monitored and samples of air and rainfall were periodically collected.  In addition, 25 Argo floats were launched along the section to provide continuing profiles over the next 5 years.  This report describes the methods used to acquire and process the measurements on board ship during the cruise.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/293/1/SOCCR045.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin Cruise 139, 01 Mar-15 Apr 2002. Trans-Indian Hydrographic Section across 32°S</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bryden, H.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bryden, H.L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:294
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:294</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:10Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The report describes the RRS Discovery Cruise 245, designed as a repeat of the hydrographic section that includes the Ellett line from Scotland to Rockall, and the SOC extension to Iceland.&#13;
&#13;
The section consisted of stations for CTD, LADCP, chemistry (nutrients, oxygen) and biology (chlorophyll).  Continuous measurements of high precision position and heading navigation data were made, also of surface currents (VM-ADCP), depth, surface temperature and salinity, surface nutrients and high-quality meteorological measurements.  The cruise objectives also included recovering two deep ocean and two shelf current meter moorings, and collecting shallow sediment cores in the Muck Deep, a shelf depression.  The cruise was severely hit by bad weather and as a consequence not all the scientific objectives were achieved.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/294/1/soccr029.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery  Cruise 245, 27 Jan-20 Feb 2000. A hydrographic section from Scotland to Iceland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Holliday, N.P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Griffiths, C.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Holliday, N.P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Griffiths, C.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:295
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This report describes RRS Discovery cruise 242 from 07 September to 06 October 1999.  The cruise title is Atlantic - Norwegian Exchanges.  There are two distinct parts to this experiment with closely related objectives.  The first is to measure the pathways and flux of warm, upper ocean water northward through the Iceland Basin and Rockall Trough to high latitudes.  The second is to measure the returning flux of cold, deep water that flows through the Faroe Bank Channel into the North Atlantic.  A full depth hydrographic section was occupied between Scotland and Iceland, repeating the frequently occupied Rockall Trough section (occupied 36 times between March 1975 and January 1996) and it's recent extension from Rockall to Iceland (occupied in 1997, 1998 and now in 1999).  A second section was occupied from southeast Iceland to Lousy Bank (occupied in 1962,1990 and 1996).  These two sections comprised CTD/LADCP stations with discrete vertical samples for salinity, oxygen, silicate, nitrate and phosphate.  Horizontal station spacing was ~30 km in the Iceland Basin but much closer over steep bathymetry and in the Rockall Trough.  Ancilliary measurements of transmittence and reversing temperature and salinity were also made.  Shipbourne observations were made throughout the cruise and comprised ADCP, navigation, meteorology, waves, echosounding and surface temperature and salinity.  These two sections were designed to measure the pathways of the northward flow through the Iceland Basin and Rockall Trough.  Differences to earlier occupations will show the time variability of these flows.  In the Faroe Bank Channel and on the Iceland Ridge eight sections were occupied (some repeats) to examine the cold outflow into the North Atlantic.  These sections were made in the Faroe Bank Channel and downstream of the sill, at a horizontal separation of between 15 km and 40 km.  Five of these were standard CTD/LADCP sections with chemistry observations.  Three sections were also occupied using the BRIDGET deep tow vehicle.  This vehicle carried a CTD and 12 bottle rosette for water samples as well as some auxiliary sensors.  The key novelty was the mounting of self-contained downward and upward looking ADCP's.  BRIDGET was towed at 100 m off bottom giving cross-stream measurements at high resolution of the velocity structure of the overflow.  These sections were taken in and just downstream from the Faroe Bank Channel sill.  We will examine the initial adjustment of the overflow and with contemporaneous observations made in the Faroe Shetland (Fisheries Research Services, Aberdeen) the role of hydraulic control at the Faroe Bank Channel sill.  The two sections in the Iceland Basin cross the overflow 360 km and 660 km downstream from the source defining the far field location and properties of the overflow.  A short section of XBT observations was made along the Wyville-Thomson Ridge to measure the temperature at two saddle points where it is occasionally observed that cold Faroe Bank Channel water passes into the Rockall Trough.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/295/1/soccr028.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery  Cruise 242, 07 Sep-06 Oct 1999.  Atlantic - Norwegian Exchanges</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cunningham, S.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Cunningham, S.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:296
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:11Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The principal objective of the cruise was to test, verify and trial a range of oceanographic instruments developed within SOC in a deep water, free field environment not possible in a land-based laboratory. The instruments included:&#13;
&#13;
1. Mini Profiler Vehicle (MPV); 2. SUMOSS optical spectrometer; 3. A profiling CTD mooring system; 4. A new design of cable fairing for the SeaSoar vehicle; 5. SHRIMP video and camera vehicle'; 6. Scatterometer profiler system; 7. Deep water stills camera&#13;
&#13;
The work area - in the vicinity of the Goban Spur and the Porcupine Abyssal Plain - was chosen with care so as to give a wide range of terrain and water depths, from the continental shelf to abyssal plain, to suit the various instruments testing requirements within a small area.&#13;
&#13;
During the cruise, as well as the deep-water instrument and vehicle trials, there were also elements of training new staff and the development of safe working and handling practices.&#13;
&#13;
This cruise demonstrated the huge advantages of being able to test equipment in a deep-water environment. All the instruments deployed benefited from the results obtained, whether they highlighted unknown problems or confirmed theoretical designs. The cruise also highlighted that trials of this kind rapidly accelerate the speed of development of both equipment and instrumentation and are almost a necessity for new designs prior to their being used in anger on scientific cruises.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/296/1/soccr027.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery  Cruise 240, 11 May-28 May 1999. Ocean Technology Division instrument trials cruise over the Goban Spur, Pendragon Escarpment and Porcupine Abyssal Plain</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Rouse, I.P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Rouse, I.P.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:297
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:11Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The three principal objectives for RRS Discovery Cruise 232 were to carry out mooring operations associated with long-term monitoring of the exchange between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar, to study nonlinear processes resulting from the strong currents in the Strait with new instrumentation uniquely available on RRS Discovery, and to measure biogeochemical fluxes associated with the upper layer inflow of Atlantic water and the lower layer outflow of Mediterranean water through the Strait.&#13;
&#13;
Eleven moorings deployed by scientists from Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC), University of Malaga (UM), and Institut fur Meereskunde (IFM) in Kiel, who are cooperating in a two-year monitoring of the exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar using moored current meters under a multi-disciplinary CEC targeted programme called CANIGO, were scheduled for recovery during the cruise.  Eight moorings were successfully recovered: two moorings were pre-released due to an error by an American collaborator and one mooring remains entangled with its anchor at the sill.&#13;
&#13;
The principal nonlinear process studied was the development of a bore on the outgoing tide near the sill, its release as the tide turns, and its conversion into a nonlinear wave train as it propagates eastward into the Mediterranean.  Dramatic signatures of 100m amplitude internal waves were measured by acoustic backscatter using EK500 underway profiling.  Robust evidence for the waves was simultaneously derived from current profiles measured by the shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), not only from the horizontal velocity but also from the directly measured vertical velocity, and from tow-yo CTD profiles up and down through the interfacial region between Atlantic and Mediterranean waters.&#13;
&#13;
From hydrographic sections across the eastern and western entrances to the Strait of Gibraltar, we aimed to measure the biogeochemical fluxes through the Strait.  Water samples analysed for oxygen, nutrients, chlorofluorocarbons, trace metals and dissolved organic carbon are to be combined with CTD and lowered ADCP velocity profiles to determine the fluxes directly.  Such flux calculations represent a challenging sampling and analysis problem due to the tidal variations in the inflow and outflow currents as well as in the depth of the interface between the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/297/1/soccr026.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery  Cruise 232, 04 Apr-21 Apr 1998.  Gibraltar exchange processes</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bryden, H.L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bryden, H.L.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:298
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:298</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:12Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This cruise formed part of the Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey (AMES) 1998.  The primary objective of the cruise was to carry out a large-scale seabed sampling survey of six areas of continental slope variously located north and west of Shetland and west of the Hebrides.  In total over 100 seabed stations were sampled using either megacorer, box corer or Day grab, generating samples for the subsequent analysis of macrobenthos, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, particle size, total organic carbon and nitrogen and geology.  Additional survey operations included photographic observation of the seafloor using still and video cameras mounted on the SOC WASP and epibenthic sledge vehicles and limited sampling with a gravity corer (British Geological Survey).  The cruise also re-sampled (primarily for macrobenthos) a bathymetric transect of stations to the west of Shetland previously established during RRS Charles Darwin Cruise 112 C leg 2 (AMES 1996).  Shipboard observations of seabed samples and video footage collected in the various survey areas are summarised in the report.  Other general observations include (a) the effects of deep-sea trawling, observed to the west of Shetland and the Hebrides; (b) the widespread and mass occurrence of phytodetritus in the deeper waters of the Rockall Trough; (c) numerous observations of, frequently dense, populations of xenophyophores (Syringammina fragilissima) at around 1000 m depth in the Rockall Trough; and (d) the discovery of a field of coral (Lophelia pertusa) topped seabed mounds in the Rockall Trough immediately to the south of the Wyville-Thomson Ridge.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/298/1/soccr025.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin  Cruise 112C, 19 May-24 Jun 1998.  Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: seabed survey of deep-water areas (17th round Tranches) to the north and west of Scotland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bett, B.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bett, B.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:299
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:299</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:14Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>RRS Discovery Cruise 233, CHAOS (Chemical and Hydrographic Atlantic Ocean Survey) combined a long meridional section notionally along 20°W from 20°N to Iceland with a detailed survey of the Rockall Trough.  The meridional section was designed to i) establish the sources and sinks of halocarbons in subtropical and subpolar waters during spring bloom conditions;  ii) to examine the decadal scale variability in the eastern Atlantic over the last 40 years by repeating the northern part of the WOCE A16 line first occupied in 1988 and again in 1993 (NATL 93), and parts of other sections occupied in 1957, 1973, 1983 and 1991; iii). to study the spreading, mixing and ventilation rates of Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Water, and waters of Southern Ocean origin (Antarctic Intermediate Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) which extend into the northeast Atlantic.  The detailed survey of the Rockall Trough comprised 4 zonal sections notionally at 57°N, 56°N, 54°N and 52°N in order to i) make a detailed study of the water masses in the Rockall Trough with particular emphasis on their circulation/recirculation patterns ii) to re-occupy stations along the Ellett line (57°N) to continue the time series dating from 1975.  The sections were completed with CTD, LADCP, tracer chemistry (CFCs, nutrients, oxygen), alkalinity and pH measurements to full depth and a suite of halocarbon measurements together with sampling for plant pigments and biological species to 200m.  Continuous measurements of atmospheric halocarbons, pCO2, meteorological measurements, VM -ADCP, depth, TSG, radiometer SST and navigation data were also made.  All measurements were made to WOCE standards and the final data submitted to the WOCE programme.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/299/1/soccr024.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre Cruise Report</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery  Cruise 233, 23 Apr-01 Jun 1998.  A Chemical and Hydrographic Atlantic Ocean Survey: CHAOS</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Smythe-Wright, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Smythe-Wright, D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:301
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The overall objective of the cruise was to examine the contribution of large-scale landsliding to the evolution of the western Canary Islands.  Aims included the production of a comprehensive assessment of the effects of catastrophic landslides, including analysis of their frequency, triggering mechanisms and volumes, as well as studies of landsliding processes.  The main tools used included swath bathymetry, TOBI high-resolution sidescan sonar and 3.5 kHz and seismic profiling.  The survey programme concentrated on three areas where landsliding was believed to be most active: the northern flank of Tenerife, the flanks of the island of La Palma and the flanks of the island of El Hierro.  The cruise was highly successful, obtaining swath bathymetry and EM12 sidescan sonar data covering much of the flanks of Tenerife, El Hierro and La Palma.  Large-scale slope failures are more abundant on these island flanks than had previously been recognised and at least ten slope failure events can be recognised from the new data.  TOBI sidescan sonar images from key areas show varied flow processes including debris avalanche, sediment slide and debris flow.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/301/1/soccr021.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin  Cruise 108, 14 Sep-16 Oct 1997.  TOBI and MULTIBEAM surveys of submarine landslides around the Canaries</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Masson, D.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Masson, D.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1998</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:302
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The principal objective of the cruise was to recover a series of 11 long-term (12 month) current meter and sediment trap moorings deployed in Summer 1997 to monitor the neutrally-buoyant hydrothermal plume overlying the Rainbow hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, near 36°15’N.  Secondary objectives were to continue CTD investigations of the physical and geochemical evolution of the plume and to attempt box-coring in sedimented areas identified from TOBI sidescan sonar records beneath the dispersing neutrally buoyant plume.  Mooring recovery was completely successful for all three of the sediment trap moorings with the exception that one 2-week sample was lost from one of the 5 multi-collector sediment traps deployed.  Seven of the eight current meter moorings deployed were also recovered, with 100% data-recovery from the 21 current meters recovered inboard.  A total of 35 CTD-nephelometer profile stations were occupied to the North and South of the Rainbow hydrothermal field, together with one background station , east of the MAR.  In situ CTD and nephel data were complemented by water sampling for He-3 and CH4 and shipboard analysis of rosette samples for salinity and TDMn.  A total of 4 box-cores were attempted at depths of 2400-2600m beneath the neutrally buoyant plume.  All four cores were successful yielding core lengths of 43, 30, 18 and 18cm at distances of 2, 5, 12 and 29km downstream from the known hydrothermal vent-field, respectively.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/302/1/soccr020.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>FS Poseidon  Cruise 240, 19 Jun-10 Jul 1998.  The Fluxes at AMAR Experiment: FLAME 2</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>German, C.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>German, C.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1998</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:303
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:14Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Challenger Cruise 135 was the fourth of a series of cruises funded by the European Commission’s Marine Science and Technology III (MAST III) Programme as part of the BENGAL project (MAS3 CT 950018).  Sampling commenced in September 1996 to assess changes in benthic systems over a period of one and a half years at a single, abyssal locality in the NE Atlantic (48° 50’N, 16° 30’W).  It is hoped that changes within a year (seasonal) and between years (inter-annual) will be detected.&#13;
&#13;
Challenger Cruise 135 replaced a longer cruise planned for the vessel Atalante, which had to be cancelled as a result of a strike by the crew of that vessel. Challenger Cruise 135 was planned at extremely short notice with the aim of undertaking a reduced sampling programme and recovering vital moorings that had been in place on the seabed for periods of up to 1 year.  Samples of the benthos and overlying water column were collected using a multiple corer, box corer, trawl and CTD.  Two activities planned for the Atalante cruise, sampling of benthopelagic fauna using the University of Hamburg MOCNESS net system and photographing the seabed using the Southampton Oceanography Centre WASP system, could not be undertaken.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/303/1/soccr019.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Challenger Cruise 135, 15 Oct-30 Oct 1997.  BENGAL:  High resolution temporal and spatial study of the BENthic biology and Geochemistry of a north-eastern Atlantic abyssal Locality</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Billett, D.S.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Billett, D.S.M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1998</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:387385
Date: 2016-08-24

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:76403
Date: 2016-10-08

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>We have performed numerical simulations to investigate the optimization of compound glass microstructured optical fibers for mid IR supercontinuum generation beyond the low loss transmission window of silica, using pump wavelengths in the range 1.55-2.25 mm. Large mode area fibers for high powers, and small core fiber designs for low powers, are proposed for a variety of glasses. Modeling results showed that for Bismuth and lead oxide glasses, which have nonlinearities ~10 x that of silica, matching the dispersion profile to the pump wavelength is essential. For chalcogenide glasses, which have much higher nonlinearities, the dispersion profile is less important. The  pump pulses have duration of &lt;1 ps, and energy &lt;30 nJ. The fiber lengths required for generating continuum were &lt;40 mm, so the losses of the fibers were not a limiting factor. Compared to planar rib-waveguides or fiber-tapers, microstructured fiber  technology has the advantages of greater flexibility for tailoring the dispersion profile over a broad wavelength span, and a much wider possible range of device lengths</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>The International Society for Optical Engineering</dc:publisher><dc:source>Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications</dc:source><dc:title>Non-silica microstructured optical fibers for mid-IR supercontinuum generation from 2 micron - 5 micron</dc:title><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.660942</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:393998
Date: 2016-06-16

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ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:305
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:15Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>RRS Discovery Cruise 223, VIVALDI ‘96, was a contribution to the UK WOCE Community Research Programme.  The pattern of SeaSoar sections was designed to enable the upper ocean circulation in the Subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic to be mapped and in particular the course of the North Atlantic and Irminger Currents within the region to be determined.  The sparse deep CTD survey was required to complement the upper ocean survey and provide estimates of total mass transport and an ‘oceanographic opinion poll’ of water mass properties, including CFCs.&#13;
&#13;
The cruise commenced by repeating the well-established Rockall Trough CTD Section from Barra Head to Rockall Island.  This was then extended north to Lousy Bank from where a CTD section measured before by Saunders across the Iceland Basin was repeated.  From then onwards the cruise consisted principally of SeaSoar/ADCP sections interspersed with deep CTD casts (see track plot, Fig.1).  These were placed on the ‘Vivaldi Grid’ (round 3° of latitude and multiples of 300 km west of 20°W) where possible, though the complex topography was taken into account.  East of Greenland a more intense CTD section of 6 stations (12995-13001) was made along 60°N to cut the East Greenland Current.  In addition 7 profiling floats were deployed in the Irminger Basin.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/305/1/soccr017.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 223, 28 Sep-19 Nov 1996. VIVALDI ‘96</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Leach, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Pollard, R.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Leach, H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Pollard, R.T.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1998</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:306
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This report describes RRS Discovery Cruise 230, designed as a repeat of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) survey section 4, roughly from Cape Finisterre (Spain) to Cape Farewell (Greenland).  IGY 4 was first surveyed in 1957, so this repeat gives a 40–year look at decadal variability in the North Atlantic from the eastern boundary regime via the junction of subtropical and subpolar gyres to the western boundary regime.  Additional short sections were measured (a) midway between Cape Farewell and Denmark Strait, (b) across Denmark Strait and (c) from Iceland to Scotland in order (i) to assess the spatial variability of the western boundary regime up the east Greenland coast to Denmark Strait, (ii) to assess the exchange between the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas, (iii) to create a large scale North Atlantic closed box for evaluation of the circulation, and (iv) to continue the long time series of Rockall Trough sections.  Sections were measured with stations for CTD, LADCP and tracer chemistry (CFCs, oxygen, nutrients, CO2).  Continuous measurements of high precision position and heading navigation data were made; also of VM–ADCP, depth and TSG.  Continuous high–quality meteorological measurements were made, with a view to assessing Ekman fluxes, and comparing with fluxes inferred from Irminger Basin float data.  This cruise is a UK contribution to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/306/1/soccr016.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery  Cruise 230, 07 Aug-17 Sep 1997.  Two hydrographic sections across the boundaries of the subpolar gyre: FOUREX</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bacon, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bacon, S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1998</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:307
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The first leg of RRS Discovery Cruise 224, 27/11/96 - 29/12/96, was one of two cruise programs designed to provide the experimental field observations for the EU MAST 3 project, OMEGA (Observations and Modelling of Eddy scale Geostrophic and Ageostrophic motion).  Towing the undulating CTD vehicle, SeaSoar, two large scale and three fine scale SeaSoar surveys were made of the Almeria-Oran front region of the western Mediterranean.  In addition a brief SeaSoar survey was made of the head of the Algerian Current.  These hydrographic measurements of the upper 370 metres of the water column were accompanied by VM-ADCP and ACCP derived ocean currents, underway physical, chemical and biological analysis of surface water samples, multi-frequency acoustic backscatter measurements, meteorological observations and sea surface radiation measurements.  Between the surveys, CTD stations were accompanied by detailed measurements of ocean optical properties at strategic locations along and across the front.  In addition 8 towed deployments of a Longhurst Hardy Plankton Recorder were made to look at the change in plankton species composition across frontal zones.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/307/1/soccr014.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 224, Leg 1, 27 Nov-29 Dec 1996.  OMEGA: Observations and Modelling of Eddy scale Geostrophic and Ageostrophic motion. Physical and biological observations in the eastern Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guymer, T.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Guymer, T.H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:309
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:15Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This report describes RRS Discovery Cruise No. 227, which was carried out to measure plankton patchiness in the eastern North Atlantic (in the area of 16-20?W, 47-49?N), during the period 15 April to 16 May 1997 (the time of the spring bloom).  Meteorological, physical, optical, chemical and biological measurements were made using a combination of underway sampling (MultiMet, ADCP, TSG, fluorimeter, nutrients), towed instrumentation (SeaSoar, OPC, Lightfish, LHPR) and on station sampling (CTD, nitrate sensor, water bottles, Satlantic light sensors, vertical nets).  Two large scale surveys, and three small scale surveys were carried out during the cruise.  Patchiness in both the phytoplankton (measured by the SeaSoar fluorimeter) and the zooplankton (measured by the OPC) distributions was observed.  Satellite SST data (from AVHRR) were received in near real time during the cruise, which aided the interpretation of the ship-based observations.  Data acquired during the cruise were assimilated into a coupled bio-physical model, which was run on the ship, in an attempt to provide near real time forecasts of the ocean biology and physics in the survey area.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/309/1/soccr012.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery  Cruise 227, 15 Apr-16 May 1997.  Plankton patchiness studies by ship and satellite: P2S3</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Srokosz, M.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:310
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The second leg of the Scheherezade multidisciplinary environmental cruise to the entrance to the Arabian Gulf is concerned with superficial geology, geoacoustics and geotechnics.&#13;
&#13;
Preliminary interpretation of the digitally recorded sidescan sonar, seismic profiles and the 206 sediment samples showed that the area can be divided into two types, one where strong currents sweep the seafloor and the other where currents are weaker.  In the strong current area, bed load transport paths have been determined from asymmetrical bedforms and a number of bedform zones have been identified. The sediments here are mainly shelly sands and gravels.  In the weaker current areas there are large numbers of pockmarks, believed to be due to gas venting at the seabed.  The sediments here are muddier but shelly sands are still present.  Two very high resolution sidescan surveys of selected areas were made and at each survey area video photographs of the seabed and dredge samples were obtained.&#13;
&#13;
Measurements of shear waves were made with the newly developed SAPPA device at nine sites.  Further work is needed before P waves can be measured.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/310/1/soccr011.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin  Cruise 104 Leg 2, 21 Mar-19 Apr 1997.  Geological processes in the Strait of Hormuz, Arabian Gulf: a contribution to the Scheherezade Programme</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kenyon, N.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Kenyon, N.H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:311
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:16Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The principle objectives of the cruise were to study the physical, geochemical and biological dispersion of the neutrally-buoyant hydrothermal plume overlying the Rainbow hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, near 36°15'N; to investigate the interacting processes active within the dispersing plume; to better constrain the source of active venting on the seabed; and to quantify the physical, geochemical and biological fluxes to the water column on the segment scale.  A secondary objective was to better constrain the source of strong dissolved methane concentrations which had been observed previously in the FAMOUS segment further north.  An additional objective, which evolved during the course of the cruise programme, was to investigate the dispersion of vent-larvae through hydrothermal plumes along a section of the MAR extending from the Rainbow area to the previously known Lucky Strike hydrothermal field at 37°17'N.  Initially, a series of hydrographic CTD stations were occupied, complete with a lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (L-ADCP) to provide instantaneous measurements of prevailing current directions with depth in the water column.  This was coupled with a suite of deep-tow CTD tow-yo sections using the hydrothermal plume instrument BRIDGET.  This preliminary data set yielded an understanding of the nature of plume dispersion which was then utilised to target further water column sampling using a combination of further CTD hydrocasts for water column samples, in situ filtration of particles for mineralogical, geochemical and microbiological investigations and RMT 1+8 Net trawls for biology.  The strategy was largely successful and the neutrally buoyant plume, which was revealed to be dispersing under topographic control, was traced to a distance of greater than 50km down-stream.  As the programme progressed a grid of closely spaced (0.5 nautical miles) orthogonal survey lines were occupied across the suspected site of venting, yielding a resolution of closest approach to the source of better than 200m.  Finally at Rainbow, a suite of 8 current-meter moorings were deployed around the vent-site to monitor long-term (&gt;12 month) fluxes of physical parameters including suspended particulate material away from the site of venting.  In addition to sampling at Rainbow, 6 CTD stations were occupied in the southern portion of the FAMOUS segment and RMT 1+8 Net Trawls were completed in the Southern AMAR, AMAR, FAMOUS, North FAMOUS and Lucky Strike segments as well as in the non-transform discontinuity (NTD) offset immediately to the south of the Lucky Strike segment.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/311/1/soccr010.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 228, 21 May-28 Jun 1997.  The Fluxes at AMAR Experiment: FLAME</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>German, C.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>German, C.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:313
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The purpose of Discovery Cruise 224, Leg 2, was to continue the physical and biological surveys previously undertaken during Leg 1 as part of the EEC MAST OMEGA Project; and to undertake comparisons of the western Mediterranean macrozooplankton and micronekton communities on either side of the Almeria-Oran Front.&#13;
&#13;
The sampling programme consisted of: 1) Fine scale SeaSoar surveys, at the beginning and end of the leg, to investigate the changes in the structure of the Almeria-Oran frontal system, and to establish the sites for biological sampling. 2) Investigations of the day and night depth distribution, throughout the water column, of the macroplankton and micronekton communities, by means of a vertically stratified series of RMT1+8M net deployments, at two sites on either side of the Almeria-Oran Front.  This was largely successful, but bad weather prevented any near-bottom tows being carried out at one of the sites. 3) Investigations of the near-surface cross-frontal distribution of macrozooplankton and micronekton, again using the RMT1+8M net system. 4) Observations on the patterns of acoustic backscatter, using the shipborne ADCP and towed EK500 systems, throughout the cruise and to relate these with data from the biological sampling; with additional ‘sea-truthing’ from Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder deployments.&#13;
&#13;
In addition studies were made on the bioluminescent characteristics of the interesting examples of the pelagic fauna.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/313/1/soccr008.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 224 Leg 2, 30 Dec-17 Jan 1997.  Biological and physical investigations in the region of the Almeira-Oran Front (western Mediterranean)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Pugh, P.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Pugh, P.R.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:314
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:314</identifier>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This was the second of two cruises, the overall objective of which was to undertake an integrated baseline environmental survey of the continental slope west of Shetland.  The primary objective of this cruise was to carry out a large-scale seabed sampling survey of the area to the west of Shetland.  In total some 200 seabed stations were sampled using either a Megacorer, Box corer or Day grab, and samples collected for the subsequent analysis of macrobenthos, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, particle size and total organic carbon and nitrogen.  Additional survey operations included photographic reconnaissance of the seafloor using the SOC WASP system and the collection of demersal fish using pop up fish traps.  Shipboard observation of seabed samples suggests that the survey region is very heterogeneous in terms of both sediments (as observed by TOBI sidescan sonar during the preceding cruise) and benthos.  Particular features of note include highly developed epifaunal communities on the numerous ice rafted rocks in the 300 - 600m depth range and an abundant population of, apparently, sediment surface dwelling enteropneusts on a sandy contourite sheet located in the mid to north reaches of the survey at depths of 800 - 1000m.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/314/1/soccr007.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin  Cruise 101C Leg 2, 14 Jul-20 Aug 1996.  Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: seabed survey of the shelf edge and slope west of Shetland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bett, B.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Bett, B.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:315
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:315</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:17Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This was the first of two cruises, the overall objective of which was to undertake an integrated baseline environmental survey of the continental slope west of Shetland.  The major objective of this cruise was to obtain TOBI (30 kHz) and 100 kHz sidescan sonar imagery of the designated survey area west of Shetland.  All the objectives of the cruise were achieved in full or exceeded.  Over 14000 km2 of seafloor was imaged with the TOBI system during 25 days of survey and 650 line km of 100 kHz data were obtained in 3.5 days of survey.  Twelve sample stations were occupied during trials of the multicorer, box corer and Day grab.  As anticipated, the mapped sediment facies variations are strongly related to waterdepth.  Iceberg ploughmarks dominate the seafloor structure to depths of about 500 m.  At mid slope depths, sediment bedforms and erosion due to current activity can be seen.  At greater depths, less energetic depositional conditions prevail.  Highlights of the sonar survey include the discovery of a field of barchan sand-dunes at a waterdepth of 300 m, a small sediment slide at 900-1000 m waterdepth, and an extensive sandy contourite sheet between the 850 and 1000 m depth contours between 61° and 61°20’N.  The second cruise of the two cruises, mainly devoted to seabed sampling, is described in Southampton Oceanography Centre Cruise Report No. 7.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/315/1/soccr006.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin  Cruise 101C Leg 1, 05 Jun-13 Jul 1996.  TOBI surveys of the continental slope west of Shetland</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Masson, D.G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Masson, D.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:316
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This was the second cruise using the new SOC giant piston corer.  The objectives were to complete the testing of the giant piston corer which was begun on cruise D219 in November/December, 1995 and to collect giant piston cores from the Agadir Basin, Gulf of Cadiz and Portuguese margin.  We showed that the original problems with the ship's gantry have been overcome and that the ship is now capable of handling the loads experienced during deployment and especially pullout.  A large number of relatively minor problems were experienced during the cruise with the design and configuration of the corer.  We worked through these systematically until cores were being obtained on a regular basis.  A total of 9 cores were obtained from 14 coring attempts.  The longest core was 15.97 m long.  The quality of cores recovered was excellent.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/316/1/soccr005_corrected.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery  Cruise 225, 24 Feb-07 Mar 1997. Studies of mass wasting in the Agadir Basin and sediment transport in the Gulf of Cadiz - incorporating trials of the giant piston corer</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Weaver, P.P.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Weaver, P.P.E.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:319
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:319</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:18Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Cruise D219 was beset with problems - bad weather, the need to transfer seamen to port on two separate occasions for compassionate reasons, combined with the need for further trials of the coring system limited our coring attempts to 6 deployments of which only one produced a core.  After only 12 days at sea considerable wear was detected on the ship's coring gantry making it unsafe for further work.  The cruise was therefore terminated one week early.  Nevertheless, we believe that the corer will work and produce good quality cores when the problems with the ship have been rectified.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/319/1/soccr003.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 219, 28 Nov-11 Dec 1995.  Mass wasting off Portugal and the Canary Islands - investigation by giant piston coring</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Weaver, P.P.E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Weaver, P.P.E.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1996</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:320
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:18Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Cruise CD95 sailed on the RRS Charles Darwin from Barry, South Wales to Ponta Delgada, Azores, 8 August to 14 September 1995.  The objectives of the expedition, FLUXES I, were to investigate the energy, chemical and biological fluxes from the Broken Spur hydrothermal vent field at 29°10'N (segment 17 o f the Mid Atlantic Ridge).  The methodology of the experiment depended on using the bathymetry and bottom-water structure of segment 17 as a natural laboratory in which the fluxes are integrated over time.  The water column density structure is such that the rise height of the hydrothermal plume is effectively limited to a depth greater than that of the surrounding axial valley walls.  The only opening is to the south where waters external to the ridge system have access to segment 17.  Philosophically, the experiment must measure the chemical, energetic and biological inventory for segment 17.  Then by measuring the exchange of vent affected water from the segment with water external to the system, the integration of the components can be deconvolved and fluxes derived.  This experiment, funded by the UK's BRIDGE initiative, was designed to form the basis for further data collection to measure the hydrothermal fluxes in segment 17, as endorsed by the InterRidge Meso-Scale Workshop held in Cambridge, UK, on 26 and 27 June 1995.  The work was funded by NERC research grant GST/02/1125 to Drs Murton, B.J., German, C.G., Herring, P. and Dixon, D.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/320/1/soccr002.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Charles Darwin  Cruise CD95, 08 Aug-14 Sep 1995.  The FLUXES I Programme (hydrothermal energy, chemical and biological fluxes at a ridge segment meso-scale)</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Murton, B.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Murton, B.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1996</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:321
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:321</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:19Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Discovery Cruise 217 was one of a series of cruises to the continental slope southwest of the UK in support of an EEC MAST programme "OMEX'"(Ocean Margin Exchange).  The overall objectives of the programme are "to measure and to model exchange processes at the ocean  margins..." and permanent repeat stations were established on the Goban Spur (around 49°N 12°W) in 1993 to address these.  Discovery 217 focused primarily on the biological and chemical processes of the upper water column and the flux of particulate material associated with these processes.  In spite of a number of technical problems associated with scientific equipment and significant losses of time due to poor weather, most of the original objectives were successfully met and the results will make a major contribution to the overall programme.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/321/1/soccr001.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>University of Southampton</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>RRS Discovery Cruise 217, 27 Sep-22 Oct 1995.  The biology, chemistry and physics of the Goban Spur on the European continental slope of the northeast Atlantic</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Lampitt, R.S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Lampitt, R.S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>1996</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:323
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:323</identifier>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This paper presents a detailed diagnostic analysis of hydrographic and current meter data from three, rapidly repeated, fine-scale surveys of the Almeria–Oran front. Instability of the frontal boundary, between surface waters of Atlantic and Mediterranean origin, is shown to provide a mechanism for significant heat transfer from the surface layers to the deep ocean in winter. The data were collected during the second observational phase of the EU funded OMEGA project on RRS Discovery cruise 224 during December 1996. High resolution hydrographic measurements using the towed undulating CTD vehicle, SeaSoar, traced the subduction of Mediterranean Surface Water across the Almeria–Oran front. This subduction is shown to result from a significant baroclinic component to the instability of the frontal jet. The Q-vector formulation of the omega equation is combined with a scale analysis to quantitatively diagnose vertical transport resulting from mesoscale ageostrophic circulation. The analyses are presented and discussed in the presence of satellite and airborne remotely sensed data; which provide the basis for a thorough and novel approach to the determination of observational error. </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/323/3/Text_pdf.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Journal of Marine Systems</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Mesoscale subduction at the Almeria-Oran front. Part 2: biophysical interactions.</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Fielding, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Crisp, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hartman, M.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rabe, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roe, H.S.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Fielding, S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Crisp, N.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hartman, M.C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Rabe, B.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Roe, H.S.J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(01)00063-X</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:324
Date: 2016-03-31

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:324</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:20Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This paper presents a detailed diagnostic analysis of hydrographic and current meter data from three, rapidly repeated, fine-scale surveys of the Almeria-Oran front. Instability of the frontal boundary, between surface waters of Atlantic and Mediterranean origin, is shown to provide a mechanism for significant heat transfer from the surface layers to the deep ocean in winter. The data were collected during the second observational phase of the EU funded OMEGA project on RRS Discovery cruise 224 during December 1996. High resolution hydrographic measurements using the towed undulating CTD vehicle, SeaSoar,. traced the subduction of Mediterranean Surface Water across the Almeria-Oran front. This subduction is shown to result from a significant baroclinic component to the instability of the frontal jet. The Q-vector formulation of the omega equation is combined with a scale analysis to quantitatively diagnose vertical transport resulting from mesoscale ageostrophic circulation. The analyses are presented and discussed in the presence of satellite and airborne remotely sensed data; which provide the basis for a thorough and novel approach to the determination of observational error.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/324/1/subductionpaper_v3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>0924-7963</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Mesoscale subduction at the Almeria-Oran front. Part 1: ageostrophic flow</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Smeed, D.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tintore, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ruiz, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Allen, J.T.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Smeed, D.A.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Tintore, J.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Ruiz, S.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(01)00062-8</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:325
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:325</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:20Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Chemistry has always made extensive use of the developing computing technology and available computing power though activities such as modelling, simulation and chemical structure interpretational - activities conveniently summarised as computational chemistry.  Developing procedures in chemical synthesis and characterisation, particularly in the arena of parallel and combinatorial methodology, have generated ever increasing demands on both Computational Chemistry and Computer Technology.  Significantly, the way in which networked services are being conceived to assist collaborative research pushes the use of data acquisition, remote interaction &amp; control, computation, and visualisation, well beyond the traditional computational chemistry programmes, towards the basic issue of handling chemical information and knowledge.  The rate at which new chemical data can now be generated in Combinatorial and Parallel synthesis and screening processes, means that the data can only realistically be handled efficiently by increased automation of the data analysis as well as the experimentation and collection.  Without this automation we run the risk of generating information without the ability to understand it.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/325/1/hey_book_for_e-prints.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd.</dc:publisher><dc:source>0470853190</dc:source><dc:subject>QA75</dc:subject><dc:subject>QD</dc:subject><dc:title>Combinatorial chemistry and the Grid</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Frey, J. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bradley, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Essex, J.W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hursthouse, M.B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lewis, S.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Luck, M.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Moreau, L</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>De Roure, D.C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Surridge, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Welsh, A.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Berman, Fran</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hey, Anthony J.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Fox, Geoffrey C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Frey, J. G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Bradley, M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Essex, J.W.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hursthouse, M.B.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Lewis, S.M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Luck, M.M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Moreau, L</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>De Roure, D.C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Surridge, M.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Welsh, A.H.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Berman, Fran</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Hey, Anthony J.G.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Fox, Geoffrey C.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:330
Date: 2016-03-31

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>TOPEX and Jason were the first two dual-frequency altimeters in space, with both operating at Ku- and C-band. Each thus gives two measurements of the normalized backscatter, sigma0, (from which wind speed is calculated) and two estimates of wave height. Departures from a well-defined relationship between the Ku- and C-band sigma0 values give an indication of rain.&#13;
This paper investigates differences between the two instruments using data from Jason's verification phase. Jason's Ku-band estimates of wave height are ~1.8% less than TOPEX's, whereas its sigma0 values are higher. When these effects have been removed the root mean square (r.m.s.) mismatch between TOPEX and Jason's Ku-band observations is close to that for TOPEX's observations at its two frequencies, and the changes in sigma0 with varying wave height conditions are the same for the two altimeters. Rain flagging and quantitative estimates of rain rate are both based on the atmospheric attenuation derived from the sigma0 measurements at the two frequencies. The attenuation estimates of TOPEX and Jason agree very well, and a threshold of -0.5 dB is effective at removing the majority of spurious data records from the Jason GDRs. In the high sigma0 regime, anomalous data can be cause by processes other than rain. Consequently, for these low wind conditions, neither can reliable rain detection be based on altimetry alone, nor can a generic rain flag be expected to remove all suspect data.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/330/1/MG_Quartly_rev.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>01490419</dc:source><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:title>Sea state and rain: a second take on dual-frequency altimetry</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Quartly, G.D.</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490410490465472</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:332
Date: 2016-03-31

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:332</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:22Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D756E707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D47:4743</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D47:4745</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D6D6F6E6F6772617068</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>This handbook (SOFT_WP31_handbook.pdf) describes the suite of MATLAB
programs developed within Work Package 3, task 3.1 of the SOFT Project, for the
tracking of large-scale, westward propagating features (planetary waves or
westward-travelling eddies) in altimeter data and the removal of the identified features
from the datasets. The suite has been applied to TOPEX/POSEIDON data over the
Azores region (one of the SOFT study regions) but its modularity makes it adaptable in
a straightforward way to other datasets and other regions.
The companion to this handbook is the progress report on task 3.1 released in
January 2003 (SOFT_WP31_report.pdf), which presents the rationale to the study and
gives ample details on the scheme adopted for the fitting of elementary waves
(according to a Gaussian wave shape model) to altimeter data. A synopsis of the fitting
scheme is briefly recalled in the following sections of this document, for the benefit of
the reader. All the code listings are in the appendix.
The forecasting of the westward-propagating fields (which is the object of task
3.2 in Work Package 3 id described in version 1 of another report,
SOFT_WP32_rep1.pdf) </dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/332/1/SOFT_WP31_handbook.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:subject>GE</dc:subject><dc:title>SOFT feature-tracking software handbook</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cipollini, Paolo</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Challenor, Peter</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Cipollini, Paolo</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Challenor, Peter</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:334
Date: 2016-03-31

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:334</identifier>
      <datestamp>2016-03-31T11:08:23Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D756E707562</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D47:4743</setSpec>
      <setSpec>7375626A656374733D47:4745</setSpec>
      <setSpec>74797065733D6D6F6E6F6772617068</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The present report describes the work carried out within task 3.1 of Work Package 3 of the SOFT Project. The above task is ‘Development of feature tracking methods’ and consists of the development of a software to track large-scale, westward propagating features (planetary waves or westward-travelling eddies) in the altimetric datasets, and in the removal of the identified features from the datasets. The residual field (that is the original dataset minus the tracked features) is then made available to the other work packages in the Project.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/334/1/SOFT_WP31_report.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Southampton Oceanography Centre</dc:publisher><dc:subject>GC</dc:subject><dc:subject>GE</dc:subject><dc:title>SOFT Development of feature tracking methods</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Cipollini, Paolo</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Challenor, Peter</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Cipollini, Paolo</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Challenor, Peter</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>

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