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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:2
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

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This is a valid RIOXX record

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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ali:license_refMinimum of 1 value(s) required for ali:license_ref - found 0 values
<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:2</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:01:36Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The motion of a car is described using a stochastic model in which the driving processes are the steering angle and the tangential acceleration. The model incorporates exactly the kinematic constraint that the wheels do not slip sideways. Two filters based on this model have been implemented, namely the standard EKF, and a new filter (the CUF) in which the expectation and the covariance of the system state are propagated accurately. Experiments show that i) the CUF is better than the EKF at predicting future positions of the car; and ii) the filter outputs can be used to control the measurement process, leading to improved ability to recover from errors in predictive tracking.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/2/2/CVG9602.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>7th British Machine Vision Conference</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>Filter for Car Tracking Based on Acceleration and Steering Angle</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Maybank, S.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1996-09-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>AM</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:4
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
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rioxxterms:projectMinimum of 1 value(s) required for rioxxterms:project - found 0 values
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<record>
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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:4</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:01:37Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Pair Programming is a technique from the software development method eXtreme Programming (XP) whereby two programmers work closely together to develop a piece of software. A similar approach has been used to develop a set of Assessment Learning Objects (ALO). Three members of academic staff have developed a set of ALOs for a total of three different modules (two with overlapping content). In each case a pair programming approach was taken to the development of the ALO. In addition to demonstrating the efficiency of this approach in terms of staff time spent developing the ALOs, a statistical analysis of the outcomes for students who made use of the ALOs is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ALOs produced via this method.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:relation>http://www.ejel.org/main.html</dc:relation><dc:source>1479-4403</dc:source><dc:subject>370</dc:subject><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>The effectiveness of assessment learning objects produced using pair programming</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Adams, Andrew Alexander</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lubega, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Walmsley, Susan M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Williams, Shirley Ann</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:19
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
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rioxxterms:version_of_record'DOI:10.1007/3-540-36469-2' is not a valid HTTP URI in rioxxterms:version_of_record
dc:identifierMinimum of 1 value(s) required for dc:identifier - found 0 values

RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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<record>
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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:19</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:01:39Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>One of the main tasks of the mathematical knowledge management community must surely be to enhance access to mathematics on digital systems. In this paper we present a spectrum of approaches to solving the various problems inherent in this task, arguing that a variety of approaches is both necessary and useful. The main ideas presented are about the differences between digitised mathematics, digitally represented mathematics and formalised mathematics. Each has its part to play in managing mathematical information in a connected world. Digitised material is that which is embodied in a computer file, accessible and displayable locally or globally. Represented material is digital material in which there is some structure (usually syntactic in nature) which maps to the mathematics contained in the digitised information. Formalised material is that in which both the syntax and semantics of the represented material, is automatically accessible. Given the range of mathematical information to which access is desired, and the limited resources available for managing that information, we must ensure that these resources are applied to digitise, form representations of or formalise, existing and new mathematical information in such a way as to extract the most benefit from the least expenditure of resources. We also analyse some of the various social and legal issues which surround the practical tasks.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer-Verlag </dc:publisher><dc:source>Mathematical Knowledge Management, Proceedings</dc:source><dc:subject>510</dc:subject><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:title>Digitisation, representation, and formalisation - Digital libraries of mathematics</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Adams, Andrew Alexander</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1007/3-540-36469-2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:20
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Aracne Editrice SRL, Rome</dc:publisher><dc:source>Calculemus 2003</dc:source><dc:subject>510</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>A New Interface to PVS</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Adams, Andrew Alexander</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:21
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:21</identifier>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>NASA</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://research.nianet.org/fm-at-nia/STRATA2003/</dc:relation><dc:source>Design and Application of Strategies/Tactics in Higher Order Logics STRATA 2003</dc:source><dc:subject>510</dc:subject><dc:title>Rippling in PVS</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Adams, Andrew Alexander</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:22
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
This is not a valid RIOXX record
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
This is not a valid RCUK-RIOXX record
PropertyError
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<record>
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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:22</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:01:42Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>2nd European Conference on e-Learning</dc:source><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:subject>607</dc:subject><dc:title>Pair Programming for Rapid Development of Assessment Learning Objects</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Adams, A. A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Walmsley, S.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Williams, S.A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:34
Date: 2017-01-29

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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<record>
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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:34</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:16Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Learning Objects offer flexibility and adaptability for users to request personalised information for learning. There are standards to guide the development of learning objects. However, individual developers may customise these standards for serving different purposes when defining, describing, managing and providing learning objects, which are normally stored in heterogeneous repositories. Barriers to interoperability hinder sharing of learning services and subsequently affect quality of instructional design as learners expect to be able to receive their personalised learning content. All these impose difficulties to the users in getting the right information from the right sources. This paper investigates the interoperability issues in eLearning services management and provision and presents an approach to resolve interoperability at three levels.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer Netherlands</dc:publisher><dc:source>1573-1413 </dc:source><dc:subject>370</dc:subject><dc:title>Interoperability for eLearning Service Management and Provision</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sun, Lily</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fu, Yan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005-12</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11280-005-1320-3</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:39
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:41
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Facet</dc:publisher><dc:source>1856044955</dc:source><dc:subject>500</dc:subject><dc:title>Meteorology and climatology</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sutton, Alison Mary</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Lester, Ray</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:56
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

Base RIOXX scheme designed for low-level interoperability
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RCUK-RIOXX

RCUK RIOXX scheme for reporting of open access publications funded through UK Research Council grants
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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:56</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:01:47Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A detailed view of Southern Hemisphere storm tracks is obtained based on the application of filtered variance and modern feature-tracking techniques to a wide range of 45-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data. It has been checked that the conclusions drawn in this study are valid even if data from only the satellite era are used. The emphasis of the paper is on the winter season, but results for the four seasons are also discussed. Both upper- and lower-tropospheric fields are used. The tracking analysis focuses on systems that last longer than 2 days and are mobile (move more than 1000 km). Many of the results support previous ideas about the storm tracks, but some new insights are also obtained. In the summer there is a rather circular, strong, deep high-latitude storm track. In winter the high-latitude storm track is more asymmetric with a spiral from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans in toward Antarctica and a subtropical jet–related lower-latitude storm track over the Pacific, again tending to spiral poleward. At all times of the year, maximum storm activity in the higher-latitude storm track is in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions. In the winter upper troposphere, the relative importance of, and interplay between, the subtropical and subpolar storm tracks is discussed. The genesis, lysis, and growth rate of lower-tropospheric winter cyclones together lead to a vivid picture of their behavior that is summarized as a set of overlapping plates, each composed of cyclone life cycles. Systems in each plate appear to feed the genesis in the next plate through downstream development in the upper-troposphere spiral storm track. In the lee of the Andes in South America, there is cyclogenesis associated with the subtropical jet and also, poleward of this, cyclogenesis largely associated with system decay on the upslope and regeneration on the downslope. The genesis and lysis of cyclones and anticyclones have a definite spatial relationship with each other and with the Andes. At 500 hPa, their relative longitudinal positions are consistent with vortex-stretching ideas for simple flow over a large-scale mountain. Cyclonic systems near Antarctica have generally spiraled in from lower latitudes. However, cyclogenesis associated with mobile cyclones occurs around the Antarctic coast with an interesting genesis maximum over the sea ice near 150°E. The South Pacific storm track emerges clearly from the tracking as a coherent deep feature spiraling from Australia to southern South America. A feature of the summer season is the genesis of eastward-moving cyclonic systems near the tropic of Capricorn off Brazil, in the central Pacific and, to a lesser extent, off Madagascar, followed by movement along the southwest flanks of the subtropical anticyclones and contribution to the “convergence zone” cloud bands seen in these regions.&#13;
&#13;
</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com</dc:relation><dc:source>1520-0442</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>A new perspective on Southern hemisphere storm-tracks.</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, Brian John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1175/JCLI3570.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:58
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:61
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:61</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:18Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This article describes a novel algorithmic development extending the contour advective semi-Lagrangian model to include nonconservative effects. The Lagrangian contour representation of finescale tracer fields, such as potential vorticity, allows for conservative, nondiffusive treatment of sharp gradients allowing very high numerical Reynolds numbers. It has been widely employed in accurate geostrophic turbulence and tracer advection simulations. In the present, diabatic version of the model the constraint of conservative dynamics is overcome by including a parallel Eulerian field that absorbs the nonconservative ( diabatic) tendencies. The diabatic buildup in this Eulerian field is limited through regular, controlled transfers of this field to the contour representation. This transfer is done with a fast newly developed contouring algorithm. This model has been implemented for several idealized geometries. In this paper a single-layer doubly periodic geometry is used to demonstrate the validity of the model. The present model converges faster than the analogous semi-Lagrangian models at increased resolutions. At the same nominal spatial resolution the new model is 40 times faster than the analogous semi-Lagrangian model. Results of an orographically forced idealized storm track show nontrivial dependency of storm-track statistics on resolution and on the numerical model employed. If this result is more generally applicable, this may have important consequences for future high-resolution climate modeling.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0027-0644</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The diabatic contour advective semi-Lagrangian model</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Dritschel, D. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ambaum, Maarten H. P.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2006</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR3202.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:88
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:88</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:01:49Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>It is shown that Bretherton's view of baroclinic instability as the interaction of two counter-propagating Rossby waves (CRWs) can be extended to a general zonal flow and to a general dynamical system based on material conservation of potential vorticity (PV). The two CRWs have zero tilt with both altitude and latitude and are constructed from a pair of growing and decaying normal modes. One CRW has generally large amplitude in regions of positive meridional PV gradient and propagates westwards relative to the flow in such regions. Conversely, the other CRW has large amplitude in regions of negative PV gradient and propagates eastward relative to the zonal flow there. Two methods of construction are described. In the first, more heuristic, method a ‘home-base’ is chosen for each CRW and the other CRW is defined to have zero PV there. Consideration of the PV equation at the two home-bases gives ‘CRW equations’ quantifying the evolution of the amplitudes and phases of both CRWs. They involve only three coefficients describing the mutual interaction of the waves and their self-propagation speeds. These coefficients relate to PV anomalies formed by meridional fluid displacements and the wind induced by these anomalies at the home-bases. In the second method, the CRWs are defined by orthogonality constraints with respect to wave activity and energy growth, avoiding the subjective choice of home-bases. Using these constraints, the same form of CRW equations are obtained from global integrals of the PV equation, but the three coefficients are global integrals that are not so readily described by ‘PV-thinking’ arguments. Each CRW could not continue to exist alone, but together they can describe the time development of any flow whose initial conditions can be described by the pair of growing and decaying normal modes, including the possibility of a super-modal growth rate for a short period. A phase-locking configuration (and normal-mode growth) is possible only if the PV gradient takes opposite signs and the mean zonal wind and the PV gradient are positively correlated in the two distinct regions where the wave activity of each CRW is concentrated. These are easily interpreted local versions of the integral conditions for instability given by Charney and Stern and by Fjørtoft.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/88/3/200413059610_ftp.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1477-870X</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The counter-propagating Rossby-wave perspective on baroclinic instability. I: Mathematical basis</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Heifetz, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bishop, C. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, B. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.200413059610</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:89
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:89</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:19Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Institute of Physics</dc:publisher><dc:source>1070-6631</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Relating optimal growth to counterpropagating Rossby waves in shear instability</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Heifetz, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1937064</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:90
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:90</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:20Z</datestamp>
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The constant-density Charney model describes the simplest unstable basic state with a planetary-vorticity gradient, which is uniform and positive, and baroclinicity that is manifest as a negative contribution to the potential-vorticity (PV) gradient at the ground and positive vertical wind shear. Together, these ingredients satisfy the necessary conditions for baroclinic instability. In Part I it was shown how baroclinic growth on a general zonal basic state can be viewed as the interaction of pairs of ‘counter-propagating Rossby waves’ (CRWs) that can be constructed from a growing normal mode and its decaying complex conjugate. In this paper the normal-mode solutions for the Charney model are studied from the CRW perspective.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
Clear parallels can be drawn between the most unstable modes of the Charney model and the Eady model, in which the CRWs can be derived independently of the normal modes. However, the dispersion curves for the two models are very different; the Eady model has a short-wave cut-off, while the Charney model is unstable at short wavelengths. Beyond its maximum growth rate the Charney model has a neutral point at finite wavelength (r=1). Thereafter follows a succession of unstable branches, each with weaker growth than the last, separated by neutral points at integer r—the so-called ‘Green branches’. A separate branch of westward-propagating neutral modes also originates from each neutral point. By approximating the lower CRW as a Rossby edge wave and the upper CRW structure as a single PV peak with a spread proportional to the Rossby scale height, the main features of the ‘Charney branch’ (0&lt;r&lt;1) can be deduced without prior calculation of the normal modes. Furthermore, CRWs from this branch are seen to make a smooth transition into the boundary and interior PV structure of the neutral modes appearing at r=1. The behaviour of the other branches and neutral points is essentially the same when viewed from the CRW perspective, but with cancelling interior PV structures reducing the self and mutual interaction of the CRWs. The underlying dynamics determining the nature of all the solutions is the difference in the scale-dependence of PV inversion for boundary and interior PV anomalies, the Rossby-wave propagation mechanism and the CRW interaction. The behaviour of the Charney modes and the first neutral branch, which rely on tropospheric PV gradients, are arguably more applicable to the atmosphere than modes of the Eady model where the positive PV gradient exists only at the tropopause&#13;
</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/90/3/200413059611_ftp.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1477-870X</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The counter-propagating Rossby-wave perspective on baroclinic instability. II: Application to the Charney model</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Heifetz, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, B. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bishop, C. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1256/qj.02.185</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:91
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:91</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:21Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) problem, with zero stratification, is examined as a limiting case of the Rayleigh model of a single shear layer whose width tends to zero. The transition of the Rayleigh modal dispersion relation to the KH one, as well as the disappearance of the supermodal transient growth in the KH limit, are both rationalized from the counterpropagating Rossby wave perspective.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Institute of Physics</dc:publisher><dc:source>1070-6631</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The counterpropagating Rossby wave perspective on Kelvin Helmholtz instability as a limiting case of a Rayleigh shear layer with zero width</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Heifetz, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Reuveni, Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gelfgat, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kit, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2006-01-13</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2166450</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:92
Date: 2017-01-29

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:92</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:21Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1477-870X</dc:source><dc:title>The influence of PV inversion on polar-vortex dynamics and passive-tracer simulations in atmosphere-like regimes.</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1256/qj.01.181</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:94
Date: 2017-01-29

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:94</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:22Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The ITCT-Lagrangian-2K4 (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) experiment was conceived with an aim to quantify the effects of photochemistry and mixing on the transformation of air masses in the free troposphere away from emissions. To this end, attempts were made to intercept and sample air masses several times during their journey across the North Atlantic using four aircraft based in New Hampshire (USA), Faial (Azores) and Creil (France). This article begins by describing forecasts from two Lagrangian models that were used to direct the aircraft into target air masses. A novel technique then identifies Lagrangian matches between flight segments. Two independent searches are conducted: for Lagrangian model matches and for pairs of whole air samples with matching hydrocarbon fingerprints. The information is filtered further by searching for matching hydrocarbon samples that are linked by matching trajectories. The quality of these "coincident matches'' is assessed using temperature, humidity and tracer observations. The technique pulls out five clear Lagrangian cases covering a variety of situations and these are examined in detail. The matching trajectories and hydrocarbon fingerprints are shown, and the downwind minus upwind differences in tracers are discussed.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/94/1/94jgrd13221.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Geophysical Union</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/</dc:relation><dc:source>0148-0227</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Establishing Lagrangian connections between observations within air masses crossing the Atlantic during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation experiment</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Arnold, S. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stohl, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Evans, M. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Avery, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Law, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lewis, A. C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Monks, P. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Parrish, D. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Reeves, C. E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Schlager, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Atlas, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Blake, D. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Coe, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Crosier, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Flocke, F. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Holloway, J. S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hopkins, J. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>McQuaid, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Purvis, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rappengluck, B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Singh, H. B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Watson, N. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Whalley, L. K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Williams, P. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2006-12-02</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007540</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:95
Date: 2017-01-29

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:95</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:23Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Baroclinic instability of perturbations described by the linearized primitive quations, growing on steady zonal jets on the sphere, can be understood in terms of the interaction of pairs of counter-propagating Rossby waves (CRWs). The CRWs can be viewed as the basic components of the dynamical system where the Hamiltonian is the pseudoenergy and each CRW has a zonal coordinate and pseudomomentum. The theory holds for adiabatic frictionless flow to the extent that truncated forms of pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy are globally conserved. These forms focus attention on Rossby wave activity. Normal mode (NM) dispersion relations for realistic jets are explained in terms of the two CRWs associated with each unstable NM pair. Although derived from the NMs, CRWs have the conceptual advantage that their structure is zonally untilted, and can be anticipated given only the basic state. Moreover, their zonal propagation, phase-locking and mutual interaction can all be understood by ‘PV-thinking’ applied at only two ‘home-bases’—potential vorticity (PV) anomalies at one home-base induce circulation anomalies, both locally and at the other home-base, which in turn can advect the PV gradient and modify PV anomalies there. At short wavelengths the upper CRW is focused in the mid-troposphere just above the steering level of the NM, but at longer wavelengths the upper CRW has a second wave-activity maximum at the tropopause. In the absence of meridional shear, CRW behaviour is very similar to that of Charney modes, while shear results in a meridional slant with height of the air-parcel displacement-structures of CRWs in sympathy with basic-state zonal angular-velocity surfaces. A consequence of this slant is that baroclinically growing eddies (on jets broader than the Rossby radius) must tilt downshear in the horizontal, giving rise to up-gradient momentum fluxes that tend to accelerate the barotropic component of the jet.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/95/3/200513160805_ftp.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1477-870X</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The counter-propagating Rossby-wave perspective on baroclinic instability. Part III: Primitive-equation disturbances on the sphere</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Heifetz, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, B. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bishop, C. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1256/qj.04.22</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:96
Date: 2017-01-29

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:96</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:24Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Pairs of counter-propagating Rossby waves (CRWs) can be used to describe baroclinic instability in linearized primitive-equation dynamics, employing simple propagation and interaction mechanisms at only two locations in the meridional plane—the CRW ‘home-bases’. Here, it is shown how some CRW properties are remarkably robust as a growing baroclinic wave develops nonlinearly. For example, the phase difference between upper-level and lower-level waves in potential-vorticity contours, defined initially at the home-bases of the CRWs, remains almost constant throughout baroclinic wave life cycles, despite the occurrence of frontogenesis and Rossby-wave breaking. As the lower wave saturates nonlinearly the whole baroclinic wave changes phase speed from that of the normal mode to that of the self-induced phase speed of the upper CRW. On zonal jets without surface meridional shear, this must always act to slow the baroclinic wave. The direction of wave breaking when a basic state has surface meridional shear can be anticipated because the displacement structures of CRWs tend to be coherent along surfaces of constant basic-state angular velocity, U. This results in up-gradient horizontal momentum fluxes for baroclinically growing disturbances. The momentum flux acts to shift the jet meridionally in the direction of the increasing surface U, so that the upper CRW breaks in the same direction as occurred at low levels</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/96/3/200513160806_ftp.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1477-870X</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The counter-propagating Rossby-wave perspective on baroclinic instability. Part IV: Nonlinear life cycles</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, B. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Heifetz, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bishop, C. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1256/qj.04.23</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:108
Date: 2017-01-28

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:108</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:01:56Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley</dc:publisher><dc:source>0043-1656</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Factors contributing to the summer 2003 European heatwave</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Black, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Blackburn, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Harrison, R. G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, B. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Methven, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1256/wea.74.04</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:110
Date: 2017-01-29

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:110</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:25Z</datestamp>
      <setSpec>7374617475733D707562</setSpec>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>A multiple regression analysis of the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis dataset shows a response to increased solar activity of a weakening and poleward shift of the subtropical jets. This signal is separable from other influences, such as those of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and is very similar to that seen in previous studies using global circulation models (GCMs) of the effects of an increase in solar spectral irradiance. The response to increased stratospheric (volcanic) aerosol is found in the data to be a weakening and equatorward shift of the jets. The GCM studies of the solar influence also showed an impact on tropospheric mean meridional circulation with a weakening and expansion of the tropical Hadley cells and a poleward shift of the Ferrel cells. To understand the mechanisms whereby the changes in solar irradiance affect tropospheric winds and circulation, experiments have been carried out with a simplified global circulation model. The results show that generic heating of the lower stratosphere tends to weaken the subtropical jets and the tropospheric mean meridional circulations. The positions of the jets, and the extent of the Hadley cells, respond to the distribution of the stratospheric heating, with low-latitude heating forcing them to move poleward, and high-latitude or latitudinally uniform heating forcing them equatorward. The patterns of response are similar to those that are found to be a result of the solar or volcanic influences, respectively, in the data analysis. This demonstrates that perturbations to the heat balance of the lower stratosphere, such as those brought about by solar or volcanic activity, can produce changes in the mean tropospheric circulation, even without any direct forcing below the tropopause.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/110/1/haigh_et_al_strat_trop_2005_jclim.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1520-0442</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The response of tropospheric circulation to perturbations in lower-stratospheric temperature</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Haigh, Joanna D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Blackburn, Michael</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Day, Rebecca</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3472.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:119
Date: 2017-01-28

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:119</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:01:58Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The clustering in time (seriality) of extratropical cyclones is responsible for large cumulative insured losses in western Europe, though surprisingly little scientific attention has been given to this important property. This study investigates and quantifies the seriality of extratropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere using a point-process approach. A possible mechanism for serial clustering is the time-varying effect of the large-scale flow on individual cyclone tracks. Another mechanism is the generation by one  parent  cyclone of one or more  offspring  through secondary cyclogenesis. A long cyclone-track database was constructed for extended October March winters from 1950 to 2003 using 6-h analyses of 850-mb relative vorticity derived from the NCEP NCAR reanalysis. A dispersion statistic based on the varianceto- mean ratio of monthly cyclone counts was used as a measure of clustering. It reveals extensive regions of statistically significant clustering in the European exit region of the North Atlantic storm track and over the central North Pacific. Monthly cyclone counts were regressed on time-varying teleconnection indices with a log-linear Poisson model. Five independent teleconnection patterns were found to be significant factors over Europe: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the east Atlantic pattern, the Scandinavian pattern, the east Atlantic western Russian pattern, and the polar Eurasian pattern. The NAO alone is not sufficient for explaining the variability of cyclone counts in the North Atlantic region and western Europe. Rate dependence on time-varying teleconnection indices accounts for the variability in monthly cyclone counts, and a cluster process did not need to be invoked.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.ametsoc.org/pubs/journals/index.html</dc:relation><dc:source>1520-0493</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Serial clustering of extratropical cyclones</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Mailier, P. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Stephenson, D. B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ferro, C. A. T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2006</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1175/MWR3160.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:120
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:120</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:00Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>How good is the Hadley Centre climate model? Research at CGAM on identifying and understanding model systematic errors: 1999-2002 - CGAM/NCAS Report</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Slingo, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guilyardi, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K.I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, B.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Inness, P.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lawrence, D.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Neale, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Osborne, T.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Spencer, Hilary</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Yang, G.Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:type>Monograph</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:147
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:147</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:01Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Gower</dc:publisher><dc:source>056608204</dc:source><dc:subject>020</dc:subject><dc:title>Convergence: a review of the literature</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sutton, Alison Mary</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:contributor>Reid, Bruce J</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:contributor>Foster, William</rioxxterms:contributor><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Book chapter</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:152
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:152</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:01Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>For the tracking of extrema associated with weather systems to be&#13;
applied to a broad range of fields it is necessary to remove a background&#13;
field that represents the slowly varying, large spatial scales. The&#13;
sensitivity of the tracking analysis to the form of background field&#13;
removed is explored for the Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks&#13;
for three contrasting fields from an integration of the U. K. Met&#13;
Office's (UKMO) Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadAM3). Several methods&#13;
are explored for the removal of a background field from the simple&#13;
subtraction of the climatology, to the more sophisticated removal&#13;
of the planetary scales. Two temporal filters are also considered&#13;
in the form of a 2-6-day Lanczos filter and a 20-day high-pass Fourier&#13;
filter. The analysis indicates that the simple subtraction of the&#13;
climatology tends to change the nature of the systems to the extent&#13;
that there is a redistribution of the systems relative to the climatological&#13;
background resulting in very similar statistical distributions for&#13;
both positive and negative anomalies. The optimal planetary wave&#13;
filter removes total wavenumbers less than or equal to a number in&#13;
the range 5-7, resulting in distributions more easily related to&#13;
particular types of weather system. For the temporal filters the&#13;
2-6-day bandpass filter is found to have a detrimental impact on&#13;
the individual weather systems, resulting in the storm tracks having&#13;
a weak waveguide type of behavior. The 20-day high-pass temporal&#13;
filter is less aggressive than the 2-6-day filter and produces results&#13;
falling between those of the climatological and 2-6-day filters.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1520-0493</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Sensitivity of feature-based analysis methods of storm tracks to the form of background field removal</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Anderson, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, Brian John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131&lt;0565:SOFBAM&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:153
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:153</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:02Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The behavior of the Asian summer monsoon is documented and compared&#13;
using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)&#13;
Reanalysis (ERA) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National&#13;
Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) Reanalysis. In terms&#13;
of seasonal mean climatologies the results suggest that, in several&#13;
respects, the ERA is superior to the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis. The overall&#13;
better simulation of the precipitation and hence the diabatic heating&#13;
field over the monsoon domain in ERA means that the analyzed circulation&#13;
is probably nearer reality. In terms of interannual variability,&#13;
inconsistencies in the definition of weak and strong monsoon years&#13;
based on typical monsoon indices such as All-India Rainfall (AIR)&#13;
anomalies and the large-scale wind shear based dynamical monsoon&#13;
index (DMI) still exist. Two dominant modes of interannual variability&#13;
have been identified that together explain nearly 50% of the variance.&#13;
Individually, they have many features in common with the composite&#13;
flow patterns associated with weak and strong monsoons, when defined&#13;
in terms of regional AIR anomalies and the large-scale DMI. The reanalyses&#13;
also show a common dominant mode of intraseasonal variability that&#13;
describes the latitudinal displacement of the tropical convergence&#13;
zone from its oceanic-to-continental regime and essentially captures&#13;
the low-frequency active/break cycles of the monsoon. The relationship&#13;
between interannual and intraseasonal variability has been investigated&#13;
by considering the probability density function (PDF) of the principal&#13;
component of the dominant intraseasonal mode. Based on the DMI, there&#13;
is an indication that in years with a weaker monsoon circulation,&#13;
the PDF is skewed toward negative values (i,e., break conditions).&#13;
Similarly, the PDFs for El Nino and La Nina years suggest that El&#13;
Nino predisposes the system to more break spells, although the sample&#13;
size may limit the statistical significance of the results.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com</dc:relation><dc:source>1520-0493</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The mean evolution and variability of the Asian summer monsoon: Comparison of ECMWF and NCEP-NCAR reanalyses</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Annamalai, H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Slingo, J. M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sperber, K. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127&lt;1157:TMEAVO&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:154
Date: 2017-01-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:154</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:26Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Several global quantities are computed from the ERA40 reanalysis for&#13;
the period 1958-2001 and explored for trends. These are discussed&#13;
in the context of changes to the global observing system. Temperature,&#13;
integrated water vapor (IWV), and kinetic energy are considered.&#13;
The ERA40 global mean temperature in the lower troposphere has a&#13;
trend of +0.11 K per decade over the period of 1979-2001, which is&#13;
slightly higher than the MSU measurements, but within the estimated&#13;
error limit. For the period 1958 2001 the warming trend is 0.14 K&#13;
per decade but this is likely to be an artifact of changes in the&#13;
observing system. When this is corrected for, the warming trend is&#13;
reduced to 0.10 K per decade. The global trend in IWV for the period&#13;
1979-2001 is +0.36 mm per decade. This is about twice as high as&#13;
the trend determined from the Clausius-Clapeyron relation assuming&#13;
conservation of relative humidity. It is also larger than results&#13;
from free climate model integrations driven by the same observed&#13;
sea surface temperature as used in ERA40. It is suggested that the&#13;
large trend in IWV does not represent a genuine climate trend but&#13;
an artifact caused by changes in the global observing system such&#13;
as the use of SSM/I and more satellite soundings in later years.&#13;
Recent results are in good agreement with GPS measurements. The IWV&#13;
trend for the period 1958-2001 is still higher but reduced to +0.16&#13;
mm per decade when corrected for changes in the observing systems.&#13;
Total kinetic energy shows an increasing global trend. Results from&#13;
data assimilation experiments strongly suggest that this trend is&#13;
also incorrect and mainly caused by the huge changes in the global&#13;
observing system in 1979. When this is corrected for, no significant&#13;
change in global kinetic energy from 1958 onward can be found.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Geophysical Union</dc:publisher><dc:source>0148-0227</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hagemann, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-06-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004536</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:155
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:155</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:04Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Using the method of Lorenz (1982), we have estimated the predictability&#13;
of a recent version of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather&#13;
Forecasting (ECMWF) model using two different estimates of the initial&#13;
error corresponding to 6- and 24-hr forecast errors, respectively.&#13;
For a 6-hr forecast error of the extratropical 500-hPa geopotential&#13;
height field, a potential increase in forecast skill by more than&#13;
3 d is suggested, indicating a further increase in predictability&#13;
by another 1.5 d compared to the use of a 24-hr forecast error. This&#13;
is due to a smaller initial error and to an initial error reduction&#13;
resulting in a smaller averaged growth rate for the whole 7-d forecast.&#13;
A similar assessment for the tropics using the wind vector fields&#13;
at 850 and 250 hPa suggests a huge potential improvement with a 7-d&#13;
forecast providing the same skill as a 1-d forecast now. A contributing&#13;
factor to the increase in the estimate of predictability is the apparent&#13;
slow increase of error during the early part of the forecast.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:source>0280-6495</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>A note on atmospheric predictability</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2006-01</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2006.00156.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:156
Date: 2017-01-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:156</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:26Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The impact of humidity observations on forecast skill is explored&#13;
by producing a series of global forecasts using initial data derived&#13;
from the ERA-40 reanalyses system, in which all humidity data have&#13;
been removed during the data assimilation. The new forecasts have&#13;
been compared with the original ERA-40 analyses and forecasts made&#13;
from them. Both sets of forecasts show virtually identical prediction&#13;
skill in the extratropics and the tropics. Differences between the&#13;
forecasts are small and undergo characteristic amplification rate.&#13;
There are larger differences in temperature and geopotential in the&#13;
tropics but the differences are small-scale and unstructured and&#13;
have no noticeable effect on the skill of the wind forecasts. The&#13;
results highlight the current very limited impact of the humidity&#13;
observations, used to produce the initial state, on the forecasts.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:source>0280-6495</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>On the impact of humidity observations in numerical weather prediction</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2005.00142.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:157
Date: 2017-01-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:157</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:27Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The impact of selected observing systems on forecast skill is explored&#13;
using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)&#13;
40-yr reanalysis (ERA-40) system. Analyses have been produced for&#13;
a surface-based observing system typical of the period prior to 1945/1950,&#13;
a terrestrial-based observing system typical of the period 1950-1979&#13;
and a satellite-based observing system consisting of surface pressure&#13;
and satellite observations. Global prediction experiments have been&#13;
undertaken using these analyses as initial states, and which are&#13;
available every 6 h, for the boreal winters of 1990/1991 and 2000/2001&#13;
and the summer of 2000, using a more recent version of the ECMWF&#13;
model. The results show that for 500-hPa geopotential height, as&#13;
a representative field, the terrestrial system in the Northern Hemisphere&#13;
extratropics is only slightly inferior to the control system, which&#13;
makes use of all observations for the analysis, and is also more&#13;
accurate than the satellite system. There are indications that the&#13;
skill of the terrestrial system worsens slightly and the satellite&#13;
system improves somewhat between 1990/1991 and 2000/2001. The forecast&#13;
skill in the Southern Hemisphere is dominated by the satellite information&#13;
and this dominance is larger in the latter period. The overall skill&#13;
is only slightly worse than that of the Northern Hemisphere. In the&#13;
tropics (20 degrees S-20 degrees N), using the wind at 850 and 250&#13;
hPa as representative fields, the information content in the terrestrial&#13;
and satellite systems is almost equal and complementary. The surface-based&#13;
system has very limited skill restricted to the lower troposphere&#13;
of the Northern Hemisphere. Predictability calculations show a potential&#13;
for a further increase in predictive skill of 1-2 d in the extratropics&#13;
of both hemispheres, but a potential for a major improvement of many&#13;
days in the tropics. As well as the Eulerian perspective of predictability,&#13;
the storm tracks have been calculated from all experiments and validated&#13;
for the extratropics to provide a Lagrangian perspective.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journals/TEA</dc:relation><dc:source>0280-6495</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Global observations and forecast skill</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Froude, L. S. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2005</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2005.00138.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:158
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:158</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:08Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Reanalysis data obtained from data assimilation are increasingly used for diagnostic studies of the general circulation of the atmosphere, for the validation of modelling experiments and for estimating energy and water fluxes between the Earth surface and the atmosphere. Because fluxes are not specifically observed, but determined by the data assimilation system, they are not only influenced by the utilized observations but also by model physics and dynamics and by the assimilation method. In order to better understand the relative importance of humidity observations for the determination of the hydrological cycle, in this paper we describe an assimilation experiment using the ERA40 reanalysis system where all humidity data have been excluded from the observational data base. The surprising result is that the model, driven by the time evolution of wind, temperature and surface pressure, is able to almost completely reconstitute the large-scale hydrological cycle of the control assimilation without the use of any humidity data. In addition, analysis of the individual weather systems in the extratropics and tropics using an objective feature tracking analysis indicates that the humidity data have very little impact on these systems. We include a discussion of these results and possible consequences for the way moisture information is assimilated, as well as the potential consequences for the design of observing systems for climate monitoring. It is further suggested, with support from a simple assimilation study with another model, that model physics and dynamics play a decisive role for the hydrological cycle, stressing the need to better understand these aspects of model parametrization.&#13;
&#13;
.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:source>0280-6495</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Sensitivity of large-scale atmospheric analyses to humidity observations and its impact on the global water cycle and tropical and extratropical weather systems in ERA40</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Olof Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hagemann, Stefan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2004.00053.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:159
Date: 2017-01-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:159</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:28Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The impact of selected observing systems on the European Centre for&#13;
Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-yr reanalysis (ERA40) is&#13;
explored by mimicking observational networks of the past. This is&#13;
accomplished by systematically removing observations from the present&#13;
observational data base used by ERA40. The observing systems considered&#13;
are a surface-based system typical of the period prior to 1945/50,&#13;
obtained by only retaining the surface observations, a terrestrial-based&#13;
system typical of the period 1950-1979, obtained by removing all&#13;
space-based observations, and finally a space-based system, obtained&#13;
by removing all terrestrial observations except those for surface&#13;
pressure. Experiments using these different observing systems have&#13;
been limited to seasonal periods selected from the last 10 yr of&#13;
ERA40. The results show that the surface-based system has severe&#13;
limitations in reconstructing the atmospheric state of the upper&#13;
troposphere and stratosphere. The terrestrial system has major limitations&#13;
in generating the circulation of the Southern Hemisphere with considerable&#13;
errors in the position and intensity of individual weather systems.&#13;
The space-based system is able to analyse the larger-scale aspects&#13;
of the global atmosphere almost as well as the present observing&#13;
system but performs less well in analysing the smaller-scale aspects&#13;
as represented by the vorticity field. Here, terrestrial data such&#13;
as radiosondes and aircraft observations are of paramount importance.&#13;
The terrestrial system in the form of a limited number of radiosondes&#13;
in the tropics is also required to analyse the quasi-biennial oscillation&#13;
phenomenon in a proper way. The results also show the dominance of&#13;
the satellite observing system in the Southern Hemisphere. These&#13;
results all indicate that care is required in using current reanalyses&#13;
in climate studies due to the large inhomogeneity of the available&#13;
observations, in particular in time.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:source>0280-6495</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Sensitivity of the ERA40 reanalysis to the observing system: determination of the global atmospheric circulation from reduced observations</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hagemann, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2004.00079.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:160
Date: 2017-01-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:160</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:29Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Extratropical and tropical transient storm tracks are investigated&#13;
from the perspective of feature tracking in the ECHAM5 coupled climate&#13;
model for the current and a future climate scenario. The atmosphere-only&#13;
part of the model, forced by observed boundary conditions, produces&#13;
results that agree well with analyses from the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis&#13;
(ERA-40), including the distribution of storms as a function of maximum&#13;
intensity. This provides the authors with confidence in the use of&#13;
the model for the climate change experiments. The statistical distribution&#13;
of storm intensities is virtually preserved under climate change&#13;
using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special&#13;
Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario until the end of&#13;
this century. There are no indications in this study of more intense&#13;
storms in the future climate, either in the Tropics or extratropics,&#13;
but rather a minor reduction in the number of weaker storms. However,&#13;
significant changes occur on a regional basis in the location and&#13;
intensity of storm tracks. There is a clear poleward shift in the&#13;
Southern Hemisphere with consequences of reduced precipitation for&#13;
several areas, including southern Australia. Changes in the Northern&#13;
Hemisphere are less distinct, but there are also indications of a&#13;
poleward shift, a weakening of the Mediterranean storm track, and&#13;
a strengthening of the storm track north of the British Isles. The&#13;
tropical storm tracks undergo considerable changes including a weakening&#13;
in the Atlantic sector and a strengthening and equatorward shift&#13;
in the eastern Pacific. It is suggested that some of the changes,&#13;
in particular the tropical ones, are due to an SST warming maximum&#13;
in the eastern Pacific. The shift in the extratropical storm tracks&#13;
is shown to be associated with changes in the zonal SST gradient&#13;
in particular for the Southern Hemisphere.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com</dc:relation><dc:source>1520-0442</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Storm tracks and climate change</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Roeckner, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2006</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3815.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:162
Date: 2017-01-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:162</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:29Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A new method for assessing forecast skill and predictability that involves the identification and tracking of extratropical cyclones has been developed and implemented to obtain detailed information about the prediction of cyclones that cannot be obtained from more conventional analysis methodologies. The cyclones were identified and tracked along the forecast trajectories, and statistics were&#13;
generated to determine the rate at which the position and intensity of the forecasted storms diverge from the analyzed tracks as a function of forecast lead time. The results show a higher level of skill in predicting the position of extratropical cyclones than the intensity. They also show that there is potential to improve the skill in predicting&#13;
the position by 1 - 1.5 days and the intensity by 2 - 3 days, via improvements to the forecast model. Further analysis shows that forecasted storms move at a slower speed than analyzed storms on average and that there is a larger error in the predicted amplitudes of intense storms than the weaker storms. The results also show that some storms&#13;
can be predicted up to 3 days before they are identified as an 850-hPa vorticity center in the analyses. In general, the results show a higher level of skill in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than the Southern Hemisphere (SH); however, the rapid growth of NH winter storms is not very well predicted. The impact that observations of different&#13;
types have on the prediction of the extratropical cyclones has also been explored, using forecasts integrated from analyses that were constructed from reduced observing systems. A terrestrial, satellite, and surface-based system were investigated and the results showed that the predictive skill of the terrestrial system was superior to the satellite system in the NH. Further analysis showed that the&#13;
satellite system was not very good at predicting the growth of the storms. In the SH the terrestrial system has significantly less skill than the satellite system, highlighting the dominance of satellite observations in this hemisphere. The surface system has very poor predictive skill in both hemispheres.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0027-0644</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The predictability of extratropical storm tracks and the sensitivity of their prediction to the observing system</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Froude, L. S. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR3274.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:163
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:163</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:10Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>In this paper extensions to an existing tracking algorithm are described.&#13;
These extensions implement adaptive tracking constraints in the form&#13;
of regional upper-bound displacements and an adaptive track smoothness&#13;
constraint. Together, these constraints make the tracking algorithm&#13;
more flexible than the original algorithm (which used fixed tracking&#13;
parameters) and provide greater confidence in the tracking results.&#13;
The result of applying the new algorithm to high-resolution ECMWF&#13;
reanalysis data is shown as an example of its effectiveness.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/163/1/mwr7.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1520-0493</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Adaptive constraints for feature tracking</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127&lt;1362:ACFFT&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:164
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>In a recently published paper. spherical nonparametric estimators&#13;
were applied to feature-track ensembles to determine a range of statistics&#13;
for the atmospheric features considered. This approach obviates the&#13;
types of bias normally introduced with traditional estimators. New&#13;
spherical isotropic kernels with local support were introduced. Ln&#13;
this paper the extension to spherical nonisotropic kernels with local&#13;
support is introduced, together with a means of obtaining the shape&#13;
and smoothing parameters in an objective way. The usefulness of spherical&#13;
nonparametric estimators based on nonisotropic kernels is demonstrated&#13;
with an application to an oceanographic feature-track ensemble.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-toc&amp;issn=1520-0493&amp;volume=127&amp;issue=2</dc:relation><dc:source>0027-0644 </dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Extension of spherical nonparametric estimators to nonisotropic kernels: An oceanographic application</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1999-02</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127&lt;0214:EOSNET&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:165
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:165</identifier>
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convective complexes using satellite imagery is explored in the context&#13;
of identifying feature points suitable for tracking. The feature&#13;
points are determined based on the shape of complexes using the distance&#13;
transform technique. This approach has been applied to the determination&#13;
feature points for tropical convective complexes identified in a&#13;
time series of global cloud imagery. The feature points are used&#13;
to track the complexes, and from the tracks statistical diagnostic&#13;
fields are computed. This approach allows the nature and distribution&#13;
of organized deep convection in the Tropics to be explored.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-toc&amp;issn=1520-0493&amp;volume=126&amp;issue=3</dc:relation><dc:source>0027-0644 </dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Feature-point detection using distance transforms: Application to tracking tropical convective complexes</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1998</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126&lt;0785:FPDUDT&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:166
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:166</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:13Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The aim of this paper is essentially twofold: first, to describe the&#13;
use of spherical nonparametric estimators for determining statistical&#13;
diagnostic fields from ensembles of feature tracks on a global domain,&#13;
and second, to report the application of these techniques to data&#13;
derived from a modern general circulation model. New spherical kernel&#13;
functions are introduced that are more efficiently computed than&#13;
the traditional exponential kernels. The data-driven techniques of&#13;
cross-validation to determine the amount elf smoothing objectively,&#13;
and adaptive smoothing to vary the smoothing locally, are also considered.&#13;
Also introduced are techniques for combining seasonal statistical&#13;
distributions to produce longer-term statistical distributions. Although&#13;
all calculations are performed globally, only the results for the&#13;
Northern Hemisphere winter (December, January, February) and Southern&#13;
Hemisphere winter (June, July, August) cyclonic activity are presented,&#13;
discussed, and compared with previous studies. Overall, results for&#13;
the two hemispheric winters are in good agreement with previous studies,&#13;
both for model-based studies and observational studies.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/166/1/mwr3.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0027-0644</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Spherical nonparametric estimators applied to the UGAMP model integration for AMIP</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1996</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124&lt;2914:SNEATT&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:167
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:167</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:14Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Techniques used in a previous study of the objective identification&#13;
and tracking of meteorological features in model data are extended&#13;
to the unit sphere. An alternative feature detection scheme is described&#13;
based on cubic interpolation for the sphere and local maximization.&#13;
The extension of the tracking technique, used in the previous study,&#13;
to the unit sphere is described. An example of the application of&#13;
these techniques to a global relative vorticity field from a model&#13;
integration are presented and discussed.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/167/1/mwr2.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0027-0644</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Feature tracking on the unit-sphere</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1995</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123&lt;3458:FTOTUS&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:168
Date: 2017-01-28

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:168</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:15Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Recent interest in the validation of general circulation models (GCMs)&#13;
has been devoted to objective methods. A small number of authors&#13;
have used the direct synoptic identification of phenomena together&#13;
with a statistical analysis to perform the objective comparison between&#13;
various datasets. This paper describes a general method for performing&#13;
the synoptic identification of phenomena that can be used for an&#13;
objective analysis of atmospheric, or oceanographic, datasets obtained&#13;
from numerical models and remote sensing. Methods usually associated&#13;
with image processing have been used to segment the scene and to&#13;
identify suitable feature points to represent the phenomena of interest.&#13;
This is performed for each time level. A technique from dynamic scene&#13;
analysis is then used to link the feature points to form trajectories.&#13;
The method is fully automatic and should be applicable to a wide&#13;
range of geophysical fields. An example will be shown of results&#13;
obtained from this method using data obtained from a run of the Universities&#13;
Global Atmospheric Modelling Project GCM.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/168/1/mwr1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0027-0644</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>A general-method for tracking analysis and its application to meteorological data</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1994</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1994)122&lt;2573:AGMFTA&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:169
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:169</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:16Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>An improved algorithm for the generation of gridded window brightness&#13;
temperatures is presented. The primary data source is the International&#13;
Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, level B3 data, covering the&#13;
period from July 1983 to the present. The algorithm rakes window&#13;
brightness, temperatures from multiple satellites, both geostationary&#13;
and polar orbiting, which have already been navigated and normalized&#13;
radiometrically to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's&#13;
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, and generates 3-hourly&#13;
global images on a 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees latitude-longitude&#13;
grid. The gridding uses a hierarchical scheme based on spherical&#13;
kernel estimators. As part of the gridding procedure, the geostationary&#13;
data are corrected for limb effects using a simple empirical correction&#13;
to the radiances, from which the corrected temperatures are computed.&#13;
This is in addition to the application of satellite zenith angle&#13;
weighting to downweight limb pixels in preference to nearer-nadir&#13;
pixels. The polar orbiter data are windowed on the target time with&#13;
temporal weighting to account for the noncontemporaneous nature of&#13;
the data. Large regions of missing data are interpolated from adjacent&#13;
processed images using a form of motion compensated interpolation&#13;
based on the estimation of motion vectors using an hierarchical block&#13;
matching scheme. Examples are shown of the various stages in the&#13;
process. Also shown are examples of the usefulness of this type of&#13;
data in GCM validation.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/169/1/jaot1.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com</dc:relation><dc:source>1520-0426</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>An improved algorithm for generating global window brightness temperatures from multiple satellite infrared imagery</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Chappell, D. W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Robinson, G. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Yang, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000-10</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1175/1520-0426(2000)017&lt;1296:AIAFGG&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:171
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:17Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Data from four recent reanalysis projects [ECMWF, NCEP-NCAR, NCEP&#13;
- Department of Energy ( DOE), NASA] have been diagnosed at the scale&#13;
of synoptic weather systems using an objective feature tracking method.&#13;
The tracking statistics indicate that, overall, the reanalyses correspond&#13;
very well in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) lower troposphere, although&#13;
differences for the spatial distribution of mean intensities show&#13;
that the ECMWF reanalysis is systematically stronger in the main&#13;
storm track regions but weaker around major orographic features.&#13;
A direct comparison of the track ensembles indicates a number of&#13;
systems with a broad range of intensities that compare well among&#13;
the reanalyses. In addition, a number of small-scale weak systems&#13;
are found that have no correspondence among the reanalyses or that&#13;
only correspond upon relaxing the matching criteria, indicating possible&#13;
differences in location and/or temporal coherence. These are distributed&#13;
throughout the storm tracks, particularly in the regions known for&#13;
small-scale activity, such as secondary development regions and the&#13;
Mediterranean. For the Southern Hemisphere (SH), agreement is found&#13;
to be generally less consistent in the lower troposphere with significant&#13;
differences in both track density and mean intensity. The systems&#13;
that correspond between the various reanalyses are considerably reduced&#13;
and those that do not match span a broad range of storm intensities.&#13;
Relaxing the matching criteria indicates that there is a larger degree&#13;
of uncertainty in both the location of systems and their intensities&#13;
compared with the NH. At upper-tropospheric levels, significant differences&#13;
in the level of activity occur between the ECMWF reanalysis and the&#13;
other reanalyses in both the NH and SH winters. This occurs due to&#13;
a lack of coherence in the apparent propagation of the systems in&#13;
ERA15 and appears most acute above 500 hPa. This is probably due&#13;
to the use of optimal interpolation data assimilation in ERA15. Also&#13;
shown are results based on using the same techniques to diagnose&#13;
the tropical easterly wave activity. Results indicate that the wave&#13;
activity is sensitive not only to the resolution and assimilation&#13;
methods used but also to the model formulation.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-toc&amp;issn=1520-0493&amp;volume=131&amp;issue=9</dc:relation><dc:source>0027-0644 </dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>A comparison of recent reanalysis datasets using objective feature tracking: Storm tracks and tropical easterly waves</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, Brian John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Boyle, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thorncroft, C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131&lt;2012:ACORRD&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:172
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:172</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:18Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This paper provides for the first time an objective short-term (8&#13;
yr) climatology of African convective weather systems based on satellite&#13;
imagery. Eight years of infrared International Satellite Cloud Climatology&#13;
Project-European Space Agency's Meteorological Satellite (ISCCP-Meteosat)&#13;
satellite imagery has been analyzed using objective feature identification,&#13;
tracking, and statistical techniques for the July, August, and September&#13;
periods and the region of Africa and the adjacent Atlantic ocean.&#13;
This allows various diagnostics to be computed and used to study&#13;
the distribution of mesoscale and synoptic-scale convective weather&#13;
systems from mesoscale cloud clusters and squall lines to tropical&#13;
cyclones. An 8-yr seasonal climatology (1983-90) and the seasonal&#13;
cycle of this convective activity are presented and discussed. Also&#13;
discussed is the dependence of organized convection for this region,&#13;
on the orography, convective, and potential instability and vertical&#13;
wind shear using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts&#13;
reanalysis data.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-toc&amp;issn=1520-0493&amp;volume=125&amp;issue=11</dc:relation><dc:source>0027-0644 </dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Distribution and statistics of African mesoscale convective weather systems based on the ISCCP Meteosat imagery</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thorncroft, C.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>DOI:10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125&lt;2821:DASOAM&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:174
Date: 2017-01-28

RIOXX

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:174</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:19Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The aim of this paper is to explore the use of both an Eulerian and&#13;
system-centered method of storm track diagnosis applied to a wide&#13;
range of meteorological fields at multiple levels to provide a range&#13;
of perspectives on the Northern Hemisphere winter transient motions&#13;
and to give new insight into the storm track organization and behavior.&#13;
The data used are primarily from the European Centre for Medium-Range&#13;
Weather Forecasts reanalyses project extended with operational analyses&#13;
to the period 1979-2000. This is supplemented by data from the National&#13;
Centers for Environmental Prediction and Goddard Earth Observing&#13;
System 1 reanalyses. The range of fields explored include the usual&#13;
mean sea level pressure and the lower- and upper-tropospheric height,&#13;
meridional wind, vorticity, and temperature, as well as the potential&#13;
vorticity (PV) on a 330-K isentropic surface (PV330) and potential&#13;
temperature on a PV = 2 PVU surface (theta(PV2)). As well as reporting&#13;
the primary analysis based on feature tracking, the standard Eulerian&#13;
2-6-day bandpass filtered variance analysis is also reported and&#13;
contrasted with the tracking diagnostics. To enable the feature points&#13;
to be identified as extrema for all the chosen fields, a planetary&#13;
wave background structure is removed at each data time. The bandpass&#13;
filtered variance derived from the different fields yield a rich&#13;
picture of the nature and comparative magnitudes of the North Pacific&#13;
and Atlantic storm tracks, and of the Siberian and Mediterranean&#13;
candidates for storm tracks. The feature tracking allows the cyclonic&#13;
and anticyclonic activities to be considered seperately. The analysis&#13;
indicates that anticyclonic features are generally much weaker with&#13;
less coherence than the cyclonic systems. Cyclones and features associated&#13;
with them are shown to have much greater coherence and give tracking&#13;
diagnostics that create a vivid storm track picture that includes&#13;
the aspects highlighted by the variances as well as highlighting&#13;
aspects that are not readily available from Eulerian studies. In&#13;
particular, the upper-tropospheric features as shown by negative&#13;
theta(PV2), for example, occur in a band spiraling around the hemisphere&#13;
from the subtropical North Atlantic eastward to the high latitudes&#13;
of the same ocean basin. Lower-troposphere storm tracks occupy more&#13;
limited longitudinal sectors, with many of the individual storms&#13;
possibly triggered from the upper-tropospheric disturbances in the&#13;
spiral band of activity.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1520-0469</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>New perspectives on the Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, Brian John</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2002-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059&lt;1041:NPOTNH&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:176
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:176</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:20Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The monsoon depressions that form over India during the summer are&#13;
analyzed using simulations from the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique&#13;
general circulation model. This type of synoptic system often occurs&#13;
with a frequency of one to two per month and can produce a strong&#13;
Indian rainfall. Two kinds of analyses are conducted in this study.&#13;
The first one is a subjective analysis based on the evolution of&#13;
the precipitation rate and the pattern of the sea level pressure.&#13;
The second one is an objective analysis performed using the TRACK&#13;
program, which identifies and tracks the minima in the sea level&#13;
pressure anomaly held and computes the statistics for the distribution&#13;
of systems. The analysis of a 9-yr control run, which simulates strong&#13;
precipitation rates over the foothills of the Himalayas and over&#13;
southern India but weak rates over central India, shows that the&#13;
number of disturbances is coo low and that they almost never occur&#13;
during August, when break conditions prevail. The generated disturbances&#13;
more often move north, toward the foothills of the Himalayas. Another&#13;
analysis is performed to study the effect of the Tibetan Plateau&#13;
elevation on these disturbances with a 9-yr run carried out with&#13;
a Tibetan Plateau at 50% of its current height. It is shown that&#13;
this later integration simulates more frequent monsoon disturbances,&#13;
which move rather northwestward, in agreement with the current observations.&#13;
The comparison between the two runs shows that the June-July-August&#13;
rainfall difference is in large part due to changes in the occurrence&#13;
of the monsoon disturbances.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC</dc:publisher><dc:source>0027-0644 </dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Simulation of monsoon disturbances in the LMD GCM</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sabre, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Laval, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Polcher, J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Desalmand, F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2000-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129&lt;3752:SOMDIT&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:177
Date: 2017-01-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:177</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:30Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The representation of the diurnal cycle in the Hadley Centre climate&#13;
model is evaluated using simulations of the infrared radiances observed&#13;
by Meteosat 7. In both the window and water vapour channels, the&#13;
standard version of the model with 19 levels produces a good simulation&#13;
of the geographical distributions of the mean radiances and of the&#13;
amplitude of the diurnal cycle. Increasing the vertical resolution&#13;
to 30 levels leads to further improvements in the mean fields. The&#13;
timing of the maximum and minimum radiances reveals significant model&#13;
errors, however, which are sensitive to the frequency with which&#13;
the radiation scheme is called. In most regions, these errors are&#13;
consistent with well documented errors in the timing of convective&#13;
precipitation, which peaks before noon in the model, in contrast&#13;
to the observed peak in the late afternoon or evening. When the radiation&#13;
scheme is called every model time step (half an hour), as opposed&#13;
to every three hours in the standard version, the timing of the minimum&#13;
radiance is improved for convective regions over central Africa,&#13;
due to the creation of upper-level layer-cloud by detrainment from&#13;
the convection scheme, which persists well after the convection itself&#13;
has dissipated. However, this produces a decoupling between the timing&#13;
of the diurnal cycles of precipitation and window channel radiance.&#13;
The possibility is raised that a similar decoupling may occur in&#13;
reality and the implications of this for the retrieval of the diurnal&#13;
cycle of precipitation from infrared radiances are discussed.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Royal Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1477-870X</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Simulation of the diurnal cycle in a climate model and its evaluation using data from Meteosat 7</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Slingo, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Robinson, G. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2004-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1256/qj.03.165 </rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:179
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:179</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:23Z</datestamp>
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    <metadata>
      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Automatic tracking of vorticity centers in European Centre for Medium-Range&#13;
Weather Forecasts analyses has been used to develop a 20-yr climatology&#13;
of African easterly wave activity. The tracking statistics at 600&#13;
and 850 mb confirm the complicated easterly wave structures present&#13;
over the African continent. The rainy zone equatorward of 15 degreesN&#13;
is dominated by 600-mb activity, and the much drier Saharan region&#13;
poleward of 15 degreesN is more dominated by 850-mb activity. Over&#13;
the Atlantic Ocean there is just one storm track with the 600- and&#13;
850-mb wave activity collocated. Based on growth/decay and genesis&#13;
statistics, it appears that the 850-mb waves poleward of 15 degreesN&#13;
over land generally do not get involved with the equatorward storm&#13;
track over the ocean. Instead, there appears to be significant development&#13;
of 850-mb activity at the West African coast in the rainy zone around&#13;
(10 degreesN, 10 degreesW), which, it is proposed, is associated&#13;
with latent heat release. Based on the tracking statistics, it has&#13;
been shown that there is marked interannual variability in African&#13;
easterly wave (AEW) activity. It is especially marked at the 850-mb&#13;
level at the West African coast between about 10 degrees and 15 degreesN,&#13;
where the coefficient of variation is 0.29. For the period between&#13;
1985 and 1998, a notable positive correlation is seen between this&#13;
AEW activity and Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. This correlation&#13;
is particularly strong for the postreanalysis period between 1994&#13;
and 1998. This result suggests that Atlantic tropical cyclone activity&#13;
may be influenced by the number of AEWs leaving the West African&#13;
coast, which have significant low-level amplitudes, and not simply&#13;
by the total number of AEWs.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-toc&amp;issn=1520-0442&amp;volume=14&amp;issue=6</dc:relation><dc:source>1520-0442</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>African easterly wave variability and its relationship to Atlantic tropical cyclone activity</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Thorncroft, Chris</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin Ivan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2001-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014&lt;1166:AEWVAI&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:184
Date: 2017-01-29

RIOXX

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<record>
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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:184</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:32Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>AEA Technology has provided an assessment of the probability of α-mode containment failure for the Sizewell B PWR. After a preliminary review of the methodologies available it was decided to use the probabilistic approach described in the paper, based on an extension of the methodology developed by Theofanous et al. (Nucl. Sci. Eng. 97 (1987) 259–325). The input to the assessment is 12 probability distributions; the bases for the quantification of these distributions are discussed. The α-mode assessment performed for the Sizewell B PWR has demonstrated the practicality of the event-tree method with input data represented by probability distributions. The assessment itself has drawn attention to a number of topics, which may be plant and sequence dependent, and has indicated the importance of melt relocation scenarios. The α-mode failure probability following an accident that leads to core melt relocation to the lower head for the Sizewell B PWR has been assessed as a few parts in 10 000, on the basis of current information. This assessment has been the first to consider elevated pressures (6 MPa and 15 MPa) besides atmospheric pressure, but the results suggest only a modest sensitivity to system pressure.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier</dc:publisher><dc:source>0029-5493</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Quantification of the probability of containment failure caused by an in-vessel steam explosion for the Sizewell B PWR</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Turland, B. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fletcher, D. F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Attwood, G. J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1995</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(94)00888-6</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:185
Date: 2017-01-29

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:185</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:33Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The automatic tracking technique used by Thorncroft and Hodges (2001) has been used to identify coherent vorticity structures at 850hPa over West Africa and the tropical Atlantic in the ECMWF 40-year reanalysis. The presence of two dominant source regions, north and south of 15ºN over West Africa, for storm tracks over the Atlantic was confirmed. Results show that the southern storm track provides most of the storms that reach the main development region where most tropical cyclones develop. There exists marked seasonal variability in location and intensity of the storms leaving the West African coast, which may influence the likelihood of downstream intensification and longevity. There exists considerable year-to-year variability in the number of West African storm tracks, both in numbers over the land and continuing out over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. While the low-frequency variability is well correlated with Atlantic tropical cyclone activity, West African rainfall and SSTs, the interannual variability is found to be uncorrelated with these. In contrast, variance of the 2-6-day-filtered meridional wind, which provides a synoptic-scale measure of African Easterly Wave activity, shows a significant, positive correlation with tropical cyclone activity at interannual timescales.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/185/1/Hopschetal.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1520-0442</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>West African storm tracks and their relationship to Atlantic tropical cyclones</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hopsch, S. B.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Thorncroft, C. D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Aiyyer, A.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4139.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:186
Date: 2017-01-29

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:186</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:34Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The prediction of extratropical cyclones by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS) has been investigated using an objective feature tracking methodology to identify and track the cyclones along the forecast trajectories. Overall the results show that the ECMWF EPS has a slightly higher level of skill than the NCEP EPS in the northern hemisphere (NH). However in the southern hemisphere (SH), NCEP has higher predictive skill than ECMWF for the intensity of the cyclones. The results from both EPS indicate a higher level of predictive skill for the position of extratropical cyclones than their intensity and show that there is a larger spread in intensity than position. Further analysis shows that the predicted propagation speed of cyclones is generally too slow for the ECMWF EPS and show a slight bias for the intensity of the cyclones to be overpredicted. This is also true for the NCEP EPS in the SH. For the NCEP EPS in the NH the intensity of the cyclones is underpredicted. There is small bias in both the EPS for the cyclones to be displaced towards the poles. For each ensemble forecast of each cyclone, the predictive skill of the ensemble member that best predicts the cyclones position and intensity was computed. The results are very encouraging showing that the predictive skill of the best ensemble member is significantly higher than that of the control forecast in terms of both the position and intensity of the cyclones. The prediction of cyclones before they are identified as 850 hPa vorticity centers in the analysis cycle was also considered. It is shown that an indication of extratropical cyclones can be given by at least 1 ensemble member 7 days before they are identified in the analysis. Further analysis of the ECMWF EPS shows that the ensemble mean has a higher level of skill than the control forecast, particularly for the intensity of the cyclones, 2 from day 3 of the forecast. There is a higher level of skill in the NH than the SH and the spread in the SH is correspondingly larger. The difference between the ensemble mean and spread is very small for the position of the cyclones, but the spread of the ensemble is smaller than the ensemble mean error for the intensity of the cyclones in both hemispheres. Results also show that the ECMWF control forecast has ½ to 1 day more skill than the perturbed members, for both the position and intensity of the cyclones, throughout the forecast.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/186/1/Froudeetal.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>0027-0644</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>The prediction of extratropical storm tracks by the ECMWF and NCEP ensemble prediction systems</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Froude, Lizzie S. R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, Kevin I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR3422.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:187
Date: 2017-01-29

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:187</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:35Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>The reliability of the global reanalyses in the polar regions is investigated. The overview stems from an April 2006 Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) workshop on the performance of global reanalyses in high latitudes held at the British Antarctic Survey. Overall, the skill is much higher in the Arctic than the Antarctic, where the reanalyses are only reliable in the summer months prior to the modern satellite era. In the Antarctic, large circulation differences between the reanalyses are found primarily before 1979, when vast quantities of satellite sounding data started to be assimilated. Specifically for ERA-40, this data discontinuity creates a marked jump in Antarctic snow accumulation, especially at high elevations. In the Arctic, the largest differences are related to the reanalyses  depiction of clouds and their associated radiation impacts; ERA-40 captures the cloud variability much better than NCEP1 and JRA-25, but the ERA-40 and JRA-25 clouds are too optically thin for shortwave radiation. To further contrast the reanalyses skill, cyclone tracking results are presented. In the Southern Hemisphere, cyclonic activity is markedly different between the reanalyses, where there are few matched cyclones prior to 1979. In comparison, only some of the weaker cyclones are not matched in the Northern Hemisphere from 1958-2001, again indicating the superior skill in this hemisphere. Although this manuscript focuses on deficiencies in the reanalyses, it is important to note that they are a powerful tool for climate studies in both polar regions when used with a recognition of their limitations.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/187/1/1287grl24641.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Geophysical Union</dc:publisher><dc:source>0148-0227</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>A Tropospheric Assessment of the ERA-40, NCEP, and JRA-25 Global Reanalyses in the Polar Regions</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bromwich, D. H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Fogt, R. L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Walsh, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007859</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:188
Date: 2017-01-29

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:188</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:36Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Tropical cyclones have been investigated in a T159 version of the MPI ECHAM5 climate model using a novel technique to diagnose the evolution of the 3-dimensional vorticity structure of tropical cyclones, including their full life cycle from weak initial vortex to their possible extra-tropical transition. Results have been compared with reanalyses (ERA40 and JRA25) and observed tropical storms during the period 1978-1999 for the Northern Hemisphere. There is no indication of any trend in the number or intensity of tropical storms during this period in ECHAM5 or in re-analyses but there are distinct inter-annual variations. The storms simulated by ECHAM5 are realistic both in space and time, but the model and even more so the re-analyses, underestimate the intensities of the most intense storms (in terms of their maximum wind speeds). There is an indication of a response to ENSO with a smaller number of Atlantic storms during El Niño in agreement with previous studies. The global divergence circulation responds to El Niño by setting up a large-scale convergence flow, with the center over the central Pacific with enhanced subsidence over the tropical Atlantic. At the same time there is an increase in the vertical wind shear in the region of the tropical Atlantic where tropical storms normally develop. There is a good correspondence between the model and ERA40 except that the divergence circulation is somewhat stronger in the model. The model underestimates storms in the Atlantic but tends to overestimate them in the Western Pacific and in the North Indian Ocean. It is suggested that the overestimation of storms in the Pacific by the model is related to an overly strong response to the tropical Pacific SST anomalies. The overestimation in 2 the North Indian Ocean is likely to be due to an over prediction in the intensity of monsoon depressions, which are then classified as intense tropical storms. Nevertheless, overall results are encouraging and will further contribute to increased confidence in simulating intense tropical storms with high-resolution climate models.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/188/4/188-15009-43825-1-SM%20%281%29.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/tea</dc:relation><dc:source>0280-6495</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Tropical cyclones in a T159 Resolution Global Climate Model: comparison with observations and re-analyses</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Esch, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>VoR</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2007.00236.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:189
Date: 2017-01-29

RIOXX

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<record>
    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:189</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:36Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><ali:free_to_read/><dc:description>Tropical Cyclones (TC) under different climate conditions in the Northern Hemisphere have been investigated with the Max Planck Institute (MPI) coupled (ECHAM5/MPIOM) and atmosphere (ECHAM5) climate models. The intensity and size of the TC depend crucially on resolution with higher wind speed and smaller scales at the higher resolutions. The typical size of the TC is reduced by a factor of 2.3 from T63 to T319 using the distance of the maximum wind speed from the centre of the storm as a measure. The full three dimensional structure of the storms becomes increasingly more realistic as the resolution is increased. For the T63 resolution, three ensemble runs are explored for the period 1860 until 2100 using the IPCC SRES scenario A1B and evaluated for three 30 year periods at the end of the 19th, 20th and 21st century, respectively. While there is no significant change between the 19th and the 20th century, there is a considerable reduction in the number of the TC by some 20% in the 21st century, but no change in the number of the more intense storms. Reduction in the number of storms occurs in all regions. A single additional experiment at T213 resolution was run for the two latter 30-year periods. The T213 is an atmospheric only experiment using the transient Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) of the T63 resolution experiment. Also in this case, there is a reduction by some 10% in the number of simulated TC in the 21st century compared to the 20th century but a marked increase in the number of intense storms. The number of storms with maximum wind speeds greater than 50ms-1 increases by a third. Most of the intensification takes place in 2 the Eastern Pacific and in the Atlantic where also the number of storms more or less stays the same. We identify two competing processes effecting TC in a warmer climate. First, the increase in the static stability and the reduced vertical circulation is suggested to contribute to the reduction in the number of storms. Second, the increase in temperature and water vapor provide more energy for the storms so that when favorable conditions occur, the higher SST and higher specific humidity will contribute to more intense storms. As the maximum intensity depends crucially on resolution, this will require higher resolution to have its full effect. The distribution of storms between different regions does not, at first approximation, depend on the temperature itself but on the distribution of the SST anomalies and their influence on the atmospheric circulation. Two additional transient experiments at T319 resolution where run for 20 years at the end of the 20th and 21st century, respectively using the same conditions as in the T213 experiments. The results are consistent with the T213 study. The total number of tropical cyclones were similar to the T213 experiment but were generally more intense. The change from the 20th to the 21st century was also similar with fewer TC in total but with more intense cyclones.</dc:description><dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format><dc:identifier>http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/189/1/htvb.pdf</dc:identifier><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Wiley-Blackwell</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/tea</dc:relation><dc:source>0280-6495</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>How may tropical cyclones change in a warmer climate?</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Bengtsson, Lennart</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodges, K. I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Esch, M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Keenlyside, N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Kornblueh, L.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Luo, J.-J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Yamagata, T.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>AM</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2007.00251.x</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:190
Date: 2017-01-29

RIOXX

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PropertyError
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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:195
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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:196
Date: 2017-01-29

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:206
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>Model based vision allows use of prior knowledge of the shape and appearance of specific objects to be used in the interpretation of a visual scene; it provides a powerful and natural way to enforce the view consistency constraint. A model based vision system has been developed within ESPRIT VIEWS: P2152 which is able to classify and track moving objects (cars and other vehicles) in complex, cluttered traffic scenes. The fundamental basis of the method has been previously reported. This paper presents recent developments which have extended the scope of the system to include (i) multiple cameras, (ii) variable camera geometry, and (iii) articulated objects. All three enhancements have easily been accommodated within the original model-based approach</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>4th British Machine Vision Conference</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>Advances in Model-Based Traffic Vision</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baker, K.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1992-09-21</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:208
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:34Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A new algorithm is described for refining the pose of a model of a rigid object, to conform more accurately to the image structure. Elemental 3D forces are considered to act on the model. These are derived from directional derivatives of the image local to the projected model features. The convergence properties of the algorithm is investigated and compared to a previous technique. Its use in a video sequence of a cluttered outdoor traffic scene is also illustrated and assessed.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>3rd European Conference on Computer Vision</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>Pose Refinement of Active Models using Forces in 3D</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baker, K.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1994-05</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:209
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The paper reports an interactive tool for calibrating a camera, suitable for use in outdoor scenes. The motivation for the tool was the need to obtain an approximate calibration for images taken with no explicit calibration data. Such images are frequently presented to research laboratories, especially in surveillance applications, with a request to demonstrate algorithms. The method decomposes the calibration parameters into intuitively simple components, and relies on the operator interactively adjusting the parameter settings to achieve a visually acceptable agreement between a rectilinear calibration model and his own perception of the scene. Using the tool, we have been able to calibrate images of unknown scenes, taken with unknown cameras, in a matter of minutes. The standard of calibration has proved to be sufficient for model-based pose recovery and tracking of vehicles.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>British Machine Vision Conference</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>A simple, intuitive camera calibration tool for natural images</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baker, K.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1994-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:210
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:35Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This workshop paper reports recent developments to a vision system for traffic interpretation which relies extensively on the use of geometrical and scene context. Firstly, a new approach to pose refinement is reported, based on forces derived from prominent image derivatives found close to an initial hypothesis. Secondly, a parameterised vehicle model is reported, able to represent different vehicle classes. This general vehicle model has been fitted to sample data, and subjected to a Principal Component Analysis to create a deformable model of common car types having 6 parameters.&#13;
&#13;
We show that the new pose recovery technique is also able to operate on the PCA model, to allow the structure of an initial vehicle hypothesis to be adapted to fit the prevailing context. We report initial experiments with the model, which demonstrate significant improvements to pose recovery.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>Workshop on Context-Based Vision</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>Visual Object Recognition Using Deformable Models of Vehicles</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ferryman, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1995-06-19</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:211
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This paper reports the development of a highly parameterised 3-D model able to adopt the shapes of a wide variety of different classes of vehicles (cars, vans, buses, etc), and its subsequent specialisation to a generic car class which accounts for most commonly encountered types of car (includng saloon, hatchback and estate cars).&#13;
An interactive tool has been developed to obtain sample data for vehicles from video images. A PCA description of the manually sampled data provides a deformable model in which a single instance is described as a 6 parameter vector. Both the pose and the structure of a car can be recovered by fitting the PCA model to an image. The recovered description is sufficiently accurate to discriminate between vehicle sub-classes.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>British Machine Vision Conference</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>A Generic Deformable Model for Vehicle Recognition</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Ferryman, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baker, K.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1995-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:212
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A new formulation of a pose refinement technique using ``active'' models is described. An error term derived from the detection of image derivatives close to an initial object hypothesis is linearised and solved by least squares. The method is particularly well suited to problems involving external geometrical constraints (such as the ground-plane constraint). We show that the method is able to recover both the pose of a rigid model, and the structure of a deformable model. We report an initial assessment of the performance and cost of pose and structure recovery using the active model in comparison with our previously reported ``passive'' model-based techniques in the context of traffic surveillance. The new method is more stable, and requires fewer iterations, especially when the number of free parameters increases, but shows somewhat poorer convergence.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>6th British Machine Vision Conference</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>Pose and Structure Recovery using Active Models</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Ferryman, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baker, K.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1995-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:213
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This paper reports the current state of work to simplify our previous model-based methods for visual tracking of vehicles for use in a real-time system intended to provide continuous monitoring and classification of traffic from a fixed camera on a busy multi-lane motorway. The main constraints of the system design were: &#13;
(i) all low level processing to be carried out by low-cost auxiliary hardware, &#13;
(ii) all 3-D reasoning to be carried out automatically off-line, at set-up time.&#13;
The system developed uses three main stages: (i) pose and model hypothesis using 1-D templates, (ii) hypothesis tracking, and (iii) hypothesis verification, using 2-D templates. Stages (i) &amp; (iii) have radically different computing performance and computational costs, and need to be carefully balanced for efficiency. Together, they provide an effective way to locate, track and classify vehicles.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>7th British Machine Vision Conference</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>Model-based vehicle detection and classification using orthographic approximations</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baker, K.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Attwood, C.I.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Remagnino, P.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1996-09</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:214
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>A driver controls a car by turning the steering wheel or by pressing on the accelerator or the brake. These actions are modelled by Gaussian processes, leading to a stochastic model for the motion of the car. The stochastic model is the basis of a new filter for tracking and predicting the motion of the car, using measurements obtained by fitting a rigid 3D model to a monocular sequence of video images. Experiments show that the filter easily outperforms traditional filters.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>4th European Conference on Computer Vision</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>A Filter for Visual Tracking Based on a Stochastic Model for Driver Behaviour</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Maybank, S.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sullivan, G.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1996-04</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:215
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:215</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:39Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The paper describes a novel integrated vision system in which two autonomous visual modules are combined to interpret a dynamic scene. The first module employs a 3D model-based scheme to track rigid objects such as vehicles. The second module uses a 2D deformable model to track non-rigid objects such as people. The principal contribution is a novel method for handling occlusion between objects within the context of this hybrid tracking system. The practical aim of the work is to derive a scene description that is sufficiently rich to be used in a range of surveillance tasks. The paper describes each of the modules in outline before detailing the method of integration and the handling of occlusion in particular. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the performance of the system in a dynamic outdoor scene involving cars and people.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:source>BMVC97</dc:source><dc:subject>004</dc:subject><dc:subject>005</dc:subject><dc:title>An Integrated Traffic and Pedestrian Model_based Vision System</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Remagnino, P.R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baumberg, A</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Grove, T</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hogg, D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Tan, T.N.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Worrall, A.D</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Baker, K.D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>1997-09-08</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:216
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:217
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:218
Date: 2017-01-28

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:218</identifier>
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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:230
Date: 2017-01-29

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Date: 2017-01-29

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Date: 2017-01-29

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Date: 2017-01-28

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Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:529
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:530
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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:748
Date: 2017-01-28

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It is found that in addition to low-level convergence, anomalous fluxes induced by strong equatorial zonal winds associated with equatorial waves are important for inducing equatorial convection. There is evidence that equatorial convection associated with Rossby waves leads to a change in structure involving a horizontal structure similar to that of a Kelvin wave moving westward with it. The vertical structure may also be radically changed.&#13;
&#13;
The analysis method should make a very powerful diagnostic tool for investigating convectively coupled equatorial waves and the interaction of equatorial dynamics and physics in the real atmosphere. The results from application of the analysis method for a reanalysis dataset should provide a benchmark against which model studies can be compared.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1520-0469</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Convectively coupled equatorial waves: A new methodology for identifying wave structures in observational data</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Yang, G.Y.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hoskins, B.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Slingo, J.M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2003-07</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060&lt;1637:CCEWAN&gt;2.0.CO;2</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:749
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:750
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:751
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Elsevier Inc.</dc:publisher><dc:source>1463-5003</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Capturing the bottom boundary layer in finite element ocean models</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Hanert, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Deleersnijder, E.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Blaise, S.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Remacle, J. -F.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2006.11.006</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:753
Date: 2017-01-28

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:753</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-28T02:02:53Z</datestamp>
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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:754
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:754</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:44Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>An intensification of the hydrological cycle is a likely consequence of global warming. But changes in the hydrological cycle could affect sea-surface temperature by modifying diffusive ocean heat transports. We investigate this mechanism by studying a coupled general circulation model sensitivity experiment in which the hydrological cycle is artificially amplified. We find that the amplified hydrological cycle depresses sea-surface temperature by enhancing ocean heat uptake in low latitudes. We estimate that a 10% increase in the hydrological cycle will contribute a basin-scale sea-surface temperature decrease of around 0.1°C away from high latitudes, with larger decreases locally. We conclude that an intensified hydrological cycle is likely to contribute a weak negative feedback to anthropogenic climate change.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Geophysical Union</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/</dc:relation><dc:source>0094-8276</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>A new feedback on climate change from the hydrological cycle</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Williams, Paul David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Guilyardi, Eric</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sutton, Rowan Timothy</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gregory, Jonathan Michael</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Madec, Gurvan</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007-04-25</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029275</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:755
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:755</identifier>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>An instrument is described which carries three orthogonal geomagnetic field sensors on a standard meteorological balloon package, to sense rapid motion and position changes during ascent through the atmosphere. Because of the finite data bandwidth available over the UHF radio link, a burst sampling strategy is adopted. Bursts of 9s of measurements at 3.6Hz are interleaved with periods of slow data telemetry lasting 25s. Calculation of the variability in each channel is used to determine position changes, a method robust to periods of poor radio signals. During three balloon ascents, variability was found repeatedly at similar altitudes, simultaneously in each of three orthogonal sensors carried. This variability is attributed to atmospheric motions. It is found that the vertical sensor is least prone to stray motions, and that the use of two horizontal sensors provides no additional information over a single horizontal sensor</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>AIP</dc:publisher><dc:source>0034-6748</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>A three-dimensional magnetometer for motion sensing of a balloon-carried atmospheric measurement package</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Harrison, R.G</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Rogers, G.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hogan, R.J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2815349</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:757
Date: 2017-01-29

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    <header>
      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:757</identifier>
      <datestamp>2017-01-29T04:40:46Z</datestamp>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The banded organization of clouds and zonal winds in the atmospheres of the outer planets has long fascinated observers. Several recent studies in the theory and idealized modeling of geostrophic turbulence have suggested possible explanations for the emergence of such organized patterns, typically involving highly anisotropic exchanges of kinetic energy and vorticity within the dissipationless inertial ranges of turbulent flows dominated (at least at large scales) by ensembles of propagating Rossby waves. The results from an attempt to reproduce such conditions in the laboratory are presented here. Achievement of a distinct inertial range turns out to require an experiment on the largest feasible scale. Deep, rotating convection on small horizontal scales was induced by gently and continuously spraying dense, salty water onto the free surface of the 13-m-diameter cylindrical tank on the Coriolis platform in Grenoble, France. A “planetary vorticity gradient” or “β effect” was obtained by use of a conically sloping bottom and the whole tank rotated at angular speeds up to 0.15 rad s−1. Over a period of several hours, a highly barotropic, zonally banded large-scale flow pattern was seen to emerge with up to 5–6 narrow, alternating, zonally aligned jets across the tank, indicating the development of an anisotropic field of geostrophic turbulence. Using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques, zonal jets are shown to have arisen from nonlinear interactions between barotropic eddies on a scale comparable to either a Rhines or “frictional” wavelength, which scales roughly as (β/Urms)−1/2. This resulted in an anisotropic kinetic energy spectrum with a significantly steeper slope with wavenumber k for the zonal flow than for the nonzonal eddies, which largely follows the classical Kolmogorov k−5/3 inertial range. Potential vorticity fields show evidence of Rossby wave breaking and the presence of a “hyperstaircase” with radius, indicating instantaneous flows that are supercritical with respect to the Rayleigh–Kuo instability criterion and in a state of “barotropic adjustment.” The implications of these results are discussed in light of zonal jets observed in planetary atmospheres and, most recently, in the terrestrial oceans.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1520-0469</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Dynamics of convectively driven banded jets in the laboratory</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Read, Peter</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Yamazaki, Hiro</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Lewis, Stephen</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Williams, Paul David</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Wordsworth, Robin</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Miki-Yamazaki, Kuniko</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007-11</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JAS2219.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:758
Date: 2017-01-29

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:759
Date: 2017-01-29

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   Significant climate impacts are not restricted to the Atlantic basin, implying that the Atlantic Ocean could be an important driver of global decadal variability. The strongest remote impacts are found to occur in the tropical Pacific region in June­-August and September­-November. Surface anomalies in this region have the potential to excite coupled ocean­atmosphere feedbacks, which are likely to play an important role in shaping the ultimate climate response.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>American Meteorological Society</dc:publisher><dc:source>1520-0442</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Climate response to basin-scale warming and cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Sutton, R.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Hodson, D.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007-03</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4038.1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:760
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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:764
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:765
Date: 2017-01-29

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:766
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>The land/sea warming contrast is a phenomenon of both equilibrium and transient simulations of climate change: large areas of the land surface at most latitudes undergo temperature changes whose amplitude is more than those of the surrounding oceans. Using idealised GCM experiments with perturbed SSTs, we show that the land/sea contrast in equilibrium simulations is associated with local feedbacks and the hydrological cycle over land, rather than with externally imposed radiative forcing. This mechanism also explains a large component of the land/sea contrast in transient simulations as well. We propose a conceptual model with three elements: (1) there is a spatially variable level in the lower troposphere at which temperature change is the same over land and sea; (2) the dependence of lapse rate on moisture and temperature causes different changes in lapse rate upon warming over land and sea, and hence a surface land/sea temperature contrast; (3) moisture convergence over land predominantly takes place at levels significantly colder than the surface; wherever moisture supply over land is limited, the increase of evaporation over land upon warming is limited, reducing the relative humidity in the boundary layer over land, and hence also enhancing the land/sea contrast. The non-linearity of the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship of saturation specific humidity to temperature is critical in (2) and (3). We examine the sensitivity of the land/sea contrast to model representations of different physical processes using a large ensemble of climate model integrations with perturbed parameters, and find that it is most sensitive to representation of large-scale cloud and stomatal closure. We discuss our results in the context of high-resolution and Earth-system modelling of climate change.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer</dc:publisher><dc:relation>http://www.springerlink.com/content/l311tn82tj22264x/</dc:relation><dc:source>0930-7575</dc:source><dc:subject>551</dc:subject><dc:title>Mechanisms for the land/sea warming contrast exhibited by simulations of climate change</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Joshi, Manoj M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Gregory, Jonathan M.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Webb, Mark J.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Sexton, David M.H.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Johns, Tim C.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2008</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-007-0306-1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:767
Date: 2017-01-29

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      <identifier>oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:767</identifier>
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      <rioxx xmlns="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/" xmlns:ali="http://ali.niso.org/2014/ali/1.0" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rioxxterms="http://docs.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxxterms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/ http://www.rioxx.net/schema/v2.0/rioxx/rioxx.xsd"><dc:description>This paper investigates finite-stretching corrections to the classical Milner-Witten-Cates theory for semi-dilute polymer brushes in a good solvent. The dominant correction to the free energy originates from an entropic repulsion caused by the impenetrability of the grafting surface, which produces a depletion of segments extending a distance $\mu \propto L^{-1}$ from the substrate, where $L$ is the classical brush height. The next most important correction is associated with the translational entropy of the chain ends, which creates the well-known tail where a small population of chains extend beyond the classical brush height by a distance $\xi \propto L^{-1/3}$. The validity of these corrections is confirmed by quantitative comparison with numerical self-consistent field theory.</dc:description><dc:language>en</dc:language><dc:publisher>Springer</dc:publisher><dc:source>1292-8941</dc:source><dc:title>Finite-stretching corrections to the Milner-Witten-Cates theory for polymer brushes</dc:title><rioxxterms:author>Kim, Jaeup U.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:author>Matsen, Mark W.</rioxxterms:author><rioxxterms:publication_date>2007-06</rioxxterms:publication_date><rioxxterms:type>Journal Article/Review</rioxxterms:type><rioxxterms:version>NA</rioxxterms:version><rioxxterms:version_of_record>http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2007-10188-1</rioxxterms:version_of_record></rioxx></metadata></record>
ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:769
Date: 2017-01-29

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:770
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:772
Date: 2017-01-29

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:773
Date: 2017-01-28

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ID: oai:centaur.reading.ac.uk:774
Date: 2017-01-28

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